Questions tagged [equilibrium]

The state in which both reactants and products are present at concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time.

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How to shift SO3/SO2 equilibrium?

I am struggling with a chemical equilibrium question and would appreciate some help. The question involves a closed system where the equilibrium $$\ce{2SO2(g) + O2(g) <=> 2SO3(g)}$$ has been ...
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“When we add an electrolyte to another electrolyte solution having no common ion, then ionisation of the latter increases.” Why? [closed]

I understand that the ionisation increases but why specifically the “latter” as given in my textbook?
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What is the vapor pressure when the vapor and some inert gas is in a sealed steel container?

Suppose that there are two chemical species in a sealed container(1L). X(l) is in phase equilibrium with X(g). The another one is Helium gas, which is 2 atm. If the vapor pressure of X at the given ...
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2 answers
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Confused about underlying reasoning behind reaction quotient/equilibrium constant

I am a high school student taking AP Chemistry. In the unit on chemical equilibrium, there is much emphasis placed on calculating reaction quotients and equilibrium constants using this method: $$aA + ...
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1 answer
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Why change of gibbs energy per mole is zero at equilibrium?

I was reviewing this concept and thought of this: $\frac{dG}{dt} = \frac{\partial G}{\partial \xi}\frac{d \xi}{d t}$, for a reaction to be at equilibrium $\frac{d G}{d t}$ must be zero but I have ...
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Identifying the strongest base in a solution [duplicate]

If .50M solution of HOCl is created and the Ka=3.47E-8, then the solution lies further to the left.The question I have is which would be the stronger base in this dissolution reaction. I would think ...
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Strange behavior of equilibrium constant when most of the components are solids / pure liquids

Consider the reaction $\alpha A(g) + \beta B(s) +\gamma C(s) +\cdots \rightleftharpoons \delta D(s)+\epsilon E(s)+\cdots $, so the chemical equilibrium constant should be $\dfrac{1}{[A]^\alpha}$, ...
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1 answer
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How do the coefficients in an equilibrium question affect the shifts in position of equilibrium?

Let's say I have this equation: $$A_{(g)}\leftrightharpoons 2B_{(g)}$$ According to Le Chatelier's principle, if I decrease the pressure, then more of B will be made in order to increase the pressure ...
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Equilibrium constant of a weak acid and weak base reaction

Consider the following reaction: $$\ce{AH + H2O <=> A- + H3O+}\tag{1}$$ Where $\ce{AH}$ is a weak acid and $\ce{A-}$ is it's conjugate base, I read that the forward reaction (dissociation of the ...
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1 answer
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pH and degree of dissociation of drugs

I have a doubt, i hope not so stupid. Suppose we consider a buffer solution of acetic acid/acetate at pH = pKa = 4.76 and we add aspirin (pKa = 3.5): given that the pH of the solution is higher than ...
-1 votes
1 answer
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Calculating the percentage of dissociation degree

The question is as such: Notice the equilibrium expression. $$K_c=\frac{[NH_3]^2}{[N_2][H_2]^3}.$$ Initially, there were $0.28$ moles for each reactant, after it reaches equilibrium, the number mol ...
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2 answers
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According to Le Chatelier's principle, is it possible to fully consume a reactant if we increase the concentration of the other reactant(s)?

Suppose there is a hypothetical chemical equation: $$\ce{ A + B <=> C}$$ If we increase the concentration of B to a large extent with the intention of fully consuming A in the reaction, will A ...
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Applying Ostwald law on non monoprotic acids or monohydric bases

According to Wikipedia the Ostwald's dilution law derivation says that for a weak acid $$\ce{AB ->A+ +B-}$$ each molecule of A gets separated into A and B when put into water so we can make a ...
1 vote
2 answers
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Calculate the pH at the equilibrium point in an acetic acid sodium hydroxide titration

You perform a titration of $\ce{CH3COOH}$ with $\ce{NaOH}$. Let the original concentration of acetic acid be $\pu{0.2 M}$. The volumes of $\ce{CH3COOH}$ and $\ce{NaOH}$ are the same. Then the ...
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Unit of equilibrium constant in formula for Gibbs free energy change at arbitrary temperature

We know the relation for Gibbs free energy change of a reaction at any stage and any temperature $$\Delta G=\Delta G^{\circ}+RT\ln Q$$ where Q is reaction quotient. Subsequently, we get the rate ...
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1 answer
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Why is the theoretical value of the electrode potential different to the experimental value for Cu and Al for a galvanic cell by using Nernst equation

