Questions tagged [equilibrium]

The state in which both reactants and products are present at concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time.

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Why does a first order reaction only depend on the concentration of a single reactant?

I am new to kinetics so please explain it from basic, If there is a reaction - $$\ce{A + B + C -> D}$$ In first order reaction rate is given by- $\mathrm R = k[\mathrm A]$ or $\mathrm R = k[\...
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Is pK_{In} = pH at equivalence point still true for weak basic organic indicators?

I am reading Ostwald Theory of Titration which says that indicators are organic weak acids or bases. To prove the relation that $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{In} = \mathrm{pH}$, the textbook uses the following ...
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Latent Heat, Vapor pressure and Equilibrium [duplicate]

So after reading about this topic i wanted to share what i learned and i wanted you guys to tell me if what i am writting is correct: A pressure vessel has propane inside and it is pressurized. The ...
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Using Equilibrium Constant [closed]

For the reaction, $$\ce{Fe^{2+}(aq) + Ag+(aq) <=> Fe^{3+}(aq) + Ag(s)}$$ $𝐾_\mathrm{𝖼}=\pu{1.17 dm^3mol^{βˆ’1}}$ $𝐾_\mathrm{𝖼}=\pu{1.17 mol/dm^3}$ at RTP. Equal amounts of iron(...
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Measuring vapour pressure in a closed system

My experiment requires the determination of vapour pressure from which I will calculate the number density (or number of moles of the molecule) later, for a closed system. Here's my setup : Liquid ...
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Van't Hoff equation

In thermodynamics many definition has been made from partial derivatives at constant conditions for instance: Let $U$ be $U:𝑓(𝑆,𝑉,π‘š_π‘˜)$ then: $T = \left( \frac{\partial U}{\partial S} \right)_{...
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Does the first step in electrophilic aromatic substitution follow equilibrium? If so, can equilibrium constant be calculated?

Using chlorine (a Lewis base) and ferric chloride (a Lewis base) as an example, the first step I saw in the textbook looks like this: The picture above depicts the Step 1 in the EAS mechanism using ...
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1answer
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Finding initial amount of ammonia using equilibrium constant and amount of nitrogen gas

Question When an amount ammonia is added at $\pu{600 K}$ in a $\pu{1 L}$ container the following reaction takes place: $$\ce{N2(g) + 3 H2(g) <=> 2 NH3(g)}$$ The equilibrium constant ...
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Reaction of hydrogen peroxide with sodium carbonate [closed]

In my book the following acid base reaction is written: $$\ce{H2O2 + Na2CO3 -> Na2O2 + H2O + CO2}$$ But I found that the $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ value of $\ce{H2CO3}$ is less than the one for $\...
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How to calculate mass of calcium fluoride that will dissolve in sodium fluoride solution?

The solubility product of calcium fluoride, $\ce{CaF2},$ is $\pu{1.46E-10 mol^3 dm^{-9}.}$ What mass of calcium fluoride will dissolve in $\pu{500 cm^3}$ of $\pu{0.10 mol dm^{-3}}$ sodium ...
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If an equilibrium system shifted to the right, would that mean that the products increased while the reactants decreased? [closed]

If an equilibrium system shifted to the right, would that mean that the products increased while the reactants decreased? For example, if an equilibrium system had its pressure decreased and since the ...
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Need help finding equilibrium constant for equilibrium system

The reaction between iron (III) ions and thiocyanate ions, SCN$^-$, is an equilibrium reaction: Fe$^{3+}$ (aq) $+$ SCN$^-$ (aq) $\ce{<=>}$ FeSCN$^{2+}$ (aq) When $20$cm$^3$ of $1.0\...
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Why is chromate stable in basic medium and dichromate stable in acidic medium?

When I was studying the equilibrium existing between chromate and dichromate ions in the solution, I came to know that Chromate ion is more stable in basic medium while dichromate ion is stable in ...
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How do ethanoate ions react with water?

In an exam question, we are asked why ethanoic acid forms a basic solution when reacted with sodium hydroxide: $$\ce{CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) -> CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l)}\quad K_\mathrm{a}(\ce{CH3COOH})...
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Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point [duplicate]

I heard that the boiling point of a solution is the temperature where its vapor pressure at that temperature equals the atmospheric pressure at that temperature. Thus at higher altitudes, as the ...
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Why are pressure or volume not able to change the equilibrium constant? [duplicate]

It is stated in my textbook that temperature is the only factor that can change the equilibrium constant. According to the Ideal Gas Law, temperature is dependent on the pressure and volume. Thus, ...
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Chemical Equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle

If the concentration of reactants is increased such that one is a limiting agent, wouldn't the concentration of products also increase (because excess of a reactant will get carried to the other(...
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How to boost conversion of one reactant alone in an equilibrium limited reaction?

