Questions tagged [electrons]

Electrons are subatomic particles with the symbol e−. They have a negative electric charge (-1 elementary charge. )

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Has a concept of temperature ever been defined in the context of a single atom?

I wonder if this answer to What would happen if we supercool and then superheat an atom very abruptly? goes far enough. I almost wrote the comment: I don't think we can even talk about the ...
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How does liquid mercury conduct electricity? [closed]

It is stated that mercury is a liquid at STP because the high relativistic mass of its valence electrons stabilizes their orbits and thus prevents the electrons from being shared. If so, liquid ...
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Confused about identifying delocalized electron pairs in Isoniazid

I have to identify delocalized electron pairs in Isoniazid (pairs not shown in the image below): I know the nitrogen in the ring has a localized electron pair, since it already forms a pi bond. I'm ...
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Is the nickel an exceptions to the electron configuration? [duplicate]

the electron config. is this 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^8 can the 2 electrons in the 4s be donated to the 3d to make them diamagnetic?
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Free Electron-Bond Electron Interactions

I am reading an introductory textbook on electronics: Practical Electronics for Inventors by Paul Scherz and Simon Monk. In a section discussing the motion of electrons in circuits, the textbook ...
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Atomic emission spectrum assumption n_f = 3

It's a standard question on the atomic emission spectrum. An atomic emission spectrum of hydrogen shows three wavelengths: 1875 nm, 1282 nm, and 1093 nm. Assign this wavelengths to transitions in ...
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Characteristics of Isotopes [closed]

I'm currently applying information theory to physics, and have begun considering the nature of isotopes, and in particular, how much information is contributed to the properties of an element by its ...
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Why does heating an atom make it emit certain frequencies? [closed]

We're going over quantum basics in chemistry right now and I'm very confused. Electrons can only accept in discreet quanta to move up an energy level, right? And they reflect other forms of light ...
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Why does an electron lose energy so that it falls back to a lower energy state than just stay at the higher energy state?

Suppose an electron in the 2nd shell gets excited and jumps to the 4th shell. Shouldn't the electron then exist in an unstable equilibrium in the 4th shell, than lose energy and drop down to the 2nd ...
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If a beta particle is just an electron, what causes it to be radioactive/dangerous? [closed]

Like what the title says, my question is if a beta particle is just an electron, what causes it to be dangerous? I understand that a beta particle is not only an electron but it is also one with a ...
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Why does the Heisenberg uncertainty principle work in an atom? [closed]

Where is my logic wrong? An electron can only assume quantized energies in an atom. If an electron is localized in space in a hydrogen atom, its radius is known. If its radius is known, its ...
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Properties that probe electron kinetic energy

This post is inspired by a question regarding the meaning of off-diagonal elements of the KE matrix (in some AO basis). One answer suggests that a diagonalized KE matrix might not be very useful. I ...
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Did the finding of the electron from cathode rays/ oil drop experiment at least temporarily throw Dalton's Atomic theory “out the window”? [closed]

Because chemists learned that the atom was divisible, did Dalton's theory get any criticism or did they just adjust the theory to fit the new idea?
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Electron Spin, and the Stern-Gerlach Experiment

I think I understand the basics of the electron spin. However, I'm trying to figure out how to tell if, when shooting a beam of atoms (the Stern-Gerlach experiment), how to tell if an element will ...
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What's the difference between atomic orbitals and energy levels? [duplicate]

If I'm drawing a Bohr model of Neon, the middle is the nucleus, the first energy level contains 2 electrons. The second level contains 8 electrons. 8+2= 10, Neon's atomic number. But then what are ...
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Are all lone pairs considered as π-electrons?

According to me, in methylenepyran 8 π-electrons are present as there are 3 double bonds. Therefore, 2 × 3 = 6 π-electrons and 2 π-electrons as one of the two lone pairs of oxygen will participate in ...
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How can a neutral atom attract electrons when it's supposed to have zero charge?

A neutral atom is an atom with an equal number of protons and electrons We know the force of attraction between the proton and electron is equal and assuming that: one proton's positive charge ...
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Electron shells and subshells energies [duplicate]

According to what i learned in university, the energy of orbitals increases when the principal quantum number n increases. Also, in a given shell, s orbitals have lower energy than p orbitals which ...
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How did Thomson calculate the momentum of electron when he didn't know the mass of electron?

"This was proven in 1903 by J. J. Thomson who calculated that the momentum of the electrons hitting the paddle wheel would only be sufficient to turn the wheel one revolution per minute." This is a ...
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What will happen if electron as a wave undergo destructive interference while travelling in its Orbit?

Today I came across a justification of Bohr's angular momentum quantization using the De- Broglie's hypothesis. The justification said that since the electrons are having wave nature also then while ...
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How do I view a DSN6 file as text?

I am trying to isolate certain pieces of information within a dsn6 file. Specifically, I want to find the electron density around two atoms within a protein. I want to then run a python code to ...
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Wave-particle duality [closed]

Can I get an answer stating some analogies on how electrons behave like a wave, and what does it even mean for an electron to behave like a wave? Also, if going around the nucleus, is electron a real ...
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questions about half cell of Daniell cell

My questions are as follows: For the Daniell cell, we assume that ZnSO4 and CuSO4 are 1M aqueous solutions. What if we use pure molten ZnSO4 and CuSO4 instead? Assume that we prepare an isolated half-...
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Spatial Wavefunction Symmetries and Identical Particles

I was reading this and it mentions in the 3-electron section, that for a spacial wave function to be symmetric under fermion swapping, it must be a function of even parity. Similarly for anti-symmetry ...
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Why electrons move to Cu in galvanic cells?

