Questions tagged [electrons]

Electrons are subatomic particles with the symbol e−. They have a negative electric charge (-1 elementary charge. )

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Electron shells and subshells energies [duplicate]

According to what i learned in university, the energy of orbitals increases when the principal quantum number n increases. Also, in a given shell, s orbitals have lower energy than p orbitals which ...
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How did Thomson calculate the momentum of electron when he didn't know the mass of electron?

"This was proven in 1903 by J. J. Thomson who calculated that the momentum of the electrons hitting the paddle wheel would only be sufficient to turn the wheel one revolution per minute." This is a ...
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Hund's rule and the stability of orbitals [duplicate]

I understand why orbitals that are half fulled are stable as they do not have electron-electron repulsion, however, why are orbitals that are fully filled stable?
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What will happen if electron as a wave undergo destructive interference while travelling in its Orbit?

Today I came across a justification of Bohr's angular momentum quantization using the De- Broglie's hypothesis. The justification said that since the electrons are having wave nature also then while ...
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How do I view a DSN6 file as text?

I am trying to isolate certain pieces of information within a dsn6 file. Specifically, I want to find the electron density around two atoms within a protein. I want to then run a python code to ...
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Wave-particle duality [closed]

Can I get an answer stating some analogies on how electrons behave like a wave, and what does it even mean for an electron to behave like a wave? Also, if going around the nucleus, is electron a real ...
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questions about half cell of Daniell cell

My questions are as follows: For the Daniell cell, we assume that ZnSO4 and CuSO4 are 1M aqueous solutions. What if we use pure molten ZnSO4 and CuSO4 instead? Assume that we prepare an isolated half-...
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Spacial Wavefunction Symmetries and Identical particles

I was reading this and it mentions in the 3-electron section, that for a spacial wave function to be symmetric under fermion swapping, it must be a function of even parity. Similarly for anti-symmetry ...
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Why electrons move to Cu in galvanic cells?

I'm student who learning about chemistry, and I got problem about understanding why electorns move to Cu in galvanic cells. Let's think the reason for electrons going to Cu is that the standard ...
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Image formation in LEEM

currently I'm studying for my master's examination in physical chemistry. The topic will be surfaces and catalysis. To prepare myself I'm reading "Surface Science - An introduction" by Oura. ...
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What Ion gets reduced in this aqueous electrolysis?

In an electrolysis of tin(II) iodide ($\ce{SnI2}$) with led cathode and nickel anode, why is it that the tin ion gets reduced and not the nickel ion?
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What are the other ways (if they exist) that atoms can gain or lose electrons that aren't bonding?

I know that electrons can be isolated through human intervention from their atoms. My question rather concerns if electrons are ever lost or gained naturally. I recognize that this is a stupid ...
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How to write electronic configuration of p-orbitals?

For example, the electronic configuration for the element boron can be writen as: 1s2 2s2 2p1 However, it is can be written more accurately by taking the different p-orbitals into account: The ...
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MO diagram of BeH₂

I was learning about the MO diagrams of triatomic molecules and was left slightly confused about $\ce{BeH2}$. A picture of the MO is shown below: When looking at the $\mathrm{1s}$ combinations, I ...
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130 views

Question on deflection of cathode rays in a magnetic field [closed]

My book states that : When only electric field is applied, the electrons deviate from their path and hit the cathode ray tube at point A. Similarly when only magnetic field is applied , the ...
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What do electrons usually do when lead acid battery is idle?

Lead acid batteries operation are governed by Redox reactions for charging and discharging. But, what do electrons usually do when lead acid battery is idle? And why? Assumptions: Say more ...
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Electrons in methane [closed]

Why does a molecule of methane have 10 electrons? I used to think that the number of electrons in methane were 8 in number but it turns out that there are 10 in number but i dont know why. Please ...
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What is the correlation between electronegativity and the sharing of electrons?

For example in a C-O bond, the electronegativity difference is 1.2. does this mean that the Oxygen has 1.2 of the shared electrons and Carbon 0.8 (or some other numbers)? Is there a specific equation ...
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Deducing the shell when transition occurs such that two photons are discharged

Find $n$ (quantum number) corresponding to the excited state of $\ce{He+}$ ion if on transition to ground state the ion emits two photons in succession with wavelengths $\pu{108.5 nm}$ and $\pu{30.4 ...
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Find the number of electrons [closed]

I am not understanding,why do we have to subtract the charge from the atomic number while finding the number of electrons.
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Why does ionisation energy to remove electrons from the same subshell increases? [closed]

Electrons in the same subshell possesses the same energy. So why does ionisation energy to remove electrons from the same subshell increases? For example, $\mathrm{2s^2}$ has two electrons. Since ...
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Why is the principal energy of an electron lower for excited electrons in a higher energy state?

Several places state the 'principal energy of an electron' can be calculated as such: $$E = \frac{2π^2mZ^2e^4}{n^2h^2}$$ Another equation I found was: $$E = -\frac{E_0}{n^2},$$ where $$E_0 = \pu{...
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702 views

What is the maximum number of emission lines when the excited electron of a H atom in n = 6 drops to ground state?

When an electron in a higher energy state jumps to a lower energy state in Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom, it emits a photon which has energy equal to the difference in the energy between the final and ...
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When surface area of electrodes is increased, why does the current in the galvanic cell increase?

