# All Questions

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### Effective diffusion coefficient of a species in a heterogeneous mixture

I want to calculate the effective diffusion coefficient of hydrogen radical in a mixed-phase consisting of metal oxide, metal hydride and metal. I consider the interfaces to be diffuse. How can I ...
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### Oxidation of hydrocarbons

What is an easy way to find the major and minor products of oxidation of hydrocarbons with various reagents ?
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### why electronegative substitutes prefer equatorial position over axial

I'm wondering why more electronegative substituent (like Cl) beta glucose with equatorial orientation is prefered over alxial? If it's linked with anomeric effect , how?
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### How to get ionic radii for coordination number = 12?

I am studying ABX3 perovskites, and I would like to calculate Goldschmidt tolerance factors for them. The A sites in these materials have a coordination number = 12. The Shennon's paper (R. D. ...
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### Minimizing microbial growth in circulating water baths

I just cleaned what looked like algae out of a circulating bath made by Laura. I am not sure how to minimize their return. I may have used a mixture of ethylene glycol and water in the past. This ...
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### Oxidation number of complex compound

Consider a complex K2[Cr(CN)2(O)2(O2)(NH3)] How would you find the oxidation number? Can't (O2) mean dioxide, Superoxide,peroxide which one should I choose ?
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### Micro Zippette Hand-Held Dispenser [on hold]

Has anyone ever used this Micro Zippette Hand-Held Dispenser? I found it on an online chemical store brumer
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### evaporation of ethanol in a closed system [on hold]

how can I prevent the evaporation of ethanol in a closed system circulation of a mixture of ethanol and water which a high temperature reaches to 70 c?
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### Calcute the dosage of aqueous extract to powder?

Can somebody explain to me how to calcute the dosage in powder? The powder (125 g) of each plant were macerated in 200 mL of distilled water for 12 h at room temperature and were then filtered to ...
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### Mixing dilute hydrochloric acid and battery acid

I was doing an experiment on gold recovery. When I added some gold platted pins to battery acid nothing seemed to happen.I impatiently added some duluted hydrochloric acid labeled 20%, immediately ...
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### Which is more soluble in water ammonia or Sodium dodecyl sulfate

I've tried looking this up and can't seem to find the solubility of SDS if any one knows the answer I would really appreciate it. Which is more soluble in water ammonia or Sodium dodecyl sulfate. ...
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### The aromaticity of benzyne

Benzyne consists of three resonance forms (aryne, cumulene and diradical). Is benzyne itself aromatic? And what about its triple bond and diradical forms?
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### Charges on adjacent carbon in resonance

$$\ce{H2C=CH-CH=CH2 <-> H2C=CH-\overset{+}{C}H-\overset{-}{C}H2}$$ Is this a correct resonance structure? Almost all the books just mention this $$\ce{H2\overset{+}{C}-CH=CH-\overset{-}{C}H2}$$ ...
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### finding out fractions of ions(different valencies/charges) of an element in non-stoichiometric compounds

Analysis shows that nickel oxide has the formula $Ni_{0.98}O_{1.00}$. What fractions of nickel exist as $Ni^{2+}$and $Ni^{3+}$? What i did: Let the number of $Ni^{2+}$ and $Ni^{3+}$ atoms be $x$ ...
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### Why does nucleophilic aromatic substitution occur at C-2 and C-4 of pyridine?

In the following reaction of 2,3,4-tribromopyridine with sodium methoxide in methanol,[1] why are only the C-2 and C-4 bromines replaced with methoxy groups? Why doesn't the bromine at C-3 also get ...
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### what should be the onset potential using cyclic voltammetry?

I am working for PEM fuel cell cathode material. I am confused regarding the onset potential determination for my catalyst (CV attached, fig 1 is complete CV while fig 2 is its zoom image for clear ...
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### Classification in Stereoisomerism

I was trying to understand stereoisomerism. I am having trouble creating a 'flow chart' of Stereoisomerism. While there are many sources available over the internet and books, I don't find a standard ...
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### How to precipitate Urea in a blood sample?

I am trying to use IR spectroscopy to measure total protein in blood. Urea creates a interference in that range. I thought about precipitating urea to reduce its interference but how can i do that?
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### 1-3 Cyclobutadiene Resonance or no Resonance?

