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4 views

Why is the hybridization of SO4, sp3?

I've read about sp, sp2, and sp3 and understand that for sp there will be 2 sp orbitals, b/c there is an sp, and for sp2, there will be 3 sp orbitals, and so on and so forth. But I'm still having ...
1
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0answers
4 views

Is a hydrocarbon bio-battery feasible?

Hydrocarbons have some of the highest energy densities and specific energies of any chemical fuel. Unfortunately, our primary use of them is in thermal engines, whose efficiency is limited by Carnot'...
-1
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0answers
3 views

Thermodynamic State Function vs Path Function

The change in various state function is said to be a path function like (changes in) enthalpy(delta H), gibbs free energy(delta G), temperature(delta T), etc. But only the change in internal energy is ...
-1
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0answers
22 views

Why does the graph of probability distribution of an electron peak at values close to 0?

I do not understand how this graph peaks at values close to $0$. I understand that it is the probability distribution of the electron for a $2\mathrm s$ orbital of $\ce{H}$ atom, but shouldn't it ...
0
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0answers
16 views

Calculate the number of atoms of water and Glucose to fit in a 40 angstrom box with a given density

Suppose I want to have a 40 angstrom cubic box with a 0.5 mole fraction of water and 0.5 mole fraction of glucose. I am trying to determine the number of water molecules and glucose molecules that ...
1
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0answers
23 views

Conjugated diene + Na in liq.NH3

I learned that alkynes gets reduced on addition of $\ce{Na}$ in liquid $\ce{NH3}$ to form alkenes (which is not further reduced). Recently I came across a reaction where a conjugated diene was treated ...
3
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0answers
21 views

Why is the reverse aldol cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate highly endergonic under standard conditions?

I have another question similar to this one. I just don't have intuition for why reactions are thermodynamically favorable or unfavorable and I'd like to build it. This time I'd like to ask about ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Radial node in p or d-orbital

While studying atomic orbitals and nodes, the only illustration of a radial node that I could find is in an s-orbital (like here). How do the radial nodes look like in p or d-orbitals? (I don't know ...
-3
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0answers
22 views

Regioselectivity in the single dehydrohalogenation of 1,2,3 trichloropropane

I am wondering if when 1,2,3 trichloropropane is dehydrohalogenated if 2,3 dichloropropene is favoured or if both isomers are made (ie 1,3 dichloropropene).
2
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1answer
42 views

Need help to calculate results of an electrochemistry cell potential lab work

So, the lab work is this. I made an AgCl electrode of a silver wire by coating it with AgCl. This was done by electrolysis by immersing the wire in HCl and using platinum as a counter electrode and ...
-1
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1answer
28 views

Balancing reaction between copper (I) sulfide and nitric acid

Question What is the sum of stoichiometric coefficients of redox reaction: $\ce{Cu2S + HNO3 -> S + NO2 + Cu(NO3)2 + H2O}$? Answer 23 This is from a multiple choice exam, I calculated the sum of ...
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0answers
35 views

Evaluation of n-factor for the given type of chemical reactions

For the reaction: $$\ce{3I_2 + 6NaOH -> NaIO3 + 5NaI + 3H2O}$$ Calculate the $n$-factor and hence the equivalent weight of $\ce{I_2}$ and $\ce{NaOH}.$* *$n$-factor of an element in a reaction is ...
-4
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0answers
19 views

Product formed on heating of one molecule of ferrous sulphate

I know that given heat, 2 molecules of anhydrous $\ce{FeSO4}$ decompose to form various substances. i.e. $$\ce{2FeSO4 (Heat) —> Fe2O3 + SO2 + SO3}$$ Now suppose I have a box of complete vacuum and ...
2
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0answers
15 views

Why is the 2-bond (Sn-H) coupling constant larger than the 3-bond Sn-H coupling constant for tetraethyltin?

I was looking at the NMR spectrum of tetraethyltin [$\ce{Sn(CH2CH3)4}$], and found that the $\ce{Sn-H}$ coupling constant between $\ce{Sn}$ and $\ce{CH2}$ is larger than that between $\ce{Sn}$ and $\...
-2
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1answer
15 views

What determines the product at the anode/cathode of a electrolytic cell with an aqueous solution?

