Questions tagged [nuclear]

For questions relating to the dynamics and processes that occur within and interactions between the nuclei of atoms.

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What is the power density of graphite user the Wigner effect?

The energy that graphite released upon a cascade of defects by neutron radiation is 2.7 MJ/Kg, however there is no data on how quick this energy is released. I am interested in this as this not ...
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1answer
38 views

Does the amplitude of the RF pulse affect the NMR signal?

I know that the NMR signal depends on the static magnetic field strength $ B_0 $ (by Boltzmann equation) and its gyromagnetic factor. While NMR occurs when the RF pulse frequency matches the equation: ...
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1answer
74 views

Can the enrichment of Uranium be done via manipulating the boiling/melting point difference between differing isotopes of the same element?

I have a Physics question for which I could not find the answer on the Internet, so I would like to see if y'all know the answer to it. I have found that heavy water will have a different boiling ...
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1answer
51 views

If there is no destruction of mass in the nuclear fission , then how is tremendous energy is released? [closed]

In the fission of U-235 , calculate the mass of reactants , which are U-235 and 1 low energy neutrons . hence , the mass in reactant is = 235 + 1 = 236amu (atomic mass unit). Now , in the products , ...
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1answer
50 views

electron - nuclei recombination within stars

Nuclear fusion within stars combine atom nuclei, so the atoms are ionized and electrons run for free. My question is, when or how these electrons recombine with the nuclei to form neutral atoms? ...
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46 views

What happens to chemical bonds if the nucleus changes? [duplicate]

Lets say I have some $\ce{PuF6}$ (with the Plutonium being $\ce{^{240}Pu}$). I take this $\ce{PuF6}$ and bombard it with neutrons. The $\ce{^{240}Pu}$ nuclei capture the neutrons, forming $\ce{^{241}...
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79 views

Why isn't protium nucleus considered most stable nucleus?

My chemistry teacher told me that $\ce{^{56}Fe}$ is the most stable nucleus because of the highest binding energy per nucleon. But if we consider a protium nucleus, it has only 1 proton so there is no ...
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2answers
152 views

If D₂O (Deuterium Oxide) in large quantities, is exposed to explosive amounts of Neutrons or Protons, can it possibly go Nuclear? [closed]

If you exposed large amounts of Protons or Neutrons to Deuterium Oxide, could it possibly explode or implode. Im basing this off a Chemical Simulation, in which simulated Protons are exposed to ...
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262 views

Why does radioactive matter decay in series of half-lives?

I was studying types of nuclear decay, and I came across the concept of "half-life". And I started wondering why does nuclear matter decay in half-lives? In other words, why does the rate of nuclear ...
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51 views

Nuclear physics [closed]

When considering Fusion, the matter that gets converted into energy what specific matter is converted exactly like a quark and is most of the energy created from the matter turning into energy?
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114 views

Size of atomic shells

Is the distance of some $n^{th}$ shell ($n$ $\neq$ outermost shell) from the nucleus of an atom different for different elements? If so, then how much is the difference or how could we calculate it?
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110 views

Can neutrons be ejected from an atom?

In a neutral atom, can neutrons be ejected, and if so, by what (nuclear) process or reaction? I have read Neutron emission and Can a proton be ejected from an atom, but I don't understand how and if ...
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747 views

Intuition for why effective nuclear charge increases down a column

My textbook (Chemistry the Central Science, edition 12, Brown et al.) says that effective nuclear charge increases down a column. Indeed, this is consistent with the values provided by Clementi in the ...
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49 views

What is the most stable pear-shaped nucleus? [closed]

I have heard on the Internet that there are at least three pear-shaped nuclei: radium-224, radon-220 (a direct product of the previous isotope), and barium-144. CERN has a webpage about this discovery ...
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What happens when para-water ice is suddenly melted?