Does resonance occur in 1-3 Cyclobutadiene? There is π- π conjugation present in the system, however, unlike Benzene, the bond lengths are not equal, and the molecule is not a perfect square. Why? ￼￼
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### Lewis acids as ligands

Usually Lewis bases as my textbook says: According to me its not compulsory for a ligand to be a Lewis base, as $\ce{BF3}$ is a Lewis acid and can act as a ligand by accepting electrons from a ...
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### Production of benzoic acid using chlorine

I've come across a question that says: Which of the following compounds can we use with excess of NaOCl in order to produce benzoic acid? The compounds are: isopropanol, acetophenone, benzhydrol ...
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### Will chlorine acquired from electrolysis of NaCl lose its charge eventually? [on hold]

I want to separate $\ce{Na+}$ ion and $\ce{Cl-}$ ion from $\ce{NaCl}$, how can I do so easily, after the separation how can i get negatively charged chlorine into a separate container? Will the ...
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### Thermodynamics and thermo chemistry [on hold]

Explain Enthalpy concept and about how to calculate heat of neutralization, bond energy, combustion etc
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### Why is s-s sigma overlap weaker than p-p sigma overlap?

s-s sigma(head-on overlap) bonds are weaker than s-p sigma bonds which are again weaker than p-p sigma bonds. But shouldn't it be the other way around as s orbitals have higher penetration power than ...
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### Molpro - Simple explanation of OCC, CORE, FROZEN and CLOSED orbitals

I'm beginning with quantum chemistry and I'm supposed to do some ab initio calculations with Molpro. The problem is, I don't understand the orbital specification very well. Let's say, I have the ...
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### C-4 oxidation of octanoic acid to 4-oxooctanoic acid

I am leading a project in which I am attempting to synthesize 4-oxooctanoic acid in a (mostly) biological pathway. Currently, I have reached a dead-end. I have a way to create octanoic acid through ...
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### What is the Crystal System of MoS2?

I'm confused about the crystal system of MoS2. In the case of the monolayer MoS2, it has 3-fold rotation symmetry when viewed from the top of its unit cell (c-axis). Even in the case of bulk (AB ...
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### What is the IUPAC name of given compounds (in photograph)? [on hold]

I am not able to identify, what suffix should I use in these two compounds. Please also explain the method of finding it.
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### How to IUPAC name a cycloalkane when there are two different substituents on the same carbon. [on hold]

For example if there was a Cl and CH3 off of carbon one and an ethyl off of Carbon 3 in the cyclohexane ring
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### Acidic nature of hydrogen in hydroxides linked to biphenyl

I thought that as option (d) has more number of double bonds in conjugation, it will stabilize the anion better . But the answer given is (c) .Can somebody please explain? I tried to draw the ...
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### Can methyl halide be used in Wurtz reaction?

Yields of product(alkanes) are best for 1°(60%) and least for 3°(10%) alkyl halides. Can methyl halides be used in Wurtz reaction? Would it produce a good yield?
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### Why atoms in covalent molecules do not possess any charges? [on hold]

In the $\ce{H_2O}$ molecule, oxygen has $10$ electrons ($2$ inner plus $6$ valence plus $2$ electrons from hydrogen) and $8$ protons therefore it should have $2-$ charge, but it doesn't.
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### Why is ammonia removed before the yield is attained in Haber process?

Why does removing ammonia from product mixture before reaching the yield of 20% can increase the amount of NH3 produced per unit time?
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### Oxidation of Graphite with HNO3 [on hold]

It is given in my book that nitric acid oxidizes graphite to either mellitic acid (Benzene Hexacarboxylic acid) or, with additional HF, graphite oxide. Can somebody suggest a mechanism for this ...
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### What compound has the strongest optical rotation of polarised light?

A question recently asked here whether compounds know to be chiral can have non-measurable optical rotations: Are there chiral compounds that don't rotate plane-polarized light?. Apparently they ...
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### Combustion analysis methodology question

I am questioning the answer key of an exam question my chemistry professor has given, because I think there is a flaw in the methodology of the exam answer. I have worked out my solution using my ...
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### Are there gases that spontaneously combust when mixed with oxygen?

Is there a known gas that would combust by there mere action of mixing with oxygen? So, we could put this hypothetical gas in a balloon, and if the balloon popped, it would combust and explode.
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### Electrochemistry- Impedance and Nanotechnology [on hold]

Lots of my Nanotechnology colleagues are asking about understanding impedance in my Electrochemistry course. Can anybody let me know what is the importance of understanding relationship between ...
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### Finding molar fractions of components given density of total gas at stp

How can we find the molar fractions of n2 and o2 given that the whole gas has a density of 1.4 g/l at stp? I have seen solutions of this problem that first calculate the mass per volume of the ...