Let us say I have two equilibrium limited reactions in a reactor, A+B =C and A+D=E. It is reported that equilibrium conversion of 1st and 2nd reaction is 80%. However, I do not want A to exit the ...
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How to boost conversion of one reactant alone in an equilibrium limited reaction? [duplicate]

Let us say I have two equilibrium limited reactions in a reactor, A+B =C and A+D=E. It is reported that equilibrium conversion of 1st and 2nd reaction is 80%. However, I do not want A to exit the ...
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Equilibrium involving both gas phase and aqueous phase

If I have been given an equation that involves a gas-aqueous phase equilibria, how do I write the equilibrium constant? I have come across several questions that give equations having BOTH gas and ...
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Calculating pH dibasic mixtures of buffer solutions

Q) Calculate the pH of a solution made by mixing 0.1 M NH₃, and 0.1 M (NHβ‚„)β‚‚SOβ‚„,- (pKb, of NH₃= 4.76) Here's the solution: It is a basic buffer. [Base] $$ \begin{aligned} [\text { Base }] =&\...
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Are all dynamic equilibrium reactions with neutralization, must also be buffers?

Reactions like: $\ce{H2CO3_{(aq)} + H2O_{(l)} <--> H3O+_{(aq)} + HCO3-_{(aq)}}$ or $\ce{C5H5N_{(aq)} + H2O_{(l)} <--> C5H5NH+_{(aq)} + OH-_{(aq)}}$ Does that mean that the last stage ...
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How to apply rate law in equilibrium reactions

How do I find out how long it will take to attain equilibrium, given equilibrium constant and rate of forward reaction? I know that equilibrium constant is also rate of forward reaction/rate of ...
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Does an increase in pressure always causes increase in molar concentration of each gaseous substance involved?

Question Statement : "An increase in pressure (caused by decrease im volume) at equilibrium results in increase in molar concentration of each gaseous susbstance involved" This statement is given ...
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Calculation of Degree of Dissociation from Ostwald's Dilution Law

A "weak" electrolyte, $\ce{A+B-}$, ionizes in solution as: $$\ce{AB <=> A+ + B-}\tag{1}$$ $$ K_d =\dfrac{\ce{[A+][B-]}}{\ce{[AB]}}=\dfrac{(\alpha c_{0})(\alpha c_{0})}{(1-\alpha )c_{0}}=\...
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Kinetic Constant Ratio and Equilibrium Constant (Single Product Bi-molecular Reaction)

For an elementary bi-molecular reaction where two (dilute) reactants form a single product in water $A+B{\rightleftharpoons}C$ I have read that the correct way to express the equilibrium constant is ...
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Calculating the pH of a sodium phosphate solution

I have the following question in a chemistry homework: Calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ of a solution made by dissolving $\pu{113 g}$ of sodium phosphate in enough water to make a solution with a final ...
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Defintion of Solubility in Different cases

How do we define solubility (in moles per liter) in cases when concentration of cation is not equal to the concentration of anion? e.g. When we put AgCN in an acidic solution (Leading to formation of ...
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Entropy and Equilibrium Constant: Chemical Thermodynamics

For a reaction taking place in a container in equilibrium with its surroundings, the effect of temperature on its equilibrium constant $K$ in terms of change in entropy is described by: (A) With ...
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What is the recipe for the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction for correct simulation with the Oregonator model? [closed]

For a school project I'm trying to model the Oregonator and perform some experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. Like predicting the reaction and the swings in concentrations. For that it ...
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The equation representing the dissolution of cycasin [closed]

Is the following equation correct? $$\ce{{C_8H_{16}N_2O_7}_{(s)} + H2O_{(l)} <=> {C_8H_{16}N_2O_7}_{(aq)}}$$
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Concerning Solubility Product Equations and Phases? [closed]

NaOH(?) <---> $Na^+$(aq) + $OH^-$(aq) What is the phase of the NaOH, I originally thought it was Aqueous due to it being readily soluble in water but I also heard that it was common practice to ...
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How to calculate the amount of water required to increase the pH of a solution from 2.1 to 4? [closed]

After working out the problem with certain approximation of considering the initial pH=2, my answer came out to be around 1 litre of water. But the correct answer is 79 litres of water. Can anyone ...
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Why does high blood gas partition coefficient of a inhalational anaesthetic drug mean slower induction of anesthesia?