Background (hydrogen) In the case of recently liquified hydrogen (which is quite cold of course) it must be re-equilibrated before loading on to a rocket as fuel to avoid a sudden exothermic ...
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1answer
52 views

If a sample to be carbon-dated is wrapped in a piece of paper, will you still be able to effectively measure the radioactivity of the sample? [closed]

If a sample to be carbon-dated is wrapped in a piece of paper, will you still be able to effectively measure the radioactivity of the sample?
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2answers
113 views

How much ionising radiation is released during an atomic blast?

I've been looking for how much ionising radiation is produced during an atomic blast (as a percentage). I have seen a claim of 5% of the energy in an atomic blast is ionising energy (Wikipedia), but ...
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2answers
101 views

Anti matter elements? [closed]

Quite a self-explanatory question I guess. I wonder whether there is any information or theory on this. I seem to like remember there is such an element with positron in center and electron rotating ...
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1answer
28 views

Unstable or radioactive as a property?

What is better term for describing a chemical element; "radioactive" or "unstable"? I am leaning towards the "unstable", because it seems to me that it better describes nature of the element, as ...
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1answer
388 views

Uses of ruthenium-106?

I read a news article recently about a cloud of ruthenium-106 being released over Europe. The article mentioned one of the uses for this specific isotope is in fuel cells for satellites. I tried to do ...
5
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1answer
637 views

Why do Alpha particles not collide with electrons during alpha decay? [duplicate]

Alpha particles are positively charged, so my question is that during alpha decay, when these are released from the nucleus, why doesn't it ever occur that they collide and grab an electron or two ...
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3answers
1k views

Can you decay to half an atom?

In school we are learning about half-life, and I was wondering if it is possible to decay to half an atom?
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2answers
941 views

Why atomic number decreases in alpha emission

My teachers taugh me that alpha particle is a helium nucleus carrying net +2 charge, hence if an radioactive subastance emits alpha particle it looses two of its protons and two neutrons but no ...
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1answer
397 views

Molecular Hamiltonian of Helium hydride ion

Currently, I am going through Quantum Simulation of Helium Hydride Cation in a Solid-State Spin Register. I am not a chemist but rather a computer scientist hence having trouble following the paper. ...
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1k views

Is order of reaction defined for nuclear reactions?

I am asking this question after asking a similar one for spontaneous nuclear decay phy.stack. Link Order of reaction is defined for chemical reaction. But wikipedia says about spontaneous nuclear ...
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1answer
225 views

Rutherford's gold foil experiment [duplicate]

Rutherford projected $\alpha$-rays onto the gold foil. $\alpha$-rays are the same as a $\ce{He^2+}$ nucleus and they can ionize atoms. Therefore, why are gold atoms not ionized when the $\alpha$-rays ...
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1answer
345 views

When do reactions reach steady state?

I was doing a multiple choice problem that asked about when the following nuclear decay sequence reaches steady state (When does the activity of $\ce{^99Mo}$ roughly equal the activity of $\ce{^{99m}...
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1answer
303 views

How does radiocarbon dating work?

I'd like to better understand radiocarbon dating, however, I do not know what resources I must use in this regard. Could someone walk me through the process of radiocarbon dating with a few examples? (...
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358 views

How to estimate the enrichment of U-234 from the enrichment of U-235?

Fresh nuclear fuel made from naturally occurring uranium (i.e. neither MOX nor ERU fuel) is mainly characterised by the enrichment of $\ce{^235U}$. The mass and activity concentrations of $\ce{^235U}$ ...
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1answer
86 views

On what basis can we say that one nuclide is more stable than another one? [closed]

I read in a textbook that the nuclide $^{40}_{20}\ce{Ca}$ is more stable as compared to $^{30}_{13}\ce{Al}$. I checked it online and saw that most sources describe the observation with respect to odd ...
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1answer
79 views

Low Energy Nuclear Reactions [closed]

I was interested in knowing if Low Energy Nuclear Reactions are practical or just mythical. What is the current stance of the scientific society about their feasibility?
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1answer
102 views

C14 Nuclear Diamond to AA Battery Apples-to-Apples Engery output

I was reading an article about nuclear diamonds and they made an apples-to-oranges comparison of a 1 gram C14 nuclear diamond to a single AA battery. Here is the part I'm referencing: "An alkaline ...
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1answer
1k views

