Questions tagged [electrons]

Electrons are subatomic particles with the symbol e−. They have a negative electric charge (-1 elementary charge. )

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1
vote
0answers
10 views

How to extract transition density cube from .fch file in Gaussian? [migrated]

I have been trying to extract the transition density cube of a simple molecule, $H_2O$. I did a regular geometry optimization and then TD-DFT calculation with a keyword Density=Transition=1, which is ...
-2
votes
0answers
42 views

How to produce light of wavelength range 95nm to 100nm on large scale and if there is one in market then please send the link [closed]

i need light of wavelength ranging between 95nm to 100nm to perform an experiment on selective ionization of gas mixture and for this technique to be used at large scale i want to know about how to ...
-1
votes
0answers
36 views

Electric Spark Colour [closed]

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_spark&ved=2ahUKEwjzvPLAm4_yAhXEZSsKHVhLA9QQFjAXegQINBAC&usg=...
-2
votes
0answers
21 views

charge density of sea water in an electric field

How to find out the charge density of a block of sea water? If two electrodes were on the left and right wall of a small "tunnel" that is completely submerged in sea water or salt water with ...
-1
votes
0answers
32 views

Does pairing of electrons release or consume energy?

While studying Crystal Field Theory, it was said that low-spin complexes only form when the Crystal Field Splitting energy exceeds the pairing energy of electrons. What I infer from this is that it ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Order of Shielding Effect for orbitals

From what I know Shielding effect is the ability of inner electrons to repel outer electrons and reduce the Nuclear charge felt by the outer electrons and this is caused by electron-electron repulsion....
4
votes
1answer
91 views

How can a hydrogen atom ever emit an X-ray photon?

From Scientific American, February 2014: The Proton Radius Puzzle: ...we had to tune the laser so that it came in with exactly the right amount of energy. The atom would make the jump to the higher ...
2
votes
1answer
146 views

What is the average distance between electron 'shells' in an atom? Or between the innermost shell and the nucleus? [closed]

Somehow, I've never come across any mention of the actual, physical distances between, say the 1s and 2s shells in an atom, whether large or small.... I know that p, d and f (and g?) shells are oddly ...
3
votes
0answers
62 views

Why is the bond angle of sulphur difluoride greater than that of hydrogen sulphide?

Why is the bond angle of $\ce{SF_2 (98.05^\circ) > SH_2 (92.11^\circ)}$? Isn't this contradicting Bent's rule or otherwise electron repulsion rule ? Fluorine is more electronegative and hence it ...
-5
votes
2answers
90 views

What would happen if the alpha particles directly hit the electrons in the gold foil in Rutherford's experiment? [closed]

What would happen if the alpha particles directly hit the electrons in the gold foil in Rutherford's experiment? Would it get ionized or is there no probability of such a thing happening ?
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Thickness of proton exchange membrane (Nafion)?

I am looking into using a proton exchange membrane for a bio-energy cell experiment. Previous scholars have been using Nafion as a PEM to place between the anode and cathode (air-cathode). the ...
2
votes
2answers
135 views

What does Bohr's model predict if the mass of an electron becomes 10 times its actual mass? [closed]

If the mass of an electron becomes 10 times its actual mass, which of the following statements is correct regarding Bohr's model: Velocity of electron increases by 10 times. Orbit radius decreases by ...
-5
votes
1answer
57 views

How are Quantum Dot molecules formed and what properties do they hold apart differently from singular quantum dots? [closed]

I am trying to understand the science and phenomena behind the function and operation of quantum dot molecules, but the only articles I run into talk about the synthesis of them. Could this be ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

Is the spin of the transferred 4s electron always opposite to the spin of 3d electron in chromium?

I am studying atomic structure and found out that Chromium has an exception in electronic configuration. One electron from 4s jumps to 3d to achieve stability. let's say the spin of transferred ...
2
votes
2answers
107 views

How to find the angle of emission of an X-ray during impact of accelerated cathode rays?