I've construct a galvanic cell with the Al strip putting in the Aluminum nitrate solution and Cu strip putting in the CuSO4 solution. KNO3 is used as the salt bridge in this experiment. The question ...
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1 answer
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Calculating equilibrium constant for a general acid base reaction

I am trying to find the equilibrium value for different acid-base reactions. I have understood that when an acid and base are in an aqueous solution, many different reactions will occur. By combining ...
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1 answer
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how to neutralize stannous chloride (50ml) to make it safe for disposal

I made a small quantity of stannous chloride by dissolving tin in muriatic acid - I would like to neutralize it for safe disposal - will mixing it with soda bicarbonate dissolved in water accomplish ...
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On Le Chatelier's principle

According to my textbook, Increasing the concentration of the reactants increases the rate of forward reaction only to reestablish equilibrium (Le Chatelier's principle) But doesn't that also ...
1 vote
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Calculating simulatenous equilibrium concentrations given dissociation constants

Reactants A, B, and C form the complexes AB and BC according to: $$ AB \rightleftharpoons A + B, \quad BC\rightleftharpoons B + C $$ Each reaction has a dissociation constant, $K_{dA}$ and $K_{dC}$, ...
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How can I systematically solve a system of non-linear equations using a standard graphing calculator?

In analytical chemistry, when we have to consider more than one equilibrium, the problem can be reduced to solving a system of non-linear simultaneous equations by applying the mass and charge balance ...
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3 votes
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Equilibrium concentrations of CO and Cl2 by dissociation of phosgene

I am working through a problem set from MIT's open courseware course Principles of Chemical Science. The question is: Phosgene $\ce{(COCl2)}$ is a chemical warfare agent that decomposes by the ...
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1 answer
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Why does the reaction of dissolution stop at an equilibrium point? [closed]

The formula for Gibbs free energy is $\Delta G=\Delta H-T\Delta S$. If Gibbs free energy is negative, the reaction is spontaneous. This also applies to dissolution reactions. However, we know that ...
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Does temperature affect ionic strength?

Hello I apologize if this is a dumb question but if I have a phosphate buffer made up of Na2HPO4 and NaH2PO4 and I gradually increase the temperature (lets say 10,20,30,40,50) what would happen to the ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Why can't the product of an acid reacting with water react with water itself and produce OH-?

Why can't the product of an acid reacting with water react with water and produce $\ce{OH-}$? Take the reaction below as an example: $$\ce{H2CO3(aq) + H2O(l) <=> HCO3-(aq) + H3O+(aq)}$$ $$\ce{...
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Equilibrium Constant: G vs. Go [duplicate]

I'm reading Clayden's Organic Chemistry textbook and in Chapter 12 on equilibrium he writes: I am confused by the usage of $\Delta G$ as opposed to $\Delta G^\circ$. Isn't the equilibrium constant ...
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2 answers
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How to determine the charge of amino acid at certain pH? [duplicate]

Problem What would charge would you expect on alanine when placed in a solution with a pH of 1.00? Answer Question Let's say I am given a certain pH of 2.00 rather than 1.00 for the "acidic ...
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Confusion about equilibrium constant in simultaneous equilibrium

Ok, so the equilibrium constant in terms of pressure is the ratio of partial pressures at equilibrium of gaseous products to reactants (all raised to the powers equal to the stoichiometric ...
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Concentration of solution when a battery reaches equilibrium

Problem: We want to build a battery employing as electrodes ${\text{PbSO}_4}_{(s)} | {\text{Pb}}_{(s)}\ (E^º=-0.351\ V)$ i ${\text{Cd}}_{(aq)}^{2+} | {\text{Cd}}_{(s)}\ (E^º=-0.4026\ V)$ in a solution ...
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Experimental evidence for zwitterions

If I have a diprotic acid that is +1 positively charged in its fully protonated state, I can figure out the apparent equilibrium constants by titration with base. The net charge will be neutral after ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Calculate the titer of a solution

I hope this is the right place to ask. We have this exercise without solution One litre of diluted sodium hydroxide solution (c = 0.15mol/litre) is to be prepared in the laboratory. The titer from ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the maximum number of silver(Ⅰ) ions in one litre of a 0.003 M sodium sulfide solution?

What is the maximum number of silver(Ⅰ) ions that can be present dissolved in one litre of a $\pu{0.003 M}$ $\ce{Na2S}$ solution? According to my book, silver(I) reacts with sulfide producing $\ce{...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Can ICE tables give two answers?

I was recently given the question: The equilibrium constant, K, for the following reaction: N₂(g) + O₂(g) ↔ 2NO(g) is 4.00 x 10⁻² at a very high temperature. The reaction is at equilibrium at this ...
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1 answer
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Why does Le Chatelier's Principle hold when the volume of a system is decreases?

