Questions tagged [nuclear]

For questions relating to the dynamics and processes that occur within and interactions between the nuclei of atoms.

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Is effective nuclear charge averaged over valence electrons?

In my textbook they speak of effective nuclear charge felt by valence electrons. As I understand it the effective nuclear charge is not the same for all valence electrons. In boron for example the 2s² ...
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What is the power density of graphite user the Wigner effect?

The energy that graphite released upon a cascade of defects by neutron radiation is 2.7 MJ/Kg, however there is no data on how quick this energy is released. I am interested in this as this not ...
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Does the amplitude of the RF pulse affect the NMR signal?

I know that the NMR signal depends on the static magnetic field strength $ B_0 $ (by Boltzmann equation) and its gyromagnetic factor. While NMR occurs when the RF pulse frequency matches the equation: ...
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Can the enrichment of Uranium be done via manipulating the boiling/melting point difference between differing isotopes of the same element?

I have a Physics question for which I could not find the answer on the Internet, so I would like to see if y'all know the answer to it. I have found that heavy water will have a different boiling ...
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If there is no destruction of mass in the nuclear fission , then how is tremendous energy is released? [closed]

In the fission of U-235 , calculate the mass of reactants , which are U-235 and 1 low energy neutrons . hence , the mass in reactant is = 235 + 1 = 236amu (atomic mass unit). Now , in the products , ...
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electron - nuclei recombination within stars

Nuclear fusion within stars combine atom nuclei, so the atoms are ionized and electrons run for free. My question is, when or how these electrons recombine with the nuclei to form neutral atoms? ...
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What happens to chemical bonds if the nucleus changes? [duplicate]

Lets say I have some $\ce{PuF6}$ (with the Plutonium being $\ce{^{240}Pu}$). I take this $\ce{PuF6}$ and bombard it with neutrons. The $\ce{^{240}Pu}$ nuclei capture the neutrons, forming $\ce{^{241}...
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Why isn't protium nucleus considered most stable nucleus?

My chemistry teacher told me that $\ce{^{56}Fe}$ is the most stable nucleus because of the highest binding energy per nucleon. But if we consider a protium nucleus, it has only 1 proton so there is no ...
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If D₂O (Deuterium Oxide) in large quantities, is exposed to explosive amounts of Neutrons or Protons, can it possibly go Nuclear? [closed]

If you exposed large amounts of Protons or Neutrons to Deuterium Oxide, could it possibly explode or implode. Im basing this off a Chemical Simulation, in which simulated Protons are exposed to ...
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3 answers
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Why does radioactive matter decay in series of half-lives?

I was studying types of nuclear decay, and I came across the concept of "half-life". And I started wondering why does nuclear matter decay in half-lives? In other words, why does the rate of nuclear ...
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Nuclear physics [closed]

When considering Fusion, the matter that gets converted into energy what specific matter is converted exactly like a quark and is most of the energy created from the matter turning into energy?
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Size of atomic shells

Is the distance of some $n^{th}$ shell ($n$ $\neq$ outermost shell) from the nucleus of an atom different for different elements? If so, then how much is the difference or how could we calculate it?
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Can neutrons be ejected from an atom?

In a neutral atom, can neutrons be ejected, and if so, by what (nuclear) process or reaction? I have read Neutron emission and Can a proton be ejected from an atom, but I don't understand how and if ...
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Intuition for why effective nuclear charge increases down a column

My textbook (Chemistry the Central Science, edition 12, Brown et al.) says that effective nuclear charge increases down a column. Indeed, this is consistent with the values provided by Clementi in the ...
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1 vote
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What is the most stable pear-shaped nucleus? [closed]

I have heard on the Internet that there are at least three pear-shaped nuclei: radium-224, radon-220 (a direct product of the previous isotope), and barium-144. CERN has a webpage about this discovery ...
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What happens when para-water ice is suddenly melted?

Background (hydrogen) In the case of recently liquified hydrogen (which is quite cold of course) it must be re-equilibrated before loading on to a rocket as fuel to avoid a sudden exothermic ...
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If a sample to be carbon-dated is wrapped in a piece of paper, will you still be able to effectively measure the radioactivity of the sample? [closed]

If a sample to be carbon-dated is wrapped in a piece of paper, will you still be able to effectively measure the radioactivity of the sample?
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How much ionising radiation is released during an atomic blast?

I've been looking for how much ionising radiation is produced during an atomic blast (as a percentage). I have seen a claim of 5% of the energy in an atomic blast is ionising energy (Wikipedia), but ...
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Unstable or radioactive as a property?

What is better term for describing a chemical element; "radioactive" or "unstable"? I am leaning towards the "unstable", because it seems to me that it better describes nature of the element, as ...
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Uses of ruthenium-106?

I read a news article recently about a cloud of ruthenium-106 being released over Europe. The article mentioned one of the uses for this specific isotope is in fuel cells for satellites. I tried to do ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Why do Alpha particles not collide with electrons during alpha decay? [duplicate]

Alpha particles are positively charged, so my question is that during alpha decay, when these are released from the nucleus, why doesn't it ever occur that they collide and grab an electron or two ...
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Can you decay to half an atom?

In school we are learning about half-life, and I was wondering if it is possible to decay to half an atom?
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Why atomic number decreases in alpha emission

My teachers taugh me that alpha particle is a helium nucleus carrying net +2 charge, hence if an radioactive subastance emits alpha particle it looses two of its protons and two neutrons but no ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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Molecular Hamiltonian of Helium hydride ion

Currently, I am going through Quantum Simulation of Helium Hydride Cation in a Solid-State Spin Register. I am not a chemist but rather a computer scientist hence having trouble following the paper. ...
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Is order of reaction defined for nuclear reactions?

