Questions tagged [equilibrium]

The state in which both reactants and products are present at concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time.

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Chemical equllibrium

Why do we multiply(and not take the sum) the concentration of products and reactans when more than one entity is present in either side and rise the power to the coeffiecient term? aA+bB<-->cC+dD ...
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Are aqueous (aq) elements involved in equilibrium?

The reaction was something like this: A (s) + B (l) yields to C (aq) + D (aq) The question asked: If you added another D, which way would the equilibrium shift to? I answered that it would have no ...
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Chemical equilibrum [closed]

An equimolecular mixture of NH3 and O2 is contained in a container. After the oxidation reaction took place to obtain NO, the equilibrium is established: 4NH3 + 5O2 ⇌ 4NO + 6H2O + Q It is found that ...
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Conditions for Complete hydrolysis of salt [closed]

My text book says that the cations (or anions) which are stronger than hydronium ion(or OH-) and their conjugate base (or acid) being very much weaker than water show complete hydrolysis. While the ...
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Finding the pH of a solution [closed]

What are the steps we go about in finding the pH of a solution of Strong base and a salt of a Weak base and Strong acid? Here is the question that I've been given Find the pH of a solution made ...
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Seeing solubility in various cases

[![enter image description here][1]][1] Question is in the image 'match' each option having multiple answers. I have invested a considerable time over this but couldn't solve it. Anyone explaining how ...
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Question on Henry's law, Carbon dioxide in soda can [closed]

Solubility of CO2 at 20 degree Celsius and 1 atm is equivalent to 87.8 mL/ 100 mL water. Suppose the partial pressure of CO2 before opening a can of coke was 2.5 atm, calculate the molarity of CO2 in ...
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When adding HCl to aqueous sodium acetate, what are the products? [closed]

If I dissolve sodium acetate into water, I believe that the acetate ion and $\ce{NaOH}$ will be the products: But what happens when we add $\ce{HCl}$ to the solution/what will be the products and why?...
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Question on chemical equilibrium [closed]

8 moles of so2 and 4 moles of O2 are mixed in a closed vessel.the reaction proceeds at constant temperature. By the moment when equilibrium sets in,80% of the initial amount of so2 enters into the ...
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1answer
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Determining direction of equilibrium

I am having a lot of trouble with this question. We have to determine if (K) is greater or less than 1. I at first thought the equilibrium would favor the right side because this could have to do with ...
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Problem on buffer action [closed]

I came across this question in my book but have been stuck at it for quite some time now. I think I am not being able to figure out the reaction that would take place to normalize the pH. ...
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Active masses of solids and liquids [duplicate]

In the calculation for equilibrium constant, we take the active mass of solids and liquids as unity. Intuition tells that more amount of a solid reactant should result in more product being formed, ...
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How can we define a non-spontaneous reaction?

Consider a reaction:$$\ce{$aA + bB$ <=> $cC + dD$}$$ The value of reaction quotient at a certain time $t$, $${Q_c = \frac{[C]^c[D]^d}{[A]^a[B]^b}}$$ where the concentrations $[A], [B], [C]$ and ...
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How can I calculate the amount of HF in aquoues solution of NH4F and an aquoues solution of NH4HF2?

Dissociation of $\ce{NH4F}$ and $\ce{NH4HF2}$ in water is complete, I assume: $$\ce{NH4F -> NH4+ + F-}$$ and $$\ce{NH4HF2 -> NH4+ + HF2-}$$ Can I calculate the amount of $\ce{HF}$ in these ...
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Is there a quick way to approximate a logarithm in Nernst equation?

The problem is as follows: In a galvanic cell the cathode is an $Ag^{+}(1.00\,M)/Ag_{(s)}$ half-cell. The anode is a standard hydrogen electrode immersed in a buffer solution containing $0.10\,...
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Question on finding equilibrium constant in standard cell potential

My question is: $$\ce{Pt(s)|VO2+(0.12M),V^3+(0.12M),H+(1.57M)∥Sn^2+(0.040M),Sn^4+(0.040M)|Pt(s)}$$ $$E = \pu{-0.29V}.$$ Calculate the equilibrium constant. I keep getting the wrong answer. Doing the ...
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Understanding the use of Le Chatelier's principle in the industrial production of ammonia

I understand why the reaction $$\ce{N2 + 3 H2 -> 2 NH3} \qquad \Delta H = \pu{-92.2 kJ mol-1}$$ isn't carried out in the lowest possible temperature (even though it seems that it should be as it ...
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If the activity of a solid is one why does adding salt to water increase the salt ion concentration?

