Questions tagged [electrons]

Electrons are subatomic particles with the symbol e−. They have a negative electric charge (-1 elementary charge. )

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Can use lead(II) oxide instead of lead(IV) oxide in car battery?

Question: If the discharge input equation $\ce{PbO2}$ is replaced by $\ce{PbO}$, will the battery still work? I think the product will not be water anymore but hydrogen gas. I am asking this question ...
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Which atom is the smallest atom?

Is hydrogen or helium the smallest atom? My teacher said that the smallest atom is the helium atom, but I think that the smallest atom is the hydrogen atom. It has a single electron and a single ...
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Do atoms ever share or bond with others using non-valence electrons? Is this even theoretically possible? [closed]

Somehow, I never thought of this before. Can even an unstable or short-lived bond of some sort exist using lower-level electrons? Perhaps a 'delta' or 'epsilon' bond? Transition metals form strange ...
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Hydrated electrons produced by radiation vs electrons from electrostatic charge: are they equally reactive?

One of the species generated in water or aqueous solutions by the ionizing radiations are free electrons that quickly become "hydrated" or "aqueous electrons" (see for example this ...
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porous silicon nitride for charge trapping flashs

When constructing charge trapping flashs, silicon nitride is preferably used to form the isolation layer to save/trap electrical charges. I wonder now when this isolation layer would be porous (in ...
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How does high voltage on the electrodes ionize a gas?

I was studying cathode ray experiment and there the electrons were obtained by ionisation of the gas inthe tube by the high voltage on the electrodes. So how does this happen?
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577 views

What would happen if electrons were spin-1?

We were speaking about this in class, but I can't understand it quite well. What would happen if (hypothetically of course) the allowed $m_s$ values were $-1$, $0$ and $1$? What impact does this have ...
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Find the energy of the electron at the second orbit

The energy of the electron on the first orbit of the atom of hydrogen is $-13\pu{eV}$. If the temperature changes, the electron gets excited to other levels of energy. Find the energy of the electron ...
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How big a role does electron repulsion play in regard to the bond length of a covalent bond? [duplicate]

In a covalent bond, there are several forces acting together to determine the bond length. Electron-electron repulsion increases the bond length. Proton-proton repulsion increases the bond length. ...
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Quantifying location and volume of "lone pairs" for VSEPR

Of course molecular shape and the VSEPR model come up frequently. As discussed previously in a valence bond picture like VSEPR, the lone pair electrons are closer to the atom than bonding pairs, and &...
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How do dielectric molecules in a liquid phase align when polarized?

As seen in the diagram, when a dielectric material becomes electrically polarized, the molecules align themselves in a manner where the respective charges are parallel to each other horizontally. ...
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1answer
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When was the mass of hydrogen known?

During Robert Milikan's time, he uses the charge-to-mass ratio from J.J. Thomson's research of the electron (which is $1.759\cdot10^{11}\ \mathrm{C/kg}$) to calculate the mass of electron. Did he know ...
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Can a metal be forced to form an anion theoretically? [duplicate]

I know that metals have the capability to lose electrons and form cations, but is it also theoretically possible to supply an electron to a metal so that it forms an anion? If so, has it ever been ...
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Order of Shielding Effect for orbitals

From what I know Shielding effect is the ability of inner electrons to repel outer electrons and reduce the Nuclear charge felt by the outer electrons and this is caused by electron-electron repulsion....
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How can a hydrogen atom ever emit an X-ray photon?

From Scientific American, February 2014: The Proton Radius Puzzle: ...we had to tune the laser so that it came in with exactly the right amount of energy. The atom would make the jump to the higher ...
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What is the average distance between electron 'shells' in an atom? Or between the innermost shell and the nucleus? [closed]

Somehow, I've never come across any mention of the actual, physical distances between, say the 1s and 2s shells in an atom, whether large or small.... I know that p, d and f (and g?) shells are oddly ...
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Why is the bond angle of sulphur difluoride greater than that of hydrogen sulphide?

