Questions tagged [equilibrium]

The state in which both reactants and products are present at concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time.

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Determine the pH of a solution that is 0.250M in HCO3-

I found two methods to do this problem, but they yield different answers so I am confused. Method 1: Treat HCO3- as a base Reaction: HCO3- + H2O --> H2CO3 + OH- Find Kb of HCO3- from Ka of H2CO3 Kb=...
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acid-base equilibria of fluorescein

I need some help with the acid-base equilibria. I dont now what the acid-base equilibria of fluorescein is and I really need it for my chem class. Can some explain it to me?
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How to determine pH after equivalence point in the titration of NaOH with H2SO4 added gradually?

$\mathrm{0.1}$ M $\ce{NaOH}$ is titrated by adding $\mathrm{0.1}$ M $\ce{H2SO4}$ gradually. After the equivalence point, I think all $\ce{OH-}$ ions have been used up. So after this point there is no ...
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Calculate Kp for the reaction 2I2(g) + 2Cl2(g) <--> 4ICl(g) [closed]

Iodine chloride, $\ce{ICl}$, decomposes into iodine and chlorine gas as shown in the equation below. $\ce{2ICl_{(g)} <=> I2_{(g)} + Cl2_{(g)}}$ $; \Delta{H} = \mathrm{+29.3 kJ}$ The equilibrium ...
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What does isohydric solution mean?

While studying ionic equilibrium, I came across the term "Isohydric Solutions" which is defined as: Solutions of electrolyte are said to be isohydric if the concentration of the common ion ...
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Do I ignore the given concentration in this Ka calculation?

If $K_\mathrm{a}$ of $\ce{HOCl}$ is $10^{-7.30}$, calculate the hydrogen ion concentration in a $\pu{0.010M}$ $\ce{HOCl}$ solution. I have worked out $K_\mathrm{a} = [\ce{OCl-}][\ce{H+}] = 10^{-7.3}$ ...
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Why are shells softening in the ocean?

I learnt about how ocean acidification can be described in terms of equilibrium. This is summarized in the textbook diagram below: However, this diagram doesn't explain to me why the shells should be ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between atom and nucleus? [closed]

Atomic nucleus-The atomic nucleus is the small dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom discovered in 1911 by EARNEST RUTHERFORD. Atoms are made up of a positively ...
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1answer
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Why does the pH of the endpoint decrease when temperature of the titration is increased? [duplicate]

I was doing an experiment in chemistry class involving titrations. I would heat up different samples of vinegar and titrate them using NaOH. The trend that I found was how has temperature increase, ...
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Question regarding chemical equilibrium when adding a salt to acid solution

Having read the following was wondering something: $$\mathrm {p}K_\mathrm{a} = -\log\frac{[\ce{H+}]_\mathrm{eq}[\ce{A-}]_\mathrm{eq}}{[\ce{HA}]_\mathrm{eq}} $$ $$\ce{HA <=> H+ + A-}$$ $$\mathrm{...
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How do you find the reaction in CoCl2 le Chatelier experiment?

Recently, my school has given the task to experiment with CoCl2 virtually about Le Chatelier's Principle. One of the questions is to find the equilibrium constant. Problem is, I don't know what the ...
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Disparity between LeChatelier's Principle and Solutions

Let's say that there is a solution $\ce{Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) <=> NaCl(s)}$ If the above solution is at equilibrium we can say that it is saturated and hence no more Sodium Chloride will dissolve. ...
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Equilibrium Question [closed]

A container initially holds an unknown amount of $\ce{NO2}$. If $K_\mathrm p$ is $\pu{6.67E-5}$ at $\pu{530^\circ C}$ and the equilibrium pressure of nitrogen monoxide is $\pu{0.021 atm}$. What is ...
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60 views

pKa of acetic acid in pure NH3?

Acetic acid completely dissociates in liquid ammonia and I would like to know the $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ value for the acid in that solvent. Can anybody point me to a reference?
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Expression of equilibrium constant in terms of moles fraction of reactants and products at equilibrium for multireaction liquid phase system [closed]

I need to form the expressions of equilibrium constant in terms of mole fractions of reactants and products for the following reaction system. $$\ce{HI +4H2O <=> H3O+ I^-.3H2O}\tag{1}$$ $$\ce{I^-...
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Finding Kp using log Kp

I am working through some MIT lecture notes trying to understand adiabatic flame temperature. There is a section in these notes where $K_p$ is calculated for the following reaction at $\pu{1600K}$. $$\...
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Keto Enol tautomerism [duplicate]

I don't understand why the keto form is present more at equilibrium. Yes I know that for phenols or instances where the enol form can have H-bonding the enol form is preferred, but generally I have ...
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1answer
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Dissociation equilibria of ammonium bifluoride in water

Ammonium bifluoride or ammonium hydrogen fluoride is a salt of a weak base and a weak acid. The weak acid is because the second equilibria of $\ce{HF}$ written as: $$\ce{HF + F- <=> HF2-}$$ and ...
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What is the effect on Kp on doubling the volume?