I am asking this question after asking a similar one for spontaneous nuclear decay phy.stack. Link Order of reaction is defined for chemical reaction. But wikipedia says about spontaneous nuclear ...
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Rutherford's gold foil experiment [duplicate]

Rutherford projected $\alpha$-rays onto the gold foil. $\alpha$-rays are the same as a $\ce{He^2+}$ nucleus and they can ionize atoms. Therefore, why are gold atoms not ionized when the $\alpha$-rays ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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When do reactions reach steady state?

I was doing a multiple choice problem that asked about when the following nuclear decay sequence reaches steady state (When does the activity of $\ce{^99Mo}$ roughly equal the activity of $\ce{^{99m}...
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How does radiocarbon dating work?

I'd like to better understand radiocarbon dating, however, I do not know what resources I must use in this regard. Could someone walk me through the process of radiocarbon dating with a few examples? (...
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5 votes
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How to estimate the enrichment of U-234 from the enrichment of U-235?

Fresh nuclear fuel made from naturally occurring uranium (i.e. neither MOX nor ERU fuel) is mainly characterised by the enrichment of $\ce{^235U}$. The mass and activity concentrations of $\ce{^235U}$ ...
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On what basis can we say that one nuclide is more stable than another one? [closed]

I read in a textbook that the nuclide $^{40}_{20}\ce{Ca}$ is more stable as compared to $^{30}_{13}\ce{Al}$. I checked it online and saw that most sources describe the observation with respect to odd ...
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Low Energy Nuclear Reactions [closed]

I was interested in knowing if Low Energy Nuclear Reactions are practical or just mythical. What is the current stance of the scientific society about their feasibility?
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C14 Nuclear Diamond to AA Battery Apples-to-Apples Engery output

I was reading an article about nuclear diamonds and they made an apples-to-oranges comparison of a 1 gram C14 nuclear diamond to a single AA battery. Here is the part I'm referencing: "An alkaline ...
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Why are neutrino/anti-neutrino released in Beta decay? [closed]

In positive beta decay neutrino are released whereas in negative beta decay anti neutrino are released. From where did they came? Are they produced during the collision? What s it's purpose? Is it to ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Why during nuclear fusion does the process only release neutrons? [closed]

Say we envision subatomic particles like balloons held together by static electricity (analogous to nuclear force). Now we smash em' together. They make a new element. My chemistry test answer key ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Cold fusion via chemical reactions?

How could a nuclear reaction possibly happen at room temperature? We know how other blasts work and what chemicals are used to cause their effect, but what chemicals could cause a nuclear reaction at ...
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2 answers
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Rutherford gold foil experiment

This question may sound silly. What actually I understood from this experiment is that the positively charged nucleus which is in the center is responsible for the bending and reflection of the alpha ...
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1 answer
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Nuclear Fallout [closed]

If there was a nuclear explosion and years later I come out of a fallout shelter like in the popular game series Fallout, what elements would react to the radiation in a way that could harm humans and ...
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Are photons ejected from atomic nuclei?

I have heard that electrons absorb or eject photons when transitioning from one orbital to another. Is this correct? Can atomic nuclei eject photons?
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6 votes
2 answers
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What chemical elements does a nuclear explosion release into its mushroom cloud?

I'm interested in the mushroom cloud produced by a nuclear explosion: What is it made of? I know that the uranium fission reaction is the following (from this web page) $$\ce{{}^{235}U + {}^1_0n -&...
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Can we make Gold in a Lab? [duplicate]

Can we make Gold in a Lab? Is it possible to make changes in metals that will create Gold? and How? I have tried to search something related to this but didn't get any good results. Thanks in Advance
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Why doesn't the atomic number change by two in the process of production of Americium?

Looking at the bomardment of uranium-238 this is what I see. First, I see a uranium-238 atom with 92 protons bombarded with a neutron. The neutron then undergoes beta decay into a proton. So we then ...
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5 votes
3 answers
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How are nuclei stable?

We all know that the density of the nucleus is very high. Nuclei are made up of protons and neutrons, and while protons have the same charge, they are closely packed in a nucleus. How does the ...
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Beta Decay - Doesn't Add Up [duplicate]

The definition of beta $(\beta^-)$ decay is that an electron is produced. For example, $$\ce{^131_53I -> ^131_54Xe + e^-}$$ So iodine forms Xe and releases one electron with a -1 charge only and ...
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Nuclear power: what material is the control rod made from?

What type of material is used in the control rod of a nuclear reactor? (Nuclear power plant)
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4 answers
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What is the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion?

I always mix up the definition of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. So, what is nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, and an example for each?
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1 answer
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Do elements actually transmute in nuclear reactions?

Whenever a nuclear transmutation happens, do we get a new element or do we have the same element with chemical properties of a different element? Isn't it very much against the intuition?
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"Orthogonality" of chemical elements

Chemical elements are said to be immutable at normal energies, but not at the energies that are orders of magnitude higher. Given that nucleus at normal energies gives us the Periodic Table and at ...
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How to derive the nuclear spin of 23Na?

Is it possible to derive the nuclear spin I=3/2 for $\ce{^23Na}$ from a term scheme or from something else from spectroscopy? I thought the nucleus spin is empirical (and cannot be calculated from J ...
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1 vote
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Radioactivity and Kinetics of disintegration

Well I've just started on kinetics and there are a few things I am absolutely confused about! First of all, is a neutron actually made up of a proton and electron? If yes, then how is this possible? ...
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How long must a sample be irradiated before all 59-Co atoms are converted to 60-Co? [closed]

For the interaction, n$^0$ + $^{59}$Co $\to$ $^{60}$Co
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