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Questions tagged [electrons]

Electrons are subatomic particles with the symbol e−. They have a negative electric charge (-1 elementary charge. )

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Does the cathode always attain a positive charge or is it just a convention?

Suppose I have a galvanic cell composed of two half cells, one containing Zinc electrode dipped in an electrolytic solution (say of ZnSO4) while the another one having Lithium electrode dipped in ...
Kunal Prajapat's user avatar
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Picture/Simulation of the electron flow when non-molten metal electrolysis of a highly reactive metal fails because of highly reactive metal

I am requesting a picture/simulation of the electron flow of the battery's electron flow as well as the electron flow of the metal in reducing anything it reduces in aqueous electrolysis with two half-...
Coo's user avatar
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Why can we see color during d-d transition of electron? [duplicate]

As we know that when a ligand approaches the transition metals, the d-orbital loses its degeneracy and in this case electron can jump from lower orbitals to higher orbitals adsorbing the visible light....
XotEmBotZ's user avatar
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Why do we only use the principal quantum number to calculate the energy of an electron in an H atom? [duplicate]

According to my high school textbook the energy of an electron in a hydrogen atom is $E = -13.6/n^2~\pu{eV}$, where $n$ is the principal quantum number of the orbital in which the electron is present. ...
HIMANSHU SINGH's user avatar
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Is the surface electron affinity of (tribasic) sodium- or calcium phosphate higher?

Let's imagine, we have two polycrystalline samples: $\ce{Ca3(PO4)2}$ and $\ce{Na3PO4}$. A free electron is added to both. Some heat is released. I wanted to check whether my reasoning about this ...
Paul Kolk's user avatar
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Degradation via electrolysis and electrode surface area

What is the relationship between electrode surface area and processes such as electrolysis/electrode polarization? Let's say for example I want a fixed electric field between two electrodes in a ...
hemzza's user avatar
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5 votes
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Correct Interpretation of Apparent Charge Transfer Coefficients

Good day guys, I was looking over some $i$ vs $\eta $ for a redox reaction over a copper cathode, the cell has $\ce{LiBf4}$ in THF as the electrolyte. The main reaction taking place is: $$\ce{N2 + 6 ...
STOI's user avatar
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Overlap of wave functions in Franck-Condon principle

I was revisiting the Franck-Condon-principle and was wondering about one thing. In the Franck-Condon principle, it is stated that if an electronic transition happens, the vibrational wave functions ...
Mäßige's user avatar
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Is double excitation of nitrogen possible, and would it be able to use it as a central atom in a coordination complex?

I’m 17 and in my 2nd year of high-school (we have it a tad different here in the Czech Republic) and am interested in theoretical chemistry so that’s the explanation of the nature of my question. So, ...
Prokop Hoza's user avatar
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Perforated Cathode in Anode Ray Experiment

While studying about the anode ray experiment (E. Goldstein), I had a doubt pop up in my head. In the experiment, a perforated cathode has been used. What is the exact reason behind that? Upon ...
entropy's user avatar
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What does "predicted" mean in an electronic configuration?

I've noticed the term "(predicted)" appearing at the end of electron configurations for heavier elements. Could you explain what it signifies and the reason behind it? I haven't been able to ...
uggupuggu's user avatar
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Degeneracy of Orbitals

(Sorry, in advance if my question is silly or low quality but I want to ask this to someone.) When an electron enters an orbital, it should technically have an electric Field and also magnetic field(...
Krave37's user avatar
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Stability of atoms with 4 valence electrons [closed]

How do atoms with 4 valence electrons stabilize? Do they gain or lose 4 electrons? This might be a bit of a stupid question, but I'm not sure and I can't find anything online.
riesen mihar's user avatar
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Fundamental understanding of electrode potentials

The electrical double layer, is commonly used to describe the origins of electric potentials that is fundamental to electrochemistry. This model is quite outdated from my understanding, but it is ...
Stark's user avatar
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Electrolysis to refine metals

Why does the cathode get bigger and the anode smaller when we use copper electrodes for the electrolysis of Copper Sulphate? Why does the anode not receive electrons from the anions (e.g Sulphate and ...
21e1e2's user avatar
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13 votes
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Do electrons really hang around the electrode while ions go take a swim?

