Questions tagged [electrons]

Electrons are subatomic particles with the symbol e−. They have a negative electric charge (-1 elementary charge. )

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Relationship between Quantum Numbers and the Wave-function

I recently started learning about quantum mechanics and its applciations in atomic structure in chemistry. In this inorganic textbook Inorganic Chemistry, it describes "Each of the wavefunctions ...
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Energy of valence electrons [closed]

I am currently studying Electrical Engineering and I have this question: An energy band is formed by the overlapping of atomic orbitals of atoms coming close to each other. I suspect that if the ...
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Why does allyl anion have only two resonance structures?

There are only two resonance structures of allyl anion with negative charge distributed over positions 1 and 3: $$\ce{\overset{-}{C}H2-CH=CH2 <-> CH_2=CH-\overset{-}{C}H2}.$$ What's the criteria ...
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Schrodinger's Equation and Wave Function

So I understand that there exists the shrodinger's equation, which on solving,gives the wave function of an electron. The wave function as I understand, gives all possible information about an ...
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How can chlorine be 'only' the third-most electronegative element yet have the highest electron affinity?

From Wikipedia: It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale, ...
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Stability of an atom in absence of EM field

According to Bohr model of atom, electrons move up an energy level in presence of EM field and emit a photon moving down the level. In complete absence of any external EM field, shouldn't the electron ...
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What is the relationship between polarisation of ion and their bond strength/enthalpy?

Starting with things I Know: Size and charge of ions affect the bond strength and the lattice energy of ionic compounds Decrease in ionic radius(size) increases the bond strength and increases the ...
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Is this bond Ionic or Covalent, and why? AlBr [closed]

We know a compound could form between NaCl because they are +1 and -1 ions which make them both into a complete valence set. Could a compound form between Al and Br, for example, and what type of bond ...
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Where to find DFT Datasets with 3D Electron Density values?

This may be dumb question. Please bear with me. Where can I find datasets with 3D electron density values and any related physical property. I have looked up the QM9 dataset as well, but since I am ...
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Why do electrons jump back after absorbing energy and moving to a higher energy level?

Electrons in a shell absorb energy and move to higher energy levels, but they release their energy and jump back to the shell they originally were in. Why do they jump back? Why can they not keep ...
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Did JJ Thomson know about Eugen Goldstein’s experiment discovering canal rays?

We learn that JJ Thomson discovered the electron in 1897. Several years EARLIER in 1886, Eugen Goldstein performs the same experiment but with the anode and cathode switched to produce positively ...
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What does orbital mean, exactly? [duplicate]

My teacher told me that orbital is the probability distribution data of the electron around nucleus which is amplitude data in a way. An example of how my teacher actually told what it means involves ...
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Does electron mass decrease when it changes its orbit?

I have studied this in my chapter atomic structure that when an electron changes its orbit from lower energy to higher energy state , it does not state in my book that it moves there but that it ...
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What happens if we continuously hit an atom with photons

My sir told me that Energy required to remove an electron from one orbit to another depends on hf * n. Where n means the no of photons that will strike on a metal surface and hf is energy of one ...
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What does Pauli’s exclusion principle mean in atomic or fundamental way? [closed]

It means is that no electron can have same n , l and $m_l$ but can have two different spin quantum number. I want to know why is this rule valid?Means there must be some other things happening also ...
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Finding excited stage of electron from its potential energy

The potential energy of an electron in the hydrogen atom is $\pu{-6.8 eV}.$ Indicate the excited stage in which electron is present. Total energy would be equal to $\pu{-3.4 eV}.$ I used the formula $...
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What are high-energy electrons?

I read that (in cellular respiration) the transported electrons in NADH have a higher energy than those in FADH2. I can't find a (simple or otherwise) explanation of what a "high-energy" ...
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Excitation states of neon (or other gas) inside neon lights

I'm interested in the spectra of gas discharge tubes. Taking neon as an example, when I look up on NIST the spectra for neon, I find excitation states up to Ne IX. Where do I find/how do I work out ...
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Why does the Most Stable State of an Atom Tend to be One with Full s and p Subshells?

I'm new to posting on stack exchange, although I've read a lot of it before. This question seems like it might end up being marked as a duplicate, but I've looked through a lot of the similar ...
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What did I do wrong in my orbital notation for this Os (Osmium) question?

I was given a question where I had to write the orbital notation of Osmium (Os) and I got it wrong. The question: 6s2 --> ↑↓ 4f --> ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ 5d6 --> ↑↓↑↓↑↑ The arrows above are my ...
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Can someone help me figure out what the noble gas configurations for zirconium and holmium are? [closed]

I am currently working on noble gas configurations in chemistry and I am having a hard time understanding why I got two questions wrong on a practice. The instructions for the practice are here: Write ...
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How does a body lose electrons? [closed]

If there is a Na and cl in solid form , There will be atoms inside of them.How do they lose electrons ?.We know solid body has a structure and covering.Just like you can touch is the covering of table ...
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Electroplating: What exactly does an additive/ brightener do in the electrolyte?

A carrier or supressor is generally a poly-oxyalkyl compound that is instrumental in suppressing the electrolytic current. This is achieved by the formation of a diffusion layer when the additives ...
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In Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, do higher atomic elements ever generate just K lines without L or M lines?