X rays are produced when accelerated cathode rays strike a metal target or a metal anode. How can we find the angle at which the X-ray is emitted from the metal anode or the target when the cathode ...
-2
votes
1answer
55 views

Lone pairs of electrons and covalent bonding [closed]

Every time I saw a covalent bond structure, I notice that there are always lone pairs or no electrons left in the outer shell of the atoms. Is it compulsory for covalent bonds to have lone pairs or no ...
1
vote
1answer
91 views

Excitation of electron in Niels Bohr's atomic model

Professor taught us that an electron gains or looses only those energies which are equal to difference in two energy levels. That is $E_1 + \Delta E = E_2$ or $E_1 + \Delta E = E_3.$ What if we give, ...
1
vote
2answers
147 views

Why can't the energy of an electron exceed 0 eV?

Today we were learning about atomic structure, our teacher introduced the mathematics of the 'Niels Bohr Model of Atom', and calculated the value of total energy $\frac{-13.6z^2}{n^2} \pu{eV}$. He ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Why does STED microscopy cause photodamage?

STED (stimulated emission depletion) microscopy is a technique which enables sub-diffraction limit of light imaging. The depletion laser is at 775nm, and about 500 mW, concentrated for a short ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

Do Hartree-Fock (or other model Hamiltonian) electron densities fullfill the Kato theorem?

I have done Hartree-Fock calculations on a single He atom and now I tried to check numerically if the electron density fulfills the Kato theorem. It apparently doesn't. Instead I obtain a cusp ...
3
votes
3answers
93 views

Does a change in oxidation number in a redox reaction mean that an actual electron transfer occured?

Oxidation numbers are fictitious charges that pretend the entire molecule is an ion i.e. it artificially localizes electrons onto atoms within a single molecule. In a redox reaction, we find that an ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

What does “spin degeneracy” mean in this context?

I am currently studying Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, second edition, by Coldren, Corzine, and Mashanovitch. In chapter 1.2 ENERGY LEVELS AND BANDS IN SOLIDS, the authors say the ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Maximum number of Spectral Lines “A better quantum model shows that there will be n^2 transitions”?

I was parsing the following post What is the maximum number of emission lines when the excited electron of a H atom in n = 6 drops to ground state? and came across with the reply from @porphyrin. cite ...
-1
votes
1answer
46 views

If electrons absorb photons to reach higher energy levels in Bohr's atom, why do they have lesser kinetic energy?

In Bohr's atomic model, an electron can jump to a higher energy level by absorbing a photon with energy equal to the difference in energy between 2 energy levels. This should mean that the electron ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Confusions regarding oscillator in black body and value of one quantum [closed]

Q 1 By saying oscillator I.e atoms in the wall of black body. Do we mean electron ? Because boundary of any atom is electron right. Q2 My textbook say that quantum is the smallest value of energy that ...
-1
votes
1answer
41 views

Does electron emit photon when it moves? [closed]

When the photoelectric effect happens or blackbody radiation happens or when an electron jumps from a ground to an excited state, we say light is emitted by electron. Now, light is made up of photons. ...
-1
votes
2answers
75 views

Confusion regarding orbital, electron and Quantum no’s [closed]

Now , In some textbook I have read that orbital is nothing but the shape of electron . s,p,d orbitals etc. So , after knowing shape of an orbital . I got to know that inside the orbital is an electron ...
2
votes
2answers
186 views

What if kinetic energy of ejected electron = 0

When hf ≥ work function, Then the electron still comes out. So, if I say kinetic energy of ejected electron = 0, it should still come out. Right ? Then, how does the electron even move out or gets ...
2
votes
0answers
36 views

Number of π electrons in all trans-2,4,6-octatrienoic acid

Sketch the Lewis structure of all trans-2,4,6-octatrienoic acid. (a) Consider the delocalized π electrons. Employ the particle-in-a-box model. Drawing on your knowledge about the occupation of ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Organic Based Photocathode

What organic molecules have a relatively small work function, preferably in the visible spectrum? Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are in the low UV spectrum, making it unsuitable for the photocathode ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Why is it that protons and electrons undergo the same amount of deflection in an electric field if they have the same energy?

The question I have is with respect to this diagram. Which depicts a stream of protons and electrons entering a proton field with equal energy. Why is it that in the case where the energy of protons ...
1
vote
2answers
85 views

Relationship between Quantum Numbers and the Wave-function

I recently started learning about quantum mechanics and its applciations in atomic structure in chemistry. In this inorganic textbook Inorganic Chemistry, it describes "Each of the wavefunctions ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

Why does allyl anion have only two resonance structures?