Why are neutrino/anti-neutrino released in Beta decay? [closed]

In positive beta decay neutrino are released whereas in negative beta decay anti neutrino are released. From where did they came? Are they produced during the collision? What s it's purpose? Is it to ...
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1answer
486 views

Why during nuclear fusion does the process only release neutrons? [closed]

Say we envision subatomic particles like balloons held together by static electricity (analogous to nuclear force). Now we smash em' together. They make a new element. My chemistry test answer key ...
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1answer
112 views

Cold fusion via chemical reactions?

How could a nuclear reaction possibly happen at room temperature? We know how other blasts work and what chemicals are used to cause their effect, but what chemicals could cause a nuclear reaction at ...
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2answers
759 views

Rutherford gold foil experiment

This question may sound silly. What actually I understood from this experiment is that the positively charged nucleus which is in the center is responsible for the bending and reflection of the alpha ...
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1answer
186 views

Nuclear Fallout [closed]

If there was a nuclear explosion and years later I come out of a fallout shelter like in the popular game series Fallout, what elements would react to the radiation in a way that could harm humans and ...
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1answer
1k views

Are photons ejected from atomic nuclei?

I have heard that electrons absorb or eject photons when transitioning from one orbital to another. Is this correct? Can atomic nuclei eject photons?
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2k views

What chemical elements does a nuclear explosion release into its mushroom cloud?

I'm interested in the mushroom cloud produced by a nuclear explosion: What is it made of? I know that the uranium fission reaction is the following (from this web page) $$\ce{{}^{235}U + {}^1_0n -&...
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1answer
2k views

Can we make Gold in a Lab? [duplicate]

Can we make Gold in a Lab? Is it possible to make changes in metals that will create Gold? and How? I have tried to search something related to this but didn't get any good results. Thanks in Advance
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1answer
564 views

Why doesn't the atomic number change by two in the process of production of Americium?

Looking at the bomardment of uranium-238 this is what I see. First, I see a uranium-238 atom with 92 protons bombarded with a neutron. The neutron then undergoes beta decay into a proton. So we then ...
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3answers
2k views

How are nuclei stable?

We all know that the density of the nucleus is very high. Nuclei are made up of protons and neutrons, and while protons have the same charge, they are closely packed in a nucleus. How does the ...
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3answers
242 views

Beta Decay - Doesn't Add Up [duplicate]

The definition of beta $(\beta^-)$ decay is that an electron is produced. For example, $$\ce{^131_53I -> ^131_54Xe + e^-}$$ So iodine forms Xe and releases one electron with a -1 charge only and ...
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2answers
3k views

Nuclear power: what material is the control rod made from?

What type of material is used in the control rod of a nuclear reactor? (Nuclear power plant)
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4answers
7k views

What is the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion?

I always mix up the definition of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. So, what is nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, and an example for each?
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1answer
487 views

Do elements actually transmute in nuclear reactions?

Whenever a nuclear transmutation happens, do we get a new element or do we have the same element with chemical properties of a different element? Isn't it very much against the intuition?
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91 views

"Orthogonality" of chemical elements

Chemical elements are said to be immutable at normal energies, but not at the energies that are orders of magnitude higher. Given that nucleus at normal energies gives us the Periodic Table and at ...
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1answer
670 views

How to derive the nuclear spin of 23Na?

Is it possible to derive the nuclear spin I=3/2 for $\ce{^23Na}$ from a term scheme or from something else from spectroscopy? I thought the nucleus spin is empirical (and cannot be calculated from J ...
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141 views

Radioactivity and Kinetics of disintegration

Well I've just started on kinetics and there are a few things I am absolutely confused about! First of all, is a neutron actually made up of a proton and electron? If yes, then how is this possible? ...
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1answer
73 views

How long must a sample be irradiated before all 59-Co atoms are converted to 60-Co? [closed]

For the interaction, n$^0$ + $^{59}$Co $\to$ $^{60}$Co