High blood gas partition coefficient of a drug corresponds to higher solubility of the drug in blood leading to high concentration of the drug in blood with respect to gas (air in alveoli). If the ...
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How to calculate the concentration of reagents and products from Kc? [closed]

In the synthesis of ammonia at equilibrium constant is $K_c = 1.2$ according to the reaction: $$\ce{N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) <=> 2NH3 (g)}$$ If an equilibrium is proposed based on initial ...
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Equilibrium cell potential question

In an attempt to wrap my head around the basics of electrochemistry I'm working my way through Wesley R. Browne's 'Electrochemistry' primer. With regards to the equilibrium potential of an ...
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Percent degree of dissociation of gas by pressure

I stumbled across the following interesting problem: Assume that you have started to live on a new planet where standard pressure condition is $\pu{2 bar}$, standard concentration is $\pu{1 M},$ ...
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How to decrease the percent of ammonia that is converted to the ammonium ion in water? [closed]

Ammonia is a weak base that reacts with water according to this equation: NH3(aq) + H2O(l) β‡Œ NH4+(aq) + OH βˆ’(aq) Will Fe(NO3)3 decrease the ...
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How do we know a reaction is in equilibrium?

In teaching secondary science equilibrium, how can we actually show there is a backwards reaction occurring during equilibrium rather than no reaction. A lot of equilibrium experiments involve ...
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Is it correct to say that the pKa is the pH at equilibrium?

I've heard this said when looking at the charge of certain groups on a molecule (with different $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ values) in a solution of certain $\mathrm{pH}.$ But is that really correct to ...
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What do speciation curves really represent?

So I'm just reading about speciation diagrams in my textbook...and I'm very confused. I get how you work out that the crossover point in when [A-] = [HA] mathematically...but I don't understand it in ...
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Equilibrium constant for the thermal dissociation of phosphorus pentachloride [closed]

Thermal decomposition of $\ce{PCl5}$ is studied in a closed vessel. Partial pressure of $\ce{PCl5}$ in gaseous equilibrium mixture is $\pu{1 atm}.$ $\pu{50 \%}$ $\ce{PCl5}$ dissociates. Find ...
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How is the change in Gibb's free energy a condition for spontaneity for reactions not happening under constant pressure conditions?

According to what I have studied, the change in Gibb's free energy is only a condition for spontaneity for processes happening at constant pressure and temperature conditions. Consider a reversible ...
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Algebraic treatment of equilibrium

This is from Laitinen and Harris, "Chemical Analysis, An Advanced Text & Reference" which describes a simple acid-base equilibrium. They derive a relation in the end directly. I haven't seen this ...
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Calculating Ka using Nernst Equation

I've heard multiple times that the Nernst Equation could be used to calculate K$_a$. How would one calculate the acidity constant, K$_a$, of a specific acid, using the Nernst Equation? The equilibrium ...
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What could be a high school experiment that involves changing a condition to get the highest yield of a certain product?

I am looking for ideas for a chemistry experiment and I am interested in doing one that has to do with the optimization of percentage yields. What could be a high school experiment that involves ...
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Activities and molar concentrations

I would be really happy if someone would clarify the term "chemical activity" and its implications for me, and also how it is related to the concept of molar concentration. My textbook fails at ...
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Vapour Pressure of A Solution

I study in class 12, and have a doubt in vapour pressure that my school teacher and my friends are not able to clarify. My doubt is the reason why the partial vapour pressure of each individual ...
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1answer
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Nernst equation and equilibrium

I am currently stuyding electrochemistry, and recently I've stumbled upon a problem where one is supposed to calculate the concentration of Fe3+ ions after a solution containing Fe2+ was titrated ...
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Calculation of the Halfcellpotential (equilibrium constant is missing the solvent water) [duplicate]

Suppose the following Rredox reaction of Br in Water: $BrO_3^-+6H^++6e^-\iff Br^-+3H_2O$ Next the text book claims the following about the corresponding equilibrium constant: $K=\frac{[Br]}{[BrO_3^...

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