Why is the bond angle of $\ce{SF_2 (98.05^\circ) > SH_2 (92.11^\circ)}$? Isn't this contradicting Bent's rule or otherwise electron repulsion rule ? Fluorine is more electronegative and hence it ...
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What would happen if the alpha particles directly hit the electrons in the gold foil in Rutherford's experiment? [closed]

What would happen if the alpha particles directly hit the electrons in the gold foil in Rutherford's experiment? Would it get ionized or is there no probability of such a thing happening ?
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Thickness of proton exchange membrane (Nafion)?

I am looking into using a proton exchange membrane for a bio-energy cell experiment. Previous scholars have been using Nafion as a PEM to place between the anode and cathode (air-cathode). the ...
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What does Bohr's model predict if the mass of an electron becomes 10 times its actual mass? [closed]

If the mass of an electron becomes 10 times its actual mass, which of the following statements is correct regarding Bohr's model: Velocity of electron increases by 10 times. Orbit radius decreases by ...
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How are Quantum Dot molecules formed and what properties do they hold apart differently from singular quantum dots? [closed]

I am trying to understand the science and phenomena behind the function and operation of quantum dot molecules, but the only articles I run into talk about the synthesis of them. Could this be ...
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Is the spin of the transferred 4s electron always opposite to the spin of 3d electron in chromium?

I am studying atomic structure and found out that Chromium has an exception in electronic configuration. One electron from 4s jumps to 3d to achieve stability. let's say the spin of transferred ...
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How to find the angle of emission of an X-ray during impact of accelerated cathode rays?

X rays are produced when accelerated cathode rays strike a metal target or a metal anode. How can we find the angle at which the X-ray is emitted from the metal anode or the target when the cathode ...
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Lone pairs of electrons and covalent bonding [closed]

Every time I saw a covalent bond structure, I notice that there are always lone pairs or no electrons left in the outer shell of the atoms. Is it compulsory for covalent bonds to have lone pairs or no ...
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Excitation of electron in Niels Bohr's atomic model

Professor taught us that an electron gains or looses only those energies which are equal to difference in two energy levels. That is $E_1 + \Delta E = E_2$ or $E_1 + \Delta E = E_3.$ What if we give, ...
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Why can't the energy of an electron exceed 0 eV?

Today we were learning about atomic structure, our teacher introduced the mathematics of the 'Niels Bohr Model of Atom', and calculated the value of total energy $\frac{-13.6z^2}{n^2} \pu{eV}$. He ...
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Why does STED microscopy cause photodamage?

STED (stimulated emission depletion) microscopy is a technique which enables sub-diffraction limit of light imaging. The depletion laser is at 775nm, and about 500 mW, concentrated for a short ...
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Do Hartree-Fock (or other model Hamiltonian) electron densities fullfill the Kato theorem?

I have done Hartree-Fock calculations on a single He atom and now I tried to check numerically if the electron density fulfills the Kato theorem. It apparently doesn't. Instead I obtain a cusp ...
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Does a change in oxidation number in a redox reaction mean that an actual electron transfer occured?

Oxidation numbers are fictitious charges that pretend the entire molecule is an ion i.e. it artificially localizes electrons onto atoms within a single molecule. In a redox reaction, we find that an ...
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What does "spin degeneracy" mean in this context?

I am currently studying Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, second edition, by Coldren, Corzine, and Mashanovitch. In chapter 1.2 ENERGY LEVELS AND BANDS IN SOLIDS, the authors say the ...
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Maximum number of Spectral Lines "A better quantum model shows that there will be n^2 transitions"?

I was parsing the following post What is the maximum number of emission lines when the excited electron of a H atom in n = 6 drops to ground state? and came across with the reply from @porphyrin. cite ...
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If electrons absorb photons to reach higher energy levels in Bohr's atom, why do they have lesser kinetic energy?