I'm student who learning about chemistry, and I got problem about understanding why electorns move to Cu in galvanic cells. Let's think the reason for electrons going to Cu is that the standard ...
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Image formation in LEEM

currently I'm studying for my master's examination in physical chemistry. The topic will be surfaces and catalysis. To prepare myself I'm reading "Surface Science - An introduction" by Oura. ...
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What Ion gets reduced in this aqueous electrolysis?

In an electrolysis of tin(II) iodide ($\ce{SnI2}$) with led cathode and nickel anode, why is it that the tin ion gets reduced and not the nickel ion?
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What are the other ways (if they exist) that atoms can gain or lose electrons that aren't bonding?

I know that electrons can be isolated through human intervention from their atoms. My question rather concerns if electrons are ever lost or gained naturally. I recognize that this is a stupid ...
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How to write electronic configuration of p-orbitals?

For example, the electronic configuration for the element boron can be writen as: 1s2 2s2 2p1 However, it is can be written more accurately by taking the different p-orbitals into account: The ...
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MO diagram of BeH₂

I was learning about the MO diagrams of triatomic molecules and was left slightly confused about $\ce{BeH2}$. A picture of the MO is shown below: When looking at the $\mathrm{1s}$ combinations, I ...
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Question on deflection of cathode rays in a magnetic field [closed]

My book states that : When only electric field is applied, the electrons deviate from their path and hit the cathode ray tube at point A. Similarly when only magnetic field is applied , the ...
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What do electrons usually do when lead acid battery is idle?

Lead acid batteries operation are governed by Redox reactions for charging and discharging. But, what do electrons usually do when lead acid battery is idle? And why? Assumptions: Say more ...
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Electrons in methane [closed]

Why does a molecule of methane have 10 electrons? I used to think that the number of electrons in methane were 8 in number but it turns out that there are 10 in number but i dont know why. Please ...
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What is the correlation between electronegativity and the sharing of electrons?

For example in a C-O bond, the electronegativity difference is 1.2. does this mean that the Oxygen has 1.2 of the shared electrons and Carbon 0.8 (or some other numbers)? Is there a specific equation ...
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Deducing the shell when transition occurs such that two photons are discharged

Find $n$ (quantum number) corresponding to the excited state of $\ce{He+}$ ion if on transition to ground state the ion emits two photons in succession with wavelengths $\pu{108.5 nm}$ and $\pu{30.4 ...
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Find the number of electrons [closed]

I am not understanding,why do we have to subtract the charge from the atomic number while finding the number of electrons.
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Why does ionisation energy to remove electrons from the same subshell increases? [closed]

Electrons in the same subshell possesses the same energy. So why does ionisation energy to remove electrons from the same subshell increases? For example, $\mathrm{2s^2}$ has two electrons. Since ...
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Why is the principal energy of an electron lower for excited electrons in a higher energy state?

Several places state the 'principal energy of an electron' can be calculated as such: $$E = \frac{2π^2mZ^2e^4}{n^2h^2}$$ Another equation I found was: $$E = -\frac{E_0}{n^2},$$ where $$E_0 = \pu{...
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What is the maximum number of emission lines when the excited electron of a H atom in n = 6 drops to ground state?

When an electron in a higher energy state jumps to a lower energy state in Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom, it emits a photon which has energy equal to the difference in the energy between the final and ...
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When surface area of electrodes is increased, why does the current in the galvanic cell increase?

I did a lab in galvanic cells where I changed the surface area. As a result, the current increased, but I don't really understand why. I guessed it was because more are means that more ions from the ...
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Why do the f-block elements ( inner transition metals) have an oxidation number of +3? [closed]

The f-block valence electrons understandably include the outermost two from 6s. But why do the f-block elements have an oxidation number of +3, pulling an electron from an inner shell, not even a d-...
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Formulas for the number of spectral lines

While reading through Narendra Avasthi's Problems in Physical Chemistry, I came across two formulas on p. 64 (Scanned page): When electrons de-excite from higher energy level ($n_2$) to lower ...
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Effective nuclear charge and repulsion of electrons

Effective nuclear charge increases across a period. This is justified because number of protons increase in nucleus across a period, and there's no change in the number of "shielding" electrons. ...
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Calling compounds electron deficient [closed]

I believe this is a conceptual question and might sound silly, but please help me with it: I can understand when ions like $\text{Co}^{3+},\text{Mg}^{2+}$ are called electron deficient, because they ...
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Is there any electronic component to water conductivity?

Answers to Decrease in temperature of a aqueous salt solution decreases conductivity indicate that the electrical conductivity of salt solutions arises from the mobility of ionic species and therefore ...
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Why did J.J. Thomson observe protons in his cathode ray experiment?

In this MIT lecture, at 7:22, the professor says that when J.J. Thomson added a positively charged plate on one side of the cathode ray and a negatively charged plate on the other side, he observed a ...
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What about the aromaticity of cyclopropenylidene?

Here's a compound which we have to tell whether it's aromatic or not. Drawing pi-orbital for the 3-membered ring, I think there are only 2 pi electrons delocalised all over the ring. The orbital ...
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How do flame tests give off color if they only emit the colors when the electrons return to ground state?

Since we are constantly holding the element in the fire and the elements only give off the color when the electrons emit the energy that was supplied and return to ground state, why do we only see the ...
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How did J. J. Thomson prove that the cathode rays were made of negative particles and not negative rays?

In Thomson's experiment, he used a discharge tube to prove that the cathode rays that emanate from the cathode were made of "a stream of negatively charged particles" because they were repelled by an ...
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How are second and third electron affinities of atoms measured?

Wikipedia data page on electron affinities shows second and third electron affinities. Of course, they are negative, because one tries to attach electron to anion. But how are they measured or ...