I did a lab in galvanic cells where I changed the surface area. As a result, the current increased, but I don't really understand why. I guessed it was because more are means that more ions from the ...
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Why do the f-block elements ( inner transition metals) have an oxidation number of +3? [closed]

The f-block valence electrons understandably include the outermost two from 6s. But why do the f-block elements have an oxidation number of +3, pulling an electron from an inner shell, not even a d-...
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Formulas for the number of spectral lines

While reading through Narendra Avasthi's Problems in Physical Chemistry, I came across two formulas on p. 64 (Scanned page): When electrons de-excite from higher energy level ($n_2$) to lower ...
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Effective nuclear charge and repulsion of electrons

Effective nuclear charge increases across a period. This is justified because number of protons increase in nucleus across a period, and there's no change in the number of "shielding" electrons. ...
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Calling compounds electron deficient [closed]

I believe this is a conceptual question and might sound silly, but please help me with it: I can understand when ions like $\text{Co}^{3+},\text{Mg}^{2+}$ are called electron deficient, because they ...
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Is there any electronic component to water conductivity?

Answers to Decrease in temperature of a aqueous salt solution decreases conductivity indicate that the electrical conductivity of salt solutions arises from the mobility of ionic species and therefore ...
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Why did J.J. Thomson observe protons in his cathode ray experiment?

In this MIT lecture, at 7:22, the professor says that when J.J. Thomson added a positively charged plate on one side of the cathode ray and a negatively charged plate on the other side, he observed a ...
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What about the aromaticity of cyclopropenylidene?

Here's a compound which we have to tell whether it's aromatic or not. Drawing pi-orbital for the 3-membered ring, I think there are only 2 pi electrons delocalised all over the ring. The orbital ...
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How do flame tests give off color if they only emit the colors when the electrons return to ground state?

Since we are constantly holding the element in the fire and the elements only give off the color when the electrons emit the energy that was supplied and return to ground state, why do we only see the ...
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How did J. J. Thomson prove that the cathode rays were made of negative particles and not negative rays?

In Thomson's experiment, he used a discharge tube to prove that the cathode rays that emanate from the cathode were made of "a stream of negatively charged particles" because they were repelled by an ...
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How are second and third electron affinities of atoms measured?

Wikipedia data page on electron affinities shows second and third electron affinities. Of course, they are negative, because one tries to attach electron to anion. But how are they measured or ...
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Why electrons are attracted by cathode in Voltaic/Galvanic cell

I studied that in the above setup electrons are attracted by Cu because of their reduction potential but they don't involve in reaction because of the d-bands of the electronic structure so Hydrogen ...
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Covalent compounds [closed]

Which of the following bond has lowest energy? 1.C-C. 2.N-N 3.H-H 4.O-O 5.F-F I don't understand the concept behind this question. If we take electronegative as a factor than option 5 is ...
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Why doesn't Silicon act as the basis of a class of compounds like Carbon is for organic compounds?

Carbon is the basis of organic materials in large part due to it's four valence electrons. Silicon also happens to have four valence electrons as well but does not serve as a basis for a large set of ...
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How to interpret a singlet term symbol for an s¹p¹ configuration?

I am interested in the $^1P_0$ singlet state of $\ce{Hg}$ ($\ce{5d^10 6s^1 6p^1}$). I interpret this to be the two following electron configurations below, because for an $S = 0$ state the two ...
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Can there be any substance whose number of electrons and protons are different at neutral state

I want to ask that if there any substance that has the different number of electrons and protons at its neutral state
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Atoms in Solar Cells

An electric field in solar cells is created through photons knocking electrons off of atoms. What happens to the positively charged atoms once the electrons have been knocked off? Furthermore, are the ...
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Are the 2s and 2p subshells degenerate in the He+ ion?

I know that the 2s and 2p (as well as 3s, 3p, and 3d) electron subshells are degenerate in the hydrogen atom. I was wondering if they are also degenerate in other one-electron species, such as the $\...
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Why in honeycomb graphene sheet each Carbon atom has 7 valence electrons and 3 bonds according to the following image? [closed]

Carbon has four valence electrons. But in the honeycomb structure of graphene, each carbon atom has a triple bond? Because if you look at methane gas: $\ce{CH4}$ So shouldn't there be 8 valence ...
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De-excitation of a molecule

In our chemistry lecture today on UV/vis-spectroscopy, we discussed the origin of colour in conjugated molecules due to electronic transitions from lower-energy molecular orbitals to higher-energy ...
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Electron promotion in hybridisation: A misconception

Recently, I read through a short article on Nature Chemistry, written by Michelle Francl, titled "Talking to Pauling's ghost". The article talks about how electron promotion was never something that ...
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Why do atoms have electron Affinity? [duplicate]

Atoms are stable so how can they pull electrons i.e how do they have any electron affinity at all?
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Very elementary question about valence electrons of ionic compound

In a university entrance question, I found this question: What is the number of valence electrons of $\ce{Mg(OH)2}$? Answer = 24 I know that Mg has 2 valence electrons and O has 6. But I don't ...
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Chemistry: A Chemical Dilemma [closed]

We accept that, via observations that an electron possesses a negative charge and a proton a positive charge, both of which attracting each another. My dilemma lies here, what is the reason for the ...
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In a copper wire, how many electrons does each atom give away?

As an ion, copper can give off 1, 2, 3 or 4 electrons. But it has 1 s electron in the last shell and 10 d electrons. So as a metal, how many of those are delocalised and free to move around, and how ...
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Can visible light or infrared radiation excite electrons?

So the limit of ionizing radiation seems to be UV light. I'm wondering if IR light or Visible light can excite the electrons in an atom. It has to do with the difference in energy level right? So ...
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Quantization and Bohr's model

According to quantization it's said that emitted or absorbed energy is quantized. Then, when it's said in bohr's model an electron changes its orbit (Let's say it goes to a higher energy shell from $...