I understand that when an equilibrium system is subjected to a change that it will adjust to counteract the imposed change and that thus a decrease in volume (an increase in pressure) will cause the ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Equilibrium constant magnitude for concentration vs. pressure

When introducing the concept of equilibrium constant, we often teach that the size of $K$ relative to $1$ indicates whether equilibrium lies toward the left (reactants) or right) products) of the ...
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Why is the hydrolysis constant of a salt of Weak Acid and a Weak Base so?

I read that the hydrolysis constant for a salt of a weak acid and a weak base is Kh=Kw/(Ka*Kb) Now I recall reading in the autoionization of water that Kw=Ka*Kb. So, is there any relation between the ...
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Does the equilibrium constant of an ideal liquid mixture reaction depend on pressure?

I want to calculate the equilibrium constant K[T] for a the following reaction: $$\ce{CH3OH(l) + C4H8(l) -> C5H12O(l)}$$ It is assumed that the mixture is ideal and the reaction takes place at 14 ...
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1 answer
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I tested the effect of temperature on the pH of carbonated water but the results seem to go opposite to what was expected. Could anyone explain?

We carried out an experiment to investigate the effect of temperature on the acid carbonate equilibrium in carbonated water. We tested 5 different temperatures (room temp, 2 above and 2 below) by ...
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How to calculate the buffer capacity for polyprotic acids? specifically H2PO4 --- HPO42- + H30+

as the title says. Is b= amount of OH-/ H3O divided by volume of buffer x change in pH wrong to use with polyprotic acids? Can I calculate the buffering capacity of a sodium phosphate buffer made up ...
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I am confused That what is actually equilibrium constant. WHY THERE was a need to introduce equilibrium constant? [duplicate]

Please answer I am literally stucked into it
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1 answer
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Constants in Enzyme Kinetics under the Rapid Equilibrium Assumptions

I am new to enzyme kinetics, and I am trying to write an rate equation for a rapid equilibrium random terreactant system. I have been consulting the books Enzyme Kinetics and Mechanism by Cook and ...
4 votes
1 answer
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Redox titration, complex formation effect on lg'K?

We have performed the following redox titration (1): $\ce{MnO_4^- + 8H^+ + 5Fe^2+ <=> Mn^2+ + 4H_2O + 5Fe^3+}$ where we have used a iron(II)solution (the analyte) and titrated it with a ...
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3 answers
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Doubt in heterogenous equilibria [closed]

Let us take the following equilibrium: $$\ce{NH4HS(s) <=> NH3(g) + H2S(g)}$$ I have been taught that since $\ce{NH4HS}$ is in the solid state, its concentration cant be taken and hence we write $...
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Why do we take active mass of water 1 but while calculating pKa of water as 55.345? [duplicate]

First, I should mention that the question was already asked here:Why is active mass of a pure solid or liquid always taken as unity? But while calculating $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ of pure water we ...
1 vote
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Would a container made of sugar eventually dissolve if filled with a sugar-saturated solution of water?

Suppose you had a bottle made of sugar glass, and filled it with water that was already saturated with sugar. I know that with a fully saturated solution of sugar in water, no additional sugar can ...
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2 answers
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Calculate the concentration of HF in aqueous solution of NH4F and NH4HF2 mixture

There is a similar question on this site, but here i have a mixture. I have a mixture of NH4F (35% weight) and NH4HF2 (8% weight) in water. How do I calculate the weight % expressed in HF? or the ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Find the added volume of HCl so that the ions separate

Suppose we have a 10mL solution that contains 0.02M $\ce{Ag^+}$ and 0.04M $\ce{Ba^{2+}}$. a) Find the necessary volume to be added of $\ce{HCl}$ to separate all the silver. (Assume to be separated if ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How to use the "equilibrium favors reactants" symbol in Microsoft Word?

Is there a Unicode symbol or any other way to insert the symbols "equilibrium favors reactants" and "equilibrium favors products" as text? I have been looking online for a while ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Find the minimum concentration so that it doesn't precipitate

Calculate the solubility of silver chloride. a) in pure water b) Calculate the minimum concentration of ammonia that prevents precipitation in a solution that contains $0.1$ mol of AgNO3 and $0.01$ ...
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6 votes
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Equilibrium constant vs Reaction rate constant

For a reaction, e.g., $$a X + b Y → c Z$$ Its reaction rate constant is $${\displaystyle r=k_f(T)[\mathrm {X} ]^{m}[\mathrm {Y} ]^{n}}$$ where the exponents m and n are called partial orders of ...

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