Following reaction takes place at $\pu{127 ^\circ C}$ and $\pu{5 L}$ vessel, $$\ce{SO2Cl2(g) <=> SO2(g) + Cl2(g)} \qquad K_p = \pu{1 atm}$$ (a) If initially only $\ce{SO2Cl2(g)}$ was present at $...
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In reaction equations, why are j and k sometimes capitalized to J and K?

From 'Leighton relationship' on Wikipedia: through the following mechanism:[2] ($J_1$) $$\ce{NO2 + h\nu (\lambda < 420 nm) → NO + O (^3P)}$$ ($k_2$) $$\ce{O (^3P) + O2 + M → O3 + M}$$ ($k_3$) $$\ce{...
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Does partially/completely removing solid shift the equilibrium?

For the reaction: $$\ce{P4(s) + 5O2(g) <=> P4O10(s)}$$ Let's say the reaction is at equilibrium, and SOME $\ce{P4O10(s)}$ is removed from the reaction. Will that affect equilibrium? My ...
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Equilibrium for the synthesis of methanol

Liquid methanol is obtained with carbon monoxide gas and hydrogen gas in a reactor at $\pu{300 °C}$ and $\pu{250 atm}.$ $K_p = \pu{9.28E-3}.$ Find $K_c.$ With only these data, do I have to use the ...
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Calculation of concentration at equilibrium for extraction

The equation for equilibrium of solvent-solvent extraction is: $$\ce{PhOH(toluene) <=> PhOH (aq)}$$ An aqueous solution contain $\pu{1.5 \times 10^{-2} M}$ phenol and is shaken with the same ...
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54 views

How tetraamminecopper(II) is formed? [duplicate]

I'm trying to get a sense of how $\ce{Cu^2+}$ and $\ce{NH3}$ are bonded together because it doesn't make any! I understand that $\ce{NH3}$ has a lone pair of electrons that can be donated (right?), ...
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Confusion regarding the mechanism of acidic/basic buffer solutions

While learning about acidic and basic buffer solutions we were told that they can resist pH change if we add small amounts of acid or base by neutralizing the $\ce{H+}$/$\ce{OH-}$ ions from the added ...
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1answer
63 views

Equilibrium constant of a reaction whose order of forward and reverse reaction is not same

Suppose, a reaction is like, $$\ce{aA + bB <=> cC + dD}$$ and that A, B, C, D all are gas. Now it is known that: $$K_c = \dfrac{[A]^a[B]^b}{[C]^c[D]^d}$$ Now if the forward reaction is second ...
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Origin of electrode potential and its connection with electric double layer

Recently, I was learning about electrode processes and I came across the topic of "electrode potentials". I understood that at equilibrium, a potential difference was generated at the ...
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Would adding a water soluble salt (e.g. NaCl) affect a water sensitive reaction?

Let's take for example a reaction that would benefit from having less water in it, ester formation from alcohol and acid. We know that the equilibrium can be shifted to the right (ester formation) if ...
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2answers
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Is it valid to calculate concentrations given equilibrium constant and initial concentration?

Suppose we have the following reaction: $$\ce{2A <=> B + C}\tag{1}$$ which can be thought the sum of the following reactions: $$\ce{A <=> B}\tag{2}$$ $$\ce{A <=> C}\tag{3}$$ with ...
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Free on-line dissociation constants

Is there a decent on-line source for dissociation constants for acids and bases as CRC alternative? This chemistry stackexchange old answer no longer has valid links: Is there an online database of ...
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1answer
49 views

Do Lewis acids and bases turn change colour of litmus

Well, the question is short. Can lewis acids and bases change the colour of a litmus paper? I can't seem to find the answer online (at least according to my high school level chemistry search history)....
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How to know which way to calculate an extraction

I have been solving a number of extraction problems and thought I had figured out how to solve each problem depending on if I started in an aqueous solution or in an organic solution. However, I just ...
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1answer
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Le Chateliers principle and increase in temperature [duplicate]