This answer to this post addresses "what happens if you dip a single zinc electrode into some electrolyte solution." It explains that However, though the zinc ion can diffuse through the ...
Buck Thorn's user avatar
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Aqueous electrons in electrochemical cells [closed]

In the context of a zinc-copper electrochemical cell, zinc atoms at the anode are oxidized, releasing electrons and forming zinc ions that dissolve into the solution ($\ce{Zn(s) -> Zn^{2+}(aq) + 2e-...
Kris's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Do solvated electrons short circuit the electrolysis of liquid ammonia

If attempting the electrolysis of liquid ammonia using NaNH2 as an electrolyte. It is understood that Na+ will form solvated electrons. I understand that these solvated electrons can dramatically ...
Thomas's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Why are Mo(NR2)3 complexes isolobal with the nitrogen atom in N2

In a Molybdenum complex of the form Mo(NR2)3, the Mo is in the oxidation state of +3, leaving it with 3 d electrons. When combined with an additional 2*3 electrons from the ligands, this leaves it ...
Kirandk's user avatar
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How do electrons travel through a fuel cell or flow battery with multiple cells?

I understand that if you have a fuel cell or flow battery with a single cell that electrons will go from the electrode and through an external circuit across the load which the fuel cell / flow ...
DavePiae867's user avatar
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how can I tell compton versus coherent scatter apart?

I am trying to get a better understanding of compton and coherent scatting, along with all the other interactions. It has seemed like a lot to memorize and I am trying to find ways to more easily ...
Maddy's user avatar
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Mg2+ ion formation [duplicate]

Why does Mg not form a Mg+1 ion, even though its second ionization energy is much higher than the first ionization energy? (I know that an ion should resemble the noble gas closest to the element from ...
Saar Segen's user avatar
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The existence of a principal quantum level or energy shell after the loss of an electron from the outer shell of an atom

With the loss of an electron from $\ce{Li}$ ($\mathrm{1s^2\ 2s^1}$), we get $\ce{Li+}$ ($\mathrm{1s^2}$), then the 2nd shell where the electron had been revolving in $\ce{Li}$ will get disappeared or ...
Shreya Murasing's user avatar
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How to compute solvent reorganization energy in Marcus' non-equilibrium approach?

I try to solve the following equations for some system solvated in the water. The goal is to obtain value in kcal/mol. Unfortunately, I cannot reach the desired output. May someone help me? The ...
farmaceut's user avatar
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1 answer
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In JJ thomson's cathode ray experiment why is the effect of gravity on the electron not considered? [closed]

Explaining the setup: The experiment is described in the picture. Instead of the magnets in the picture imagine two circular coils on both the sides with current running through it, this creates a ...
Saif's user avatar
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1 answer
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Colour of coordination compounds due to d-d transition

Hexaaquanickel(II) is green but tetracyanidonickelate(II) is colourless. On internet I found two explanations. One used valence bond theory that claimed there is no excitation of electron in ...
Harjot Dhillon's user avatar
-4 votes
2 answers
150 views

How does the same electron orbit both atoms in covalent bond? [closed]

During elementary school chemistry, when they teach about the covalent bond, they say that both atoms need the electron but they can't lose or gain them so they share it. And for instance they show us ...
Yug Ahuja's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
75 views

Order of radical dimerization ability

In a question I came across recently, it was asked to arrange the following radicals in the ascending order of dimerization ability. I have read about the triphenylmethyl radical undergoing Gomberg ...
Cyclopropanol's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why are different Aluminium valencies observed from NMR and what logic can be used to normalise molar ratios of different valency atoms?

Question 1: I've observed different chemical shifts in 27Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of commercial aqueous sodium aluminate, indicating the presence of both trivalent [Al(III)] and ...
Hendrix13's user avatar
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Where does the ionisation energy for a reaction to take place comes from? [closed]

Can anyone tell me exactly what happens during a chemical reaction in terms of ionisation energy? I know that during a reaction there is an exchange of electrons (except for those where electrons are ...
Zane Stockton's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
262 views

Measurement of the number of electrons, protons and neutrons inside an atom

How do we measure the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons inside an atom? What experiments can be conducted to determine, for example, that an iron atom contains 26 protons?
doca's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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If charge is quantised, how can It delocalize?