If you perform electrolysis on Aqueous Sodium Chloride of various concentrations, how does the product at the anode change but the product at the cathode does not? What is the mechanism behind this ...
-4
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0answers
21 views

Carbocation rearrangement doubt [closed]

Which pathway (1 or 2 or 3) gives the major product ? Explain me please
2
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3answers
81 views

Reactivity of NBS

The given correct answer is (A). According to me there would be 2 enantiomeric pairs. My doubt is that it does not react with NBS but it does react with Cl/hv though both have the same initiation step....
-1
votes
1answer
23 views

What is the difference between bond enthalpy and bond formation enthalpy?

I came across the following while going through my textbook The standard enthalpy of reaction is related to bond enthalpies of reactants and products in gas phase reactions as: $$\Delta H^{\circ}_r = ...
-1
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0answers
26 views

Comparing nucleophilic strengths of tetrahydropyran and (2R,6R)-2,6 dimethyltetrahydropyran

Compare the nucleophilic strengths of the following two compounds: According to me it should be the second one, that is, (2R,6R)-2,6-dimethyltetrahydropyran because the methyl groups would exert +I ...
0
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0answers
8 views

Are the HKL planes for a primitive unit cell identical to that of the conventional unit cell?

Is there a general relation between hkl planes in primitive vs. conventional unit cells? For example, is (111) identical for both? To illustrate, let's say you took the planar packing density for (111)...
-1
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0answers
32 views

NIR spectrometer on smartphone. Are any such products available or companies working in this area?

Are there any successful products commercially available? If not, what are the technical challenges which make it currently infeasible? For example, are the sensors too big? Is illumination a ...
6
votes
1answer
250 views

Homemade diode working mechanism

Hello, I will list the questions directly, if you want to know details please read below. As in the figure, we have water+baking soda in a plastic cup, there are 2 versions in figure that affects LED'...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Is there polonium versions of where oxygen would be in place? (Organopolonium chemistry)

So all of the other group 16 elements (besides oxygen) have some type of carbohydrate, in which the oxygen gets replaced with sulfur, selenium or tellurium. So, does polonium have an alcohol like ...
-2
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1answer
28 views

Concentration of weak acid neutralized by strong base

I've got a question that should be simple enough but I must be doing something very wrong. A $\pu{10mL}$ sample of $\ce{H2SO3}$ is neutralized by $\pu{18.6mL}$ of a $\pu{0.10M}$ strong base. Find the ...
-1
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0answers
18 views

Understanding tension force [closed]

I learnt in a physics class about tension where I was told that If we have string attached to a ceiling and other end attached to a block, then any cross sectional area of string divides it into two ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Trial by fire: Safely heating sand without it agglomerating?

Wikipidia quotes a melting point of 1713C for sand. I went on the beach to get some sand. I assume it's a mix of all kinds of stuff. The finality is to prepare a big pile of clean sand to use as ...
-3
votes
0answers
44 views

Confusion on amino acid chemical formula [closed]

I saw in a lecture of biochem that amino acid had Carbon bonded with CO and R and H instead of carbon double bonded with Oxygen and single bonded with OH(which is the carboxylic acid group) My ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

What makes selectivity other than activation energy?

Selectivity and kinetics of reactions are somehow linked to the activation energies of reactions. However, there's something not totally clear in my mind about the selectivity. I will get a general ...
-3
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0answers
24 views

Effect of adding HCl on decomposition of water

I have a question in my textbook that i want to know the answer to. It says:"when adding drops of HCl to pure water according to the equation 2H2O=H3O+OH which of the following is correct? -the ...
2
votes
2answers
45 views

Why is enthalpy change = heat change only for constant pressure?

Please help me, a mathematician doing his elective course on Physical Chemistry, out with this very simple question: why does the relation between enthalpy and heat $$\Delta H = \Delta U + p\,\Delta V ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Why doesn't acetic acid affect the formation of beta-nitroamine in nitro-Mannich reaction?

In a nitro-Mannich reaction, if we deprotonate a nitroalkane species with a strong base, then add acetic acid followed by an imine species, the reaction still proceeds giving the $\beta$-nitroamine. ...
-1
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0answers
22 views

Clarification on derivation of the nature of atomic bonds with electro-negativity?

As I stated in the question, most of the time in general and physical chemistry I have seen people say "when an atom with higher electronegativity bonds with another atom with lower ...
0
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0answers
10 views

Proposal: Optically Activating Ellagic Acid

Hey all, I’m currently drafting a proposal to research the antioxidant claims of ellagic acid. My working hypothesis for the experiment is to expose the Ellagic acid to peroxides generated from UV in ...
-5
votes
2answers
28 views

Why ionisation constant has to be constant? Please explain in logical way not chemistry much [closed]

it is given that the ionic product of water Kw remains constant even when a non-neutral solute such as an acid is added to it. Kw=[H3O+][OH−] When a strong acid is added to water, the concentration of ...
3
votes
0answers
31 views

Will “soft nucleophiles” undergo 1,4-conjugate addition even if β site is sterically hindered?

