Questions tagged [electrons]

Electrons are subatomic particles with the symbol e−. They have a negative electric charge (-1 elementary charge. )

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Finding the wavefunction of the electron in a $Fe^{+25}$ cation

I have been attempting to find the wavefunction of the electron in the $\ce{Fe^{+25}}$ cation.I was wondering if I could apply the time-independent wave equation for the single electron.But since Iron ...
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Which is faster? Electron close to the atom's nucleus or the one far from it and why?

As we know when the distance between the atom's nucleus and the electron increase the energy of it increase but what about the speed, as physics say that the smaller the radius is the faster the body ...
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Is the given figure correct? Does the electron really flow out as depicted by the arrow? [closed]

Someone up here questioned about the figure and that the arrow is pointless and doesnt make sense? Or is it?
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Terms used to describe the Pauli exclusion principle

This is a very simple question. Today, someone explained to me that the Pauli exclusion principle says that "no two electrons can occupy the same energy state". However, I believe that this ...
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Why does the same electron transition release photons of different frequencies for some elements?

Question: For elements in the same period with different numbers of valance electrons, why does the same electron transition release photons of different frequencies? Example: For valance electrons ...
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How can Planck’s equation and the wave equation simultaneously coexist with contradicting each other? [closed]

The equations: E=hf (Planck’s equation, where E is the energy, h is the Planck’s constant and f is the frequency) and V=fλ (where v is the speed (in a vacuum), f is frequency and λ is the wavelength) ...
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Why is the d subshell only stable when all of its orbitals are filled? [closed]

I was learning about the Aufbau principle and quantum electronic configuration. Here are some of the yet-unanswered queries that I wish to know the answers to. I discovered that the d subshell is ...
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Why aluminum does not form ammonia complex ion?

I learned in my textbook that zinc forms more stable complex ion with NH3 than OH- because NH3 has only one lone pair and that makes repulsion between d orbital electron in zinc and lone pair electron ...
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What is resonance in actuality? (How does electron sharing, bond formation, and overlapping of orbitals take place in resonance hybrids?) [duplicate]

In this post I got an answer to the question "what is resonance". What I understand overall is that "resonance is not something really happening physically, it is just an idea to make ...
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What is the energy difference between inner subshells?

For exemple, in silver the energy difference between the 4d 5s subshells is ≈ 4 eV (in the ultraviolet region, that's why it has no color, etc.), but what is the energy difference between some of its ...
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Why does lead gains electrons in the cathode? [closed]

In lead(II) bromide electrolysis, lead is attracted to the cathode and gains electrons. Why does it gain electrons when losing them would be easier since its charge is +2 meaning it would need to lose ...
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Why does Cl- have a higher ionization energy than F-? [duplicate]

I know that F has a higher ionization energy than Cl as the outermost electron is closer to the nucleus. By the same logic shouldn't F- also have a higher ionization energy than Cl-?
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how to make a PEM (proton exchange membrane) out of Nafion Dispersions?

I would like to use a Nafion membrane for a fuel cell project, but the Nafion sheets are hard to integrate. Therefore, I would like a gel type of Nafion that can take the shape of the container I put ...
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What does it mean when we say an atom has infinite energy levels/shells? [closed]

My chemistry teacher told that an atom has infinite energy shells according to Bohr model , where electron reside according to its angular momentum and energy. But in lower classes/ grades I have ...
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Why is orbital energy not the mean between ionization energy and electron affinity when the orbital has two electrons?

In this question it is asked why ferrocene is colored when the HOMO-LUMO gap seems to be beyond the visible light range. I tried to answer that orbital energies change with electronic transitions and ...
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Why does symmetrical distribution of electrons in d and f orbital lead to greate stability of these or orbitals in comparison to s orbital? [closed]

My high school textbook mentions the following as on of the reason for why Cr and Cu have thier 3d orbitals filled completely before their 4s orbital. The extra stability of d and f orbital is due to:...
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Confusion regarding 1st and 2nd electron gain enthalpy

$\ce{O}$ has the 1st electron gain enthalpy $\pu{-141 kJ mol-1}$. $-ve$ value implies that energy is released when electron is added to an isolated atom. This also means that if $\pu{141 kJ}$ energy ...
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What is the net gain of charge carriers in a semiconductor if an atom is removed?

