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Questions tagged [nuclear]

For questions relating to the dynamics and processes that occur within and interactions between the nuclei of atoms.

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What's the most up to date explanation for the stability of high multiplicity states?

"However, accurate quantum-mechanical calculations (starting in the 1970s)... singly occupied orbitals are less effectively screened or shielded from the nucleus, so that such orbitals contract ...
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4 votes
1 answer
183 views

Does the amplitude of the RF pulse affect the NMR signal?

I know that the NMR signal depends on the static magnetic field strength $ B_0 $ (by Boltzmann equation) and its gyromagnetic factor. While NMR occurs when the RF pulse frequency matches the equation: ...
hafimu2367's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can the enrichment of Uranium be done via manipulating the boiling/melting point difference between differing isotopes of the same element?

I have a Physics question for which I could not find the answer on the Internet, so I would like to see if y'all know the answer to it. I have found that heavy water will have a different boiling ...
Young Jun Lee's user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
95 views

If there is no destruction of mass in the nuclear fission , then how is tremendous energy is released? [closed]

In the fission of U-235 , calculate the mass of reactants , which are U-235 and 1 low energy neutrons . hence , the mass in reactant is = 235 + 1 = 236amu (atomic mass unit). Now , in the products , ...
Get_ Maths's user avatar
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1 answer
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electron - nuclei recombination within stars

Nuclear fusion within stars combine atom nuclei, so the atoms are ionized and electrons run for free. My question is, when or how these electrons recombine with the nuclei to form neutral atoms? ...
josep's user avatar
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What happens to chemical bonds if the nucleus changes? [duplicate]

Lets say I have some $\ce{PuF6}$ (with the Plutonium being $\ce{^{240}Pu}$). I take this $\ce{PuF6}$ and bombard it with neutrons. The $\ce{^{240}Pu}$ nuclei capture the neutrons, forming $\ce{^{241}...
Nikhil Murali's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
150 views

Why isn't protium nucleus considered most stable nucleus?

My chemistry teacher told me that $\ce{^{56}Fe}$ is the most stable nucleus because of the highest binding energy per nucleon. But if we consider a protium nucleus, it has only 1 proton so there is no ...
smeone's user avatar
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-2 votes
2 answers
349 views

If D₂O (Deuterium Oxide) in large quantities, is exposed to explosive amounts of Neutrons or Protons, can it possibly go Nuclear? [closed]

If you exposed large amounts of Protons or Neutrons to Deuterium Oxide, could it possibly explode or implode. Im basing this off a Chemical Simulation, in which simulated Protons are exposed to ...
Mister SirCode's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
956 views

Why does radioactive matter decay in series of half-lives?

I was studying types of nuclear decay, and I came across the concept of "half-life". And I started wondering why does nuclear matter decay in half-lives? In other words, why does the rate of nuclear ...
Saif Taher's user avatar
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1 answer
62 views

Nuclear physics [closed]

When considering Fusion, the matter that gets converted into energy what specific matter is converted exactly like a quark and is most of the energy created from the matter turning into energy?
Student_126's user avatar
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Size of atomic shells

Is the distance of some $n^{th}$ shell ($n$ $\neq$ outermost shell) from the nucleus of an atom different for different elements? If so, then how much is the difference or how could we calculate it?
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Can neutrons be ejected from an atom?

In a neutral atom, can neutrons be ejected, and if so, by what (nuclear) process or reaction? I have read Neutron emission and Can a proton be ejected from an atom, but I don't understand how and if ...
ReinstateMonica3167040's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
1k views

Intuition for why effective nuclear charge increases down a column

My textbook (Chemistry the Central Science, edition 12, Brown et al.) says that effective nuclear charge increases down a column. Indeed, this is consistent with the values provided by Clementi in the ...
Serendipitous Epiphany's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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What is the most stable pear-shaped nucleus? [closed]

I have heard on the Internet that there are at least three pear-shaped nuclei: radium-224, radon-220 (a direct product of the previous isotope), and barium-144. CERN has a webpage about this discovery ...
Number File's user avatar
21 votes
1 answer
430 views

What happens when para-water ice is suddenly melted?

Background (hydrogen) In the case of recently liquified hydrogen (which is quite cold of course) it must be re-equilibrated before loading on to a rocket as fuel to avoid a sudden exothermic ...
uhoh's user avatar
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If a sample to be carbon-dated is wrapped in a piece of paper, will you still be able to effectively measure the radioactivity of the sample? [closed]

If a sample to be carbon-dated is wrapped in a piece of paper, will you still be able to effectively measure the radioactivity of the sample?
Oscar Diaz's user avatar
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2 answers
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How much ionising radiation is released during an atomic blast?