In general soft nucleophiles do 1,4 conjugate addition to a carbonyl carbon under thermodynamic control. Will soft nucleophiles like organo-cuprates undergo 1,4 addition if the β site is more ...
10
votes
2answers
698 views

Apparent paradox in the formation of ice at room temperature

The formation of ice out of liquid water can be written down like this: $$\ce{H2O (l) <=> H2O(s)}$$ We can calculate the change in standard Gibbs free energy (per mol substance) in the following ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

How does bromine in bromine water become polarized enough for electrophilic substitution with phenol?

There's a question in my obscure school textbook that I couldn't find an answer to online. How does Bromine in Bromine water become polarized enough for electrophilic substitution with Phenol? This ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

Is an element's “atomic electron configuration” EXACTLY equal to the term with the largest coefficient in the CI series of the neutral atom?

For atoms and molecules with more than one electron, the wavefunction cannot be written as a single Slater determinant, so the ground-state configuration of (the atom or molecule in question) is ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Ideal CSTR mixing assumption

Sorry if this seems like a silly question but it has me confused a lot. So I have just started taking Chemical Reaction Engineering, and was studying about continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR). So ...
2
votes
2answers
150 views

Thermal properties of 301 stainless steel

So I know that 301 stainless steel was chosen for the SpaceX Starship rocket as it can handle high temperature differences. What about this alloy makes the steel harden when it gets colder?
3
votes
1answer
59 views

Synthesis of diethyloxalate from ethene

Outline the steps involved in the following transformation: $\ce{C2H4}$ to $\ce{(COOC2H5)2}$ (diethyl oxalate). I am familiar with the transformation of $\ce{C2H4}$ to ethyl acetate $\ce{CH3COOC2H5}$ ...
-6
votes
0answers
50 views

What are the solutions that I can make, to produce insoluable (by water) strong crystals/materials? [closed]

I want to find some chemicals or to make solutions which I can use to make crystals/strong materials which are insoluble by water, the crystals/materials should be strong. I went through youtube, all ...
-3
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0answers
28 views

Quickly remove water [closed]

I want to learn a method to quickly remove water from a soft natural material that is 75% water, which is safe for people and the environment,to leave only dry solids. Thanks
-4
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0answers
33 views

Removing Chlorine from Potassium Chloride [closed]

If I dissolve potassium chloride in water and let it sit for 24-48 hours will the chlorine evaporate like it does when you leave tap water sitting.
3
votes
0answers
37 views

How to calculate the quantum yield of a photochemical process?

I have that $\pu{100 ml}$ of an aqueous solution containing $\pu{1.0 mM}$ $\ce{H2O2}$, $\pu{100 mM}$ $\ce{CH3OH}$ and $\pu{200 mM}$ DMSO are exposed to monochromatic light with a wavelength of $300$ ...
-1
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0answers
35 views

The criterion for spontaneous change $dU_{S,V} \le 0$

Consider a system undergoing a spontaneous change at V = const and S = const. From first law $dU = \delta q_V$ in the absence of addition work (only P-V work). For the second law $dS \ge \frac {\delta ...
-1
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0answers
17 views

Acid Dissociation [duplicate]

I have a small confusion If suppose HA is a acid then , HA gives H+ and A- ions in water. The presence of H+ implies that the solution is acidic. OK fine... but I came across that this solution will ...
-1
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0answers
35 views

Cyclohexene and Benzene [closed]

If cyclohexene and benzene are both reduced to (adding $H_2$ until saturation) cyclohexane, which of the two will have similar experimental and theoretical values, and why? According to the internet, ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Creating a 10% saturated sodium triphosphate and 2.7% sodium hypochlorite solution for tomato seed sterilization [duplicate]

For tomato seed extraction/sterilization a standard procedure involves the treatment of tomato seed pulp with 6M HCl for 15 min and then one of the two following: 15 min in 10% saturated sodium ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

How many boiling points does a mixture of liquids have?

Let's say I have a mixture of two miscible liquids. I want to get the liquids by fractional/pure distillation. My textbook says a mixture boils over a range of temperatures. On the contrary, another ...

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