Suppose salt dissolves in water according to the equation NaCl(s) -> Na(aq) + Cl(aq). Since the activity of solid salt is 1, adding salt shouldn't affect sodium and chloride ions at equilibrium. ...
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1answer
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Equilibrium: Effect of change in composition and value of Kp, Kc on changing pressure

Di-hydrogen gas is obtained from natural gas by partial oxidation with steam as per following endothermic reaction: $CH_4{_{(g)}}+H_2O_{(g)} \ce{<=>} CO_{(g)}+3H_2{_{(g)}}$ How will ...
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Does the equilibrium constant of hydrolysis of ethyl acetate change?

I was learning about catalysts when I came across that the equilibrium constant for hydrolysis of ethyl acetate changes with the change in concentration of HCl present, with no explanation on why the ...
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SO2 oxidation and Le Chatelier's Principle [duplicate]

From the following textbook by Brown, LeMay, Bursten, et. al., Chemistry the Central Science 14th Edition. I have the following question from Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium number 61. The basis of ...
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Can ICE tables give two solutions? What does this mean physically?

The following question comes from General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, 11th ed. by Pettruci. Exercise 15-33. A mixture consisting of 0.150 mol H2 and 0.150 mol I2 is brought to ...
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Is equilibrium constant at a given temperature derived from Gibbs free energy of reaction valid for doing simple kinetic modelling?

I intend to do a kinetic study of simple alcohol catalytic dehydrogenation reactions in the gas phase. I want to start with simple power law kinetics using $K_\mathrm{eq}$ to account for the ...
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How to solve for the amount the equilibrium was disturbed with an ICE table? [closed]

On a recent quiz, we were asked the following question: $$\ce{A(aq) + B(aq) <=> C(aq)}$$ At $\pu{298 K}$, the equilibrium amounts of each of the component are as follows: $[\ce{A}] = \pu{0....
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Why is the equilibrium constant for a Daniell cell not equal 1?

Using the equation $$RT\ln K = nFE,$$ the equilibrium constant $K$ for a Daniell cell at standard conditions can be found as $$K = \exp\left(\frac{2 × 96500 × 1.1}{8.3145 × 298.15}\right) = \pu{1....
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Description of a van't Hoff apparatus

A "van't Hoff apparatus" is mentioned as a means of performing a reaction involving gases in a reversible manner, for instance here. Unfortunately I have been unable to find a description of such a ...
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Is Gibbs energy minimized for processes at constant temperature are pressure only?

I've had this doubt for quite a while, This link https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Map%3A_Physical_Chemistry_for_the_Biosciences_(Chang)/04%...
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Le Chatelier's Rule: Relationship between Pressure and Reaction when moles of reactant and products are the same

Consider the equation: $\ce{H2(g) + CO2(g) <=> H2O(g) +CO(g)}$ Indicate how each of the following changes affects the amount of each gas in the system: (a) Decrease in the volume of the ...
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Chemical Equilibrium - Le Chatelier's Principle, Change in Volume

Question: Consider the following reaction at equilibrium at a total pressure that we will call $P_1$. $$\ce{2 SO2(g) + O2(g) <=> 2 SO3(g)}$$ Suppose the volume of the system is ...
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Reaction of Fe2+ and S2- to form FeS

Consider this reaction: $$\ce{Fe^{2+} (aq) + S^{2-} (aq) <=> FeS (s)}$$ The equilibrium constant for the reaction is $1.6 \times 10^{17}$ at $\pu{298K}$. If equal volumes of $\pu{0.06 M}$ ...
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Proof for Arrhenius equation [closed]

The Arrhenius equation states that: $$k=A\mathrm e^{\frac{-E_\mathrm a}{R T}}$$ What is the mathematical proof for this equation?
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1answer
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How to derive the steady-state solution for simple two-step reaction with differential equations? [closed]

Consider this simple two step reaction, a variant of a Michaelis-Menten type of problem, where $\ce{A}$ and $\ce{B}$ reversibly bind to make $\ce{AB}$, and $\ce{AB}$ and $\ce{C}$ reversibly bind to ...
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Is the evaporation (liquid to gas conversion) of ethanol dependent on how full you fill it up in a sealed bottle?