I've been looking for how much ionising radiation is produced during an atomic blast (as a percentage). I have seen a claim of 5% of the energy in an atomic blast is ionising energy (Wikipedia), but ...
Caleb Burke's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
40 views

Unstable or radioactive as a property?

What is better term for describing a chemical element; "radioactive" or "unstable"? I am leaning towards the "unstable", because it seems to me that it better describes nature of the element, as ...
mrmut's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
426 views

Uses of ruthenium-106?

I read a news article recently about a cloud of ruthenium-106 being released over Europe. The article mentioned one of the uses for this specific isotope is in fuel cells for satellites. I tried to do ...
ScarySpider's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
975 views

Why do Alpha particles not collide with electrons during alpha decay? [duplicate]

Alpha particles are positively charged, so my question is that during alpha decay, when these are released from the nucleus, why doesn't it ever occur that they collide and grab an electron or two ...
Arush Ramteke's user avatar
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3 answers
1k views

Can you decay to half an atom?

In school we are learning about half-life, and I was wondering if it is possible to decay to half an atom?
John D's user avatar
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2 answers
1k views

Why atomic number decreases in alpha emission

My teachers taugh me that alpha particle is a helium nucleus carrying net +2 charge, hence if an radioactive subastance emits alpha particle it looses two of its protons and two neutrons but no ...
Yogi Joshi's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
622 views

Molecular Hamiltonian of Helium hydride ion

Currently, I am going through Quantum Simulation of Helium Hydride Cation in a Solid-State Spin Register. I am not a chemist but rather a computer scientist hence having trouble following the paper. ...
Omar Shehab's user avatar
4 votes
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Is order of reaction defined for nuclear reactions?

I am asking this question after asking a similar one for spontaneous nuclear decay phy.stack. Link Order of reaction is defined for chemical reaction. But wikipedia says about spontaneous nuclear ...
Mockingbird's user avatar
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4 votes
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Rutherford's gold foil experiment [duplicate]

Rutherford projected $\alpha$-rays onto the gold foil. $\alpha$-rays are the same as a $\ce{He^2+}$ nucleus and they can ionize atoms. Therefore, why are gold atoms not ionized when the $\alpha$-rays ...
Osal Selaka's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
399 views

When do reactions reach steady state?

I was doing a multiple choice problem that asked about when the following nuclear decay sequence reaches steady state (When does the activity of $\ce{^99Mo}$ roughly equal the activity of $\ce{^{99m}...
carbenoid's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
353 views

How does radiocarbon dating work?

I'd like to better understand radiocarbon dating, however, I do not know what resources I must use in this regard. Could someone walk me through the process of radiocarbon dating with a few examples? (...
Madhav 's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
503 views

How to estimate the enrichment of U-234 from the enrichment of U-235?

Fresh nuclear fuel made from naturally occurring uranium (i.e. neither MOX nor ERU fuel) is mainly characterised by the enrichment of $\ce{^235U}$. The mass and activity concentrations of $\ce{^235U}$ ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
96 views

On what basis can we say that one nuclide is more stable than another one? [closed]

I read in a textbook that the nuclide $^{40}_{20}\ce{Ca}$ is more stable as compared to $^{30}_{13}\ce{Al}$. I checked it online and saw that most sources describe the observation with respect to odd ...
Ajay Subramanian's user avatar
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1 answer
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Low Energy Nuclear Reactions [closed]

I was interested in knowing if Low Energy Nuclear Reactions are practical or just mythical. What is the current stance of the scientific society about their feasibility?
Waqas's user avatar
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1 answer
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C14 Nuclear Diamond to AA Battery Apples-to-Apples Engery output

I was reading an article about nuclear diamonds and they made an apples-to-oranges comparison of a 1 gram C14 nuclear diamond to a single AA battery. Here is the part I'm referencing: "An alkaline ...
John's user avatar
  • 113
-1 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why are neutrino/anti-neutrino released in Beta decay? [closed]

In positive beta decay neutrino are released whereas in negative beta decay anti neutrino are released. From where did they came? Are they produced during the collision? What s it's purpose? Is it to ...
Shrey Patel's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
672 views

Why during nuclear fusion does the process only release neutrons? [closed]

Say we envision subatomic particles like balloons held together by static electricity (analogous to nuclear force). Now we smash em' together. They make a new element. My chemistry test answer key ...
user34187's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
138 views

Cold fusion via chemical reactions?