There are only two resonance structures of allyl anion with negative charge distributed over positions 1 and 3: $$\ce{\overset{-}{C}H2-CH=CH2 <-> CH_2=CH-\overset{-}{C}H2}.$$ What's the criteria ...
0
votes
1answer
100 views

Schrodinger's Equation and Wave Function

So I understand that there exists the shrodinger's equation, which on solving,gives the wave function of an electron. The wave function as I understand, gives all possible information about an ...
-1
votes
3answers
104 views

How can chlorine be 'only' the third-most electronegative element yet have the highest electron affinity?

From Wikipedia: It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale, ...
-2
votes
1answer
52 views

Stability of an atom in absence of EM field

According to Bohr model of atom, electrons move up an energy level in presence of EM field and emit a photon moving down the level. In complete absence of any external EM field, shouldn't the electron ...
-3
votes
1answer
120 views

Is this bond Ionic or Covalent, and why? AlBr [closed]

We know a compound could form between NaCl because they are +1 and -1 ions which make them both into a complete valence set. Could a compound form between Al and Br, for example, and what type of bond ...
14
votes
3answers
845 views

Why do electrons jump back after absorbing energy and moving to a higher energy level?

Electrons in a shell absorb energy and move to higher energy levels, but they release their energy and jump back to the shell they originally were in. Why do they jump back? Why can they not keep ...
4
votes
0answers
52 views

Did JJ Thomson know about Eugen Goldstein’s experiment discovering canal rays?

We learn that JJ Thomson discovered the electron in 1897. Several years EARLIER in 1886, Eugen Goldstein performs the same experiment but with the anode and cathode switched to produce positively ...
-1
votes
1answer
91 views

What does orbital mean, exactly? [duplicate]

My teacher told me that orbital is the probability distribution data of the electron around nucleus which is amplitude data in a way. An example of how my teacher actually told what it means involves ...
4
votes
3answers
377 views

Does electron mass decrease when it changes its orbit?

I have studied this in my chapter atomic structure that when an electron changes its orbit from lower energy to higher energy state , it does not state in my book that it moves there but that it ...
-1
votes
2answers
90 views

What happens if we continuously hit an atom with photons

My sir told me that Energy required to remove an electron from one orbit to another depends on hf * n. Where n means the no of photons that will strike on a metal surface and hf is energy of one ...
0
votes
1answer
87 views

What does Pauli’s exclusion principle mean in atomic or fundamental way? [closed]

It means is that no electron can have same n , l and $m_l$ but can have two different spin quantum number. I want to know why is this rule valid?Means there must be some other things happening also ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Finding excited stage of electron from its potential energy

The potential energy of an electron in the hydrogen atom is $\pu{-6.8 eV}.$ Indicate the excited stage in which electron is present. Total energy would be equal to $\pu{-3.4 eV}.$ I used the formula $...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

What are high-energy electrons?

I read that (in cellular respiration) the transported electrons in NADH have a higher energy than those in FADH2. I can't find a (simple or otherwise) explanation of what a "high-energy" ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Excitation states of neon (or other gas) inside neon lights

I'm interested in the spectra of gas discharge tubes. Taking neon as an example, when I look up on NIST the spectra for neon, I find excitation states up to Ne IX. Where do I find/how do I work out ...
1
vote
1answer
105 views

Why does the Most Stable State of an Atom Tend to be One with Full s and p Subshells?

I'm new to posting on stack exchange, although I've read a lot of it before. This question seems like it might end up being marked as a duplicate, but I've looked through a lot of the similar ...
-1
votes
1answer
165 views

What did I do wrong in my orbital notation for this Os (Osmium) question?

I was given a question where I had to write the orbital notation of Osmium (Os) and I got it wrong. The question: 6s2 --> ↑↓ 4f --> ↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓↑↓ 5d6 --> ↑↓↑↓↑↑ The arrows above are my ...
-1
votes
1answer
227 views

Can someone help me figure out what the noble gas configurations for zirconium and holmium are? [closed]

I am currently working on noble gas configurations in chemistry and I am having a hard time understanding why I got two questions wrong on a practice. The instructions for the practice are here: Write ...
-4
votes
1answer
111 views

How does a body lose electrons? [closed]

If there is a Na and cl in solid form , There will be atoms inside of them.How do they lose electrons ?.We know solid body has a structure and covering.Just like you can touch is the covering of table ...

1
2 3 4 5
12