It seems intuitive to think that in a bottle (which is air-tight), if you fill up ethanol (or any other volatile liquid) to very full extent, thereby leaving very little headspace, the amount of ...
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Temperature in Le Chatelier's principle [duplicate]

Suppose I have a reversible reaction and the forward reaction is endothermic. Now if I increase the temperature, the rate of the forward reaction will increase but as I increase the temperature, the ...
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1answer
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Why is the voltage produced by a voltaic cell affected by temperature as described by the Nernst Equation?

I understand why changing the concentrations of the electrolytes in a voltaic cell affects the voltage. Given a zinc-copper cell for example, if I were to increase the concentration of the zinc ...
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Is the active mass of every solid and liquid taken to be unity?

I learnt from my textbook and the question/answer - Why is active mass of a pure solid or liquid always taken as unity? that active mass of a solid or liquid is taken to be unity as: $$[A]=\frac n V=\...
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Would the same equilibrium concentration of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxygen always result for a given initial atomic carbon fraction?

Chemistry SE Question: Starting with a gas mixture of some combination of gases containing carbon and oxygen with a total carbon atomic fraction $f$, would it always reach the same equilibrium ...
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How to find the value of $K_c$?

This is part of my homework. Given the chemical equation : $$\ce{Sb2S3_{(s)} + 3H2_{(g)} <=>2Sb_{(s)} + 3H2S_{(g)}}\text{ }K_{p}=0,429\text{ at }713\text{K}$$ What is the value of $K_c$ ...
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1answer
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What exactly is the requirement (in terms of saturation) for a reaction to be at equilibrium? [closed]

A saturated solution is a solution that contains the max amount of solute able to be dissolved. However, can't a solution still be at equilibrium if you add more solute to a saturated solution as long ...
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1answer
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Can rate constant for forward reaction be equal to rate constant for backward reaction? [duplicate]

For a particular reaction, can we have $K_c = 1$? My confusion arised when I was studying the effect of temperature on $K_c$ . I see that the temperature must affect forward and backward rate ...
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Hydrogen disulfide heterogenous equilibrium

I have been struggling with the following problem for quite a while: I was able to calculate the Gibbs free energy and the equilibrium constant, using the formula $$ΔG = -RT\ln K$$ and ...
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Delta G in an equilbrium reaction(forward and backward)

Consider a reaction say $$\ce{A + B <=> C + D}$$ Now $\Delta G$ for the forward reaction is: $$\Delta H - T\Delta S$$ For the backward reaction $\Delta H$ and $\Delta S$ are clearly the same ...
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Equation of water at triple point

I was thinking about what exactly happens at the triple point of water, and what could be the effect of adding solutes/solvents. I feel we can represent the triple point using the following ...
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how to Find $P_{tot}$ Given that $K_p = 28.5$ and the partial pressure at equilibrium

I have the equilibrium equation : $4KO_2{_{(s)}} + 2CO_2{_{(g)}} \ce{<=>} 2K_2CO_3{_{(s)}} + 3O_2{_{(g)}}~~k_p = 28.5 ~at ~25C$. Given that The partial Pressure of $CO_2$ is $0.191~atm$ at ...
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Deprotonated form of phenolphthalein

The wikipedia page states clearly that the coloured form of phenolphthalein is the one with two protons removed. What is the evidence that phenolphthalein loses both protons in basic solution? And ...
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How to account for the common ion effect on osmolarity quantitatively?

In adjusting the osmolarity of a solution of Benzalknonium Cl, Disodium Editate, and Disodium borate/boric acid buffer to be isotonic (about 290 mOsm), the addition of NaCl showed unexpected behavior, ...
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1answer
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How to explain that an increase in temperature favours an endothermic reaction?

I'm trying to explain how a change in temperature favours an endothermic/exothermic reaction from a collision theory point of view, but I'm not really familiar with the concept just yet. For an ...
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1answer
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Question about change in pressure and change in temperature for system at equilibrium

I was reading my Chemistry textbook and I noticed that it stated that for a system at equilibrium: At constant temperature, reducing the volume of gaseous equilibrium mixture causes the system to ...
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Is there a name, or any specific jargon for a precipitation equilibrium involving a solid reactant?

Let's say you have some ions in solution, for example Na+(aq) and OH-(aq), and some partially dissolved solid, MgCO3(s), Mg+2(aq) and CO3-2(aq), which precipitates Mg(OH)2(s) until equilibrium. So ...
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Will NaF + CaCO3 precipitate much CaF2?

If I mix sodium fluoride, calcium carbonate powder, and water, under what conditions (if any) would there be an equilibrium? I.e. assume we start out with fully dissociated $\ce{Na+(aq) + F-(aq)}$, ...

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