As I was trying to understand resonance, I got to know that it was imaginary phenomenon and it is just a tool to explain mechanisms and structures that are unexplained by Lewis dot structures or ...
Dheeraj Gujrathi's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
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Electron energy shells/ levels

Essentially, I am told electron shell closest to the nucleus is the lowest energy level and subsequent shells have higher energy (I.e. those further from the nucleus). But..... electrons in the ...
Elaine Gerrard's user avatar
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1 answer
284 views

Why does the oxygen in NaOH (sodium hydroxide) acquire an electron from the sodium if it's going to become unstable and give away the electron? [closed]

Mind you that the oxygen is already stable, having an even number of electrons and protons? Is the oxygen really neutral when it has an even number of electrons and protons?
Phillip Grigsby's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
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Energy Levels in Bohr's Diagram

When drawing the Bohr Diagram of Potassium with 19 electrons, the valence electron goes in the fourth concentric circle, but third energy level can hold up to 18 electrons? Does it mean that ...
Diego's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why is there a point of orbits along with quantization in case of energy gaps?

As per my textbook and online sources. The definition of Energy bands I have found is this: A) Energy levels: ( In a simplified view of an electronic structure of a single atom or isolated molecule. ...
Srijan's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Refrence on shielding effect vs inter electronic repulsion

Recently I came across a very interesting concept , some scholars were saying that - Shielding accounts just one component (radial) of interelectronic repulsion not complete repulsion Who they are - ...
Bharat Prajapat's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
146 views

Comparing Succesive Ionisation Energies

I am trying to understand successive ionisation energies. In particular, an explanation for why the second ionisation energy is greater than the first ionisation energy. I'm looking for a clear and ...
Charles Dickens's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
134 views

Confusion about the number of microstates for orbitals

I am very confused about the microstates for a specific orbital. Let's suppose I have an electronic configuration $$ \ce{[\dots] 2p^5} $$ Considering the symmetry of the orbitals and the "...
Kubrik's user avatar
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0 answers
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In a flame test, what is being excited? [duplicate]

I have done a flame test with $\ce{NaCl}$ and got the yellow characteristic flame of sodium. I am trying to understand exactly how this yellow color is being produced and when I searched for it, I got ...
Tuskies's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
60 views

Question about reaction in battery

I made a battery like this. $\ce{(-)Al|HCl,CuSO4|Cu(+)}$ By piling up 6 battery of this(actually I made this using 10 yen and 1 yen coins:10yen coin is Cu and 1 yen coin is Al.) I could turn on an LED ...
satoru kurita's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
105 views

Magnetic moment of an electron not parallel to its angular momentum?

For the total angular momentum of an electron $\vec{J} = \vec{L} + \vec{S}$, we're often shown a picture like this where I assume that the $\vec{L}$ and $\vec{S}$ cones are centred on the $J$ axis ...
Furrier Transform's user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
236 views

why chemical bond between Na and Cl happens [closed]

We know that if Cl and Na get too close, they produce ionic bonding. Cl has 17 proton and 17 electrons and is considered stable. Na has 11 protons and 11 electrons and is considered stable. I ...
Chemistry's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
65 views

when would copper material have free electrons [closed]

If you imagine a wire of copper(note that I am not talking about electricity at all). Just only a wire of copper or copper metal or whatever full of copper atoms. We know that each copper atom has 1 ...
Chemistry's user avatar
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-4 votes
1 answer
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what happens to electron after beta minus decay [closed]

In the beta minus decay, electron is emitted from the nucleus. It depends on the previous nuclei(that was before beta decay) how much energy emitted electron will have. After this event, Internal ...
Giorgi Lagidze's user avatar
-5 votes
1 answer
61 views

Are elements made out of many atoms? [closed]

So im reading a chemistry book right now, and always thought an element is made out of ONE atom, with special properties that make it this element. Amount of Protons, neutrons and electrons. But this ...
Sosse's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
738 views

Does effective nuclear charge decrease down the group?

I've read that the effective nuclear charge increases down the group. This seems incorrect. As we go down the group the number of protons increases and the shielding constant also increases. We can ...
James Chadwick's user avatar
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0 answers
67 views

Can someone elaborate what it means when its said that electron shells do not exist in multi electron systems?

I'm an undergraduate student in chemistry. I'm trying to grapple with all the new stuff we're learning and making sense of it. Now I want to know if electron shells really "exist" in multi ...
Stu's user avatar
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-3 votes
2 answers
143 views

Why does atomic radius decrease across periods? [closed]

My textbook says that this happens because the number of protons, and thus the total positive charge, increases - a greater attractive force acts on each electron. The book says that this is despite ...
Sak's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
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How many m values are there for the 4f sublevel. In high school so no fancy words please! [closed]

How many m values are there for the 4f sublevel? In high school so no fancy words please!
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