If you increase the temperature, the endothermic reaction is favored. The Le Chatelier's principle states that the endothermic reaction is favored in order to minimize the effect of an increase in ...
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1answer
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solubility and solubility product

I am a high school student and I am a little confused in solubility product. My confusion is that when we talk of solubility of salts we say that suppose if any salt have solubility $s$ it means that ...
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salt hydrolysis and pH calculations

I am a high school student and I am very confused in salt hydrolysis My confusion is that: when we talk of hydrolysis of salt of weak base and weak acid, we internally assume the degree of hydrolysis ...
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Calculate K from a gas equilibrium reaction

$$\ce{CH_3OH(g) + NOCl(g) <=> CH_3ONO(g) + HCl(g)}$$ The volume of the container is $433$ cm$^3$, T = $50^o$C. Methanol was added until the pressure was $50.1$ mbar, then $0.059$g of NOCl was ...
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Determine how much ethylacetate is formed from reaction equation

I have the reaction: $$\ce{C2H5OH(l) + CH3COOH(l) <=> CH3COOC2H5(l) + H2O(l)}$$ and want to calculate how much ethylacetate is formed if I have $\pu{3 mol}$ of ethanol and $\pu{1 mol}$ of acetic ...
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Calculate Kc with dissociation constant

If I have the reaction: $2$HI (g) ⇌ H$_2$ (g) I$_2$ (g) and know that at T = $448^o$C the dissociation constant α = $0.2198$. How do I calculate K$_c$? I thought that it would be something like this: ...
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Application of Le Chatelier's principle

I have the following problem: The following reversible system is at equilibrium: $$\ce{P_{4(s)} + 6Cl_{2(g)} <=> 4PCl_{3(l)}} $$ What happens with the equilibrium if $\ce{P_4}$ is added. ...
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1answer
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Find minimum solubilty of AgCN [closed]

i know it has to be solved by writing an equation between CN- conc and solubilty but i am unable to write a non-linear equation,any help is appreciated
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Can you get potassium by reducing KCl with lithium?

I would have said that the answer was no, because lithium is less reactive than potassium is, so you would expect the reaction to go the other way: with potassium and lithium chloride reacting to ...
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Physical significance of chemical potential and fugacity

I'm studying equilibria and thermodynamics and came across these two terms. My problem is, unlike other thermodynamic properties that I can understand physically like volume, pressure, enthalpy etc. ...
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Why do the units of rate constants change, and what does that physically mean?

Just to be clear, I do understand that the units of the rate constant k is selected to make the equation dimensionally consistent. That is not what I am asking. It should be the case that k 'means' ...
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1answer
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Why does the pH of a weak acid not increase by 1 when diluted by a factor of 10? [closed]

Strong acid pH increases by one unit when diluted by a factor of 10, but why do weak acids not?
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How are these three things equal?

In this answer, I don't understand how this step worked. Using $\mu_i = \mu^\circ_i + RT\ln \frac{P_i}{\pu{1 bar}}$ \begin{align} \Delta G &= (c\mu^\circ_\ce{C} + d\mu^\circ_\ce{D} - a\mu^\circ_\...
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Criterion for gravimetric analysis of silver

If the only criterion for gravimetric analysis of silver is solubility of precipitate, which one of the following two compound are we supposed to choose? $K_\mathrm{s}(\ce{AgCl}) = \pu{1.78E-10}$ and ...
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1answer
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Equilibrium with an E2 step

E2 mechanisms are known to be irreversible in general, because the forward step takes 2 species and produces three species, and a trimolecular reverse step is unlikely, purely on entropic grounds. (As ...
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What is difference between density of the equilibrium and vapour density of the mixture

While solving question on calculating degree of dissociation, I came across this question: At 627 degrees Celsius and 1 atm $\ce{SO_3}$ is partially dissociated into $\ce{SO2}$ and $\ce{O2}$ by the ...
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Calculating the solubility for chromium(III) hydroxide using the complex ion constant

Problem $$ \begin{align} \ce{Cr(OH)3(s) &<=> Cr^3+(aq) + 3 OH-(aq)} &\quad K_\mathrm{sp} &= \pu{6.7E-31} \\ \ce{Cr^3+(aq) + 4 OH-(aq) &<=> Cr(OH)4-(aq)} &\quad K_\...
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A trick to find resultant pH [duplicate]

Consider the following problem: Find the $\mathrm{pH}$ of the solution formed by the mixing of two solutions of $\mathrm{pH}$(s) $2$ and $3$ of equal volumes. The normal way: Since the resulting ...

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