How could a nuclear reaction possibly happen at room temperature? We know how other blasts work and what chemicals are used to cause their effect, but what chemicals could cause a nuclear reaction at ...
BrandonChaseSmith's user avatar
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2 answers
1k views

Rutherford gold foil experiment

This question may sound silly. What actually I understood from this experiment is that the positively charged nucleus which is in the center is responsible for the bending and reflection of the alpha ...
Aadhil's user avatar
  • 109
3 votes
1 answer
202 views

Nuclear Fallout [closed]

If there was a nuclear explosion and years later I come out of a fallout shelter like in the popular game series Fallout, what elements would react to the radiation in a way that could harm humans and ...
Kyle's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
1k views

Are photons ejected from atomic nuclei?

I have heard that electrons absorb or eject photons when transitioning from one orbital to another. Is this correct? Can atomic nuclei eject photons?
Apoorva Raj Bhadani's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
3k views

What chemical elements does a nuclear explosion release into its mushroom cloud?

I'm interested in the mushroom cloud produced by a nuclear explosion: What is it made of? I know that the uranium fission reaction is the following (from this web page) $$\ce{{}^{235}U + {}^1_0n -&...
Keith's user avatar
  • 181
0 votes
1 answer
2k views

Can we make Gold in a Lab? [duplicate]

Can we make Gold in a Lab? Is it possible to make changes in metals that will create Gold? and How? I have tried to search something related to this but didn't get any good results. Thanks in Advance
MageDev's user avatar
  • 111
2 votes
1 answer
711 views

Why doesn't the atomic number change by two in the process of production of Americium?

Looking at the bomardment of uranium-238 this is what I see. First, I see a uranium-238 atom with 92 protons bombarded with a neutron. The neutron then undergoes beta decay into a proton. So we then ...
neutron123's user avatar
-1 votes
3 answers
249 views

Beta Decay - Doesn't Add Up [duplicate]

The definition of beta $(\beta^-)$ decay is that an electron is produced. For example, $$\ce{^131_53I -> ^131_54Xe + e^-}$$ So iodine forms Xe and releases one electron with a -1 charge only and ...
Asker123's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
4k views

Nuclear power: what material is the control rod made from?

What type of material is used in the control rod of a nuclear reactor? (Nuclear power plant)
tor's user avatar
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1 vote
4 answers
9k views

What is the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion?

I always mix up the definition of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. So, what is nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, and an example for each?
Simon-Nail-It's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
670 views

Do elements actually transmute in nuclear reactions?

Whenever a nuclear transmutation happens, do we get a new element or do we have the same element with chemical properties of a different element? Isn't it very much against the intuition?
Swami's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
104 views

"Orthogonality" of chemical elements

Chemical elements are said to be immutable at normal energies, but not at the energies that are orders of magnitude higher. Given that nucleus at normal energies gives us the Periodic Table and at ...
tesgoe's user avatar
  • 201
5 votes
1 answer
869 views

How to derive the nuclear spin of 23Na?

Is it possible to derive the nuclear spin I=3/2 for $\ce{^23Na}$ from a term scheme or from something else from spectroscopy? I thought the nucleus spin is empirical (and cannot be calculated from J ...
laminin's user avatar
  • 3,405
1 vote
3 answers
156 views

Radioactivity and Kinetics of disintegration

Well I've just started on kinetics and there are a few things I am absolutely confused about! First of all, is a neutron actually made up of a proton and electron? If yes, then how is this possible? ...
Karan Singh's user avatar
  • 3,805
0 votes
1 answer
76 views

How long must a sample be irradiated before all 59-Co atoms are converted to 60-Co? [closed]

For the interaction, n$^0$ + $^{59}$Co $\to$ $^{60}$Co
noshery's user avatar
  • 73
6 votes
1 answer
93 views

Interpret Radiodecay Symbolism

$\binom{16}{8}$O (n,$\alpha$)$\binom{13}{6}$C and $\binom{9}{4}$Be ($\alpha$,n)$\binom{12}{6}$C I had initially thought the products & reactants may be O-16 $\to$ C-13 + He-2 + p$^+$ from alpha ...
noshery's user avatar
  • 73
10 votes
1 answer
7k views

Why can't light pass through a gold foil, but alpha particles can?

Rutherfords experiment showed that most of the alpha particles passed through a thin gold foil undeflected. So why can't light pass through the foil, which is supposedly thinner than the heavy alpha ...
user7480's user avatar
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