The heavier elements only show L or M lines. Is that because the critical ionisation energy is too high to get K lines in higher atomic numbers? Can you ever get just the K lines, or just the M lines ...
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Number of orbitals Lithium

I have a very rudimentary question on orbitals (I have basic chemistry knowledge, using for a comp chem project) Lithium, to my understanding, has three electrons allocated to the 1s and 2s orbitals. ...
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Counting electrons in Ozonolysis [closed]

I can't understand the electron count made on this page about Ozonolysis. (http://ursula.chem.yale.edu/~chem220/chem220js/STUDYAIDS/ozonolysis/Oz.html) This is the specific part of the article: From ...
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Do higher orbitals have more energy or less energy? [duplicate]

I've recently learned that as an orbital gets larger, its energy gets closer to 0. Before this, I learned that when an electron moves down an orbital it releases the energy difference between those ...
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electron - nuclei recombination within stars

Nuclear fusion within stars combine atom nuclei, so the atoms are ionized and electrons run for free. My question is, when or how these electrons recombine with the nuclei to form neutral atoms? ...
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Maximum Local Value for the Electron Density

So the electron density is the function $\rho(\vec x)$ that associates a value of electrons per cubic angstrom, to each point $\vec x$ in the 3D space. This information tells us how likely it is to ...
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How can an electron being a wave have such property as spin?

Here's what I know about electrons. Electrons have wave-like properties and the number of wavelengths in the $n^\text{th}$ shell is equal to $n(\lambda).$ Also, I read in my book that they have ...
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Regarding comparison of ionization energies [closed]

Why is the ionization energy of $\ce{Mg^2+}$ greater than the ionization energy of $\ce{Ne}$ (neon)? My teacher said the answer was $\ce{Mg^2+}$ but I have no idea why as my general knowledge tells ...
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But what are anti-bonding pi-orbital? In search for an intuitive explanation [closed]

Imagine that you want to explain to an undergraduate why they have to to shade the pi-orbitals in a symmetrical way, i.e. dark on top (+), white on bottom (-) for two neighbouring pi-orbitals because ...
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Ionic radius for tetrahedral metal–ligand complexes

The ionic radii for metal–ligand complexes that are in an octahedral coordination are easy to find. I understand that when the $\mathrm{e_g}$ orbital is filled, the ionic radius increases because the ...
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Where do the three negative oxygens in a phosphate group get their missing electron from?

A video I watched showed the construction of a phosphate group using a Lewis structure. The oxygen with the double bond fills its octet group. The three other oxygens lack an electron. The teacher ...
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Electron configuration of iron(I) cation

What is the electron configuration of $\ce{Fe+}$ cation? \begin{align} \ce{Fe+} &\!:~ [\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{(3d)^6(4s)^1}\label{chm:1}\tag{1}\\ \ce{Fe+} &\!:~ [\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{(3d)^7(4s)^0}\label{...
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What does an electron's spin of 0.5 and minus 0.5 signify?

While teaching me magnetism, my teacher told me about the spin of an electron. He told me that the spin of .5 means that if we rotate the electron twice counter-clockwise on its axis, we would have ...
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Why does covalent bonding not break down if observer effect can be applied to atomic electrons? [closed]

The observer effect in quantum mechanics states that when unobserved, quantum particles such as electrons can simultaneously occupy two different states. In an atom of any element, where there are ...
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Could observer effect cause electrons in one orbital to be found in another?

The observer effect states [1] that when unobserved, absolutely small particles like electrons can simultaneously be in two different states at the same time. If we look at an atom of any element, ...
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What exactly are electron states?

From Tro's Chemistry: Structure and Properties [1, p. 93]: 2.5 Quantum Mechanics and the Atom As we have seen, the position and velocity of the electron are complementary properties—if we know one ...
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How does a battery create a potential differece (voltage)? [closed]

I'm 15 and recently started electronics and I just had a question about batteries. (I've been told by people on physics stack exchange to come here to have my question answered). From what I ...
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Distribution of negative charges in iodine dioxide difluoride anion [closed]

I was drawing the structure for $\ce{[IO2F2]-}.$ I'm stuck on whether the negative charge should be given to oxygen or iodine.
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How to determine the number of electron in a shell [duplicate]

My textbook has been mentioned that the maximum number of electron in a shell is 2n² and the octet rule. It has also said that period number signifies the number of electron shells of an element and ...
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Grasping the concept of Electronic Spin, Effective Spin and Fictitious Spin

Trying to learn alone some aspects of quantum mechanics is, sometimes, a struggle. Reading the excellent paper by Piwowarska [1] I was hoping to, finally, understand what is the origin of the so-...
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Difference between spin-orbit coupling and the Russell-Saunders Effect?

The Russell-Saunders effect is the same thing as 'spin-orbit interaction, correct? The reason I am asking is because I was reviewing the Wikipedia page on 'spin-orbit interaction' and it does not ...
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Why do subshells and orbitals exist? [closed]

I'm just a curious high school student. Sorry if this sounds dumb. How exactly did the concept of atomic subshells and orbitals come about? And why exactly are there n-1 subshells and 2l+1 orbitals? ...
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While calculating the effective nuclear charge, why don't we consider effect of outer electrons on inner ones? [duplicate]

When calculating the effective nuclear charge for an electron, why do we only consider the repulsive effect of the inner electrons on the outer electrons? The outer electrons also repel the inner ones ...
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What is the unit of Z effective?

Z effective is the net positive charge experienced by an electron. But what is the unit of this net charge: coulomb (C) or microcoulomb (μC), or something else?
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Is there an opposite to shielding effect? [closed]

I recently read about shielding effect and lowering of effective nuclear charge due to penetration of other electrons. I wonder while doing calculations involving Slater's rules the electrons from ...
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Electron tunneling between orbitals

Electrons can move through potential barriers by tunneling. Atomic/molecular orbitals are separated by energy differences. Therefore I was wondering if an electron can tunnel from one orbital to ...
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Can a charge smaller than that of an electron exist? If so how? [closed]

In school I've always been taught that the smallest charge possible is that of an electron( or proton) however I recently solved a question regarding a dipole and the charge came smaller than that of ...

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