In Bohr's atomic model, an electron can jump to a higher energy level by absorbing a photon with energy equal to the difference in energy between 2 energy levels. This should mean that the electron ...
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Confusions regarding oscillator in black body and value of one quantum [closed]

Q 1 By saying oscillator I.e atoms in the wall of black body. Do we mean electron ? Because boundary of any atom is electron right. Q2 My textbook say that quantum is the smallest value of energy that ...
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Does electron emit photon when it moves? [closed]

When the photoelectric effect happens or blackbody radiation happens or when an electron jumps from a ground to an excited state, we say light is emitted by electron. Now, light is made up of photons. ...
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Confusion regarding orbital, electron and Quantum no’s [closed]

Now , In some textbook I have read that orbital is nothing but the shape of electron . s,p,d orbitals etc. So , after knowing shape of an orbital . I got to know that inside the orbital is an electron ...
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234 views

What if kinetic energy of ejected electron = 0

When hf ≥ work function, Then the electron still comes out. So, if I say kinetic energy of ejected electron = 0, it should still come out. Right ? Then, how does the electron even move out or gets ...
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Number of π electrons in all trans-2,4,6-octatrienoic acid

Sketch the Lewis structure of all trans-2,4,6-octatrienoic acid. (a) Consider the delocalized π electrons. Employ the particle-in-a-box model. Drawing on your knowledge about the occupation of ...
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Organic Based Photocathode

What organic molecules have a relatively small work function, preferably in the visible spectrum? Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are in the low UV spectrum, making it unsuitable for the photocathode ...
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Why is it that protons and electrons undergo the same amount of deflection in an electric field if they have the same energy?

The question I have is with respect to this diagram. Which depicts a stream of protons and electrons entering a proton field with equal energy. Why is it that in the case where the energy of protons ...
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Relationship between Quantum Numbers and the Wave-function

I recently started learning about quantum mechanics and its applciations in atomic structure in chemistry. In this inorganic textbook Inorganic Chemistry, it describes "Each of the wavefunctions ...
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Why does allyl anion have only two resonance structures?

There are only two resonance structures of allyl anion with negative charge distributed over positions 1 and 3: $$\ce{\overset{-}{C}H2-CH=CH2 <-> CH_2=CH-\overset{-}{C}H2}.$$ What's the criteria ...
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Schrodinger's Equation and Wave Function

So I understand that there exists the shrodinger's equation, which on solving,gives the wave function of an electron. The wave function as I understand, gives all possible information about an ...
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How can chlorine be 'only' the third-most electronegative element yet have the highest electron affinity?

From Wikipedia: It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale, ...
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Stability of an atom in absence of EM field

According to Bohr model of atom, electrons move up an energy level in presence of EM field and emit a photon moving down the level. In complete absence of any external EM field, shouldn't the electron ...
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Is this bond Ionic or Covalent, and why? AlBr [closed]

We know a compound could form between NaCl because they are +1 and -1 ions which make them both into a complete valence set. Could a compound form between Al and Br, for example, and what type of bond ...
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Why do electrons jump back after absorbing energy and moving to a higher energy level?

Electrons in a shell absorb energy and move to higher energy levels, but they release their energy and jump back to the shell they originally were in. Why do they jump back? Why can they not keep ...
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Did JJ Thomson know about Eugen Goldstein’s experiment discovering canal rays?

We learn that JJ Thomson discovered the electron in 1897. Several years EARLIER in 1886, Eugen Goldstein performs the same experiment but with the anode and cathode switched to produce positively ...
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What does orbital mean, exactly? [duplicate]

My teacher told me that orbital is the probability distribution data of the electron around nucleus which is amplitude data in a way. An example of how my teacher actually told what it means involves ...
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Does electron mass decrease when it changes its orbit?

I have studied this in my chapter atomic structure that when an electron changes its orbit from lower energy to higher energy state , it does not state in my book that it moves there but that it ...
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What happens if we continuously hit an atom with photons

My sir told me that Energy required to remove an electron from one orbit to another depends on hf * n. Where n means the no of photons that will strike on a metal surface and hf is energy of one ...

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