In pure germanium, all Ge atoms are bonded with a tetrahedral geometry. It has a band gap and is a semiconductor. If we remove one Ge atom, what type(s) and how many charge carriers will be generated? ...
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Why is polystyrene (PS) an electrical insulator

The reason behind why graphite is electrically conductive is as ancient as the age of the Queen: that, electrons inside the benzene ring are delocalised. However, if one looks the repeating unit of ...
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How do the spin-matrices change in systems without spherical symmetry?

The (non-relativistic) spin matrices of a free electron, with $z$ as the quantization axis, read: $$ \boldsymbol{S}_{x}=\frac{\hbar}{2}\left[\begin{array}{ll} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \end{array}\right],...
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What is the paramagnetic susceptibility of sodium at around room temperature?

Proposed solution: This question comes from Tanner's manual Introduction to the Physics of Electrons in Solids, at the chapter dedicated to the application of the Fermi gas model. The Fermi energy is $...
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Shielding vs electron-electron repulsion

Example of shielding: (source) The last electron in the 6s subshell of $\ce {Cs}$ is shielded from the nucleus by the inner electrons. Example of electron-electron repulsion: The electron affinity of ...
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What happens during a displacement reaction? [closed]

When Zn metal is added to a solution of Cu(II)SO4, Zinc displaces Cu to form ZnSO4 as Zn is more reactive than Cu. What I don't understand is how. 1- What I'm assuming is: Zn metal collides with [SO4]...
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Observation of deflection in the Cathode ray experiment

In the Cathode Ray Experiment used to discover the electron, (This is what my textbook says (Grade 11) so if there's any additional parameters that I do not know of I apologize) The cathode ray tube ...
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A question regarding excitation of electrons in atomic orbital [closed]

In Bohr's model of an atom, the formula used to find the energy between the 2 orbits and wavelength of emitted photon was valid only for single electron species like hydrogen.In the case of a multi-...
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How to calculate ionization energy of an atom provided energy of the electron at ground state? [closed]

It is given that in ground state the energy of electron in hydrogen atom is $-2.18\times10^{-18}\mathrm{J}$. I'm required to calculate the Ionization Energy in kJ/mol Question for reference: At ...
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What will be easier reduced: ferric oxihydroxide or Fe(III)oxide?

related to the productivity potential of methanogenic bacteria in anaerobic conditions where iron oxides are present, is there a difference between ferric oxihydroxide and Fe(III)oxide regarding their ...
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Is an electron's charge arbitrarily called negative? [closed]

In Cosmos Carl Sagan writes Electrons are electrically charged, as their name suggests. The charge is arbitrarily called negative. Is this true (I know the book is out of date, like how Titan is ...
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Can an electron be excited to a spin state with s ≠ 1/2?

I used to think that all nuclei have fixed intrinsic value of the nuclear spin quantum number, $I$. For example, $\ce{^1H}$ must have a nuclear spin of $\frac{1}{2}$, $\ce{^{14}N}$ must have a nuclear ...
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How is MnS + 2HCl -> MnCl2 + H2S a redox reaction, in terms of electron transfer?

$$\ce{MnS + 2HCl -> MnCl2 + H2S}$$ If oxidation and reduction is taken to be the loss of hydrogen and the gain of hydrogen respectively, then I can see how the aforementioned reaction is redox — $\...
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AlCl3 and water

While reading Clayden's (et al) Organic Chemistry I stumbled upon a reaction on page 120 that I just fail to wrap my brain around. It describes a reaction of AlCl3 with water and states that, quote, &...
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How do you draw the pi MO diagram for the acetate ion CH3COO-

How do you draw the pi MO diagram for the acetate ion CH3COO- ? I get stuck with the number of electrons on the 2p orbital of Oxygen atom. My teacher said 1 oxygen has 1e, the other has 2e. But ...
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How do we write spin multiplicity for Mn(2+), Mn(7+)?

Mn has atomic number = 25 Since it is an exception to electronic configuration , unlike having = $\mathrm{3d^7}$ , it has electronic configuration = $\mathrm{3d^5,4s^2}$. Formula for spin multiplicity ...
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What kind of electronic configurations are possible?

Let us take $d^6$ orbital as an example: A) ↑ | ↑ | ↑ ↓ | ↑ | ↑ | Now , this one 1 way. My Q is that how is it possible that in the 3rd box , we have a paired electron but not in the 1st one. Like it ...
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What will the correct value of spin quantum number for last electron of Na+ ion?

Electronic configuration of $Na^+$ ion is $1s^2,2s^2,2p^6,3s^0$. I have noticed usually , we take spin quantum number as +1/2 first & then -1/2. So , like for the above Q:It is for first 3e=+1/2 &...
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Why is the momentum operator imaginary?

I'm a beginner in quantum mechanics, and I'm pretty much confused with the momentum of electron in hydrogen atom. The wave function of the electron in 1s orbital of hydrogen atom is $\Psi_{1s} = \frac{...
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Why is the distribution of electrons of calcium in K,L,M,N shells 2,8,8,2 instead of 2,8,9,1?

I'm a beginner to this topic, so this would likely sound dumb. As far as I know, when distributing electrons in energy shells, the last energy shell can't have more than 8 electrons. So for calcium, ...
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Evidence that electrons don't exist between orbitals? [closed]

I don't understand the logical jump that was made early on in the atomic age, to conclude that electrons jump in and out of existence when moving between orbitals? Similarly, why do electrons need to ...
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True or false: "A used AA battery contains fewer moles of electrons than a new AA battery."

I recently took a Gen. Chem. 2 exam that contained this question. I answered false, but my professor said the answer is true. My reasoning was that any electrons that leave the anode end up at the ...
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What happens inside the orbital when energy provided to electron is not sufficient for it to change orbitals? [closed]

While studying the chapter called Atomic Structure, we were introduced with Bohr's model of an Atom. Even though not all of his postulates were right, I believe some were. A doubt arose in the ...
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How to Combine an Emission spectrum into a colour? [closed]

I am trying to wrap my head around the flame test, and for the most part, it is making sense. My question is their a way to figure out the colour of a flame of an unknown element given the emission ...
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Is there a molecule which has only lone pair electrons? [closed]

Lone pair electrons are "valence electrons that are not shared with another atom in a covalent bond" (Wikipedia). Is there a molecule which has only lone pair electrons?
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Shielding effect is not constant across a period [closed]

Shielding effect stays constant across a period because number of inner electrons stays the same. Well, that's not true. It only works for the period =1,2,3 but in period 4, the number of inner ...
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How to know the number of valence electrons of f-block elements? [closed]

I kinda know how to get the valence electrons for s/p/d- blocks but i don't know about the f-block. Wikipedia says that valence electrons for f-block is ns + (n-1)d + (n-2)f, so is it true? If so can ...
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What does valence electron mean (in the context of spdf orbitals)?

For a little bit of context, my background is in physics and my understanding of chemistry doesn't go past, say, middle school level. Recently, I decided to self-study chemistry and picked up "...
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Can use lead(II) oxide instead of lead(IV) oxide in car battery?

Question: If the discharge input equation $\ce{PbO2}$ is replaced by $\ce{PbO}$, will the battery still work? I think the product will not be water anymore but hydrogen gas. I am asking this question ...
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Which atom is the smallest atom?

Is hydrogen or helium the smallest atom? My teacher said that the smallest atom is the helium atom, but I think that the smallest atom is the hydrogen atom. It has a single electron and a single ...
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Hydrated electrons produced by radiation vs electrons from electrostatic charge: are they equally reactive?

One of the species generated in water or aqueous solutions by the ionizing radiations are free electrons that quickly become "hydrated" or "aqueous electrons" (see for example this ...
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How does high voltage on the electrodes ionize a gas?

I was studying cathode ray experiment and there the electrons were obtained by ionisation of the gas inthe tube by the high voltage on the electrodes. So how does this happen?
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What would happen if electrons were spin-1?

We were speaking about this in class, but I can't understand it quite well. What would happen if (hypothetically of course) the allowed $m_s$ values were $-1$, $0$ and $1$? What impact does this have ...
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