Questions tagged [organic-chemistry]

Use this tag for questions relating to organic molecules and their properties (structure of organic molecules, spectroscopic properties, reaction mechanisms, stereochemistry etc). DO NOT use this tag as the only tag in your question, as this tag by itself cannot appropriately classify your question. Always use this tag in addition to other more specific tags.

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Relative inductive effect(s)

What is the order (increasing or decreasing) of the negative inductive effect (-I effect) strength (all taken relative to hydrogen, undoubtedly) of the following groups under organic chemistry? -OH, -...
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Can a refractometer adequately measure sugar content in fruit pulp?

I am trying to measure the sugar content in mango pulp (used for food processing). Using a hydrometer to measure specific gravity is not adequate because the pulp thickness prevent the hydrometer ...
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Why does body soaps produce more foam than Hair Shampoo?

Body Soap and Hair shampoo are both cleaning agents in our daily life. Why does body soaps produce more foam than Hair Shampoo?
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Why are these compounds classified as metamers? [duplicate]

Metamers are compounds having the same molecular formula but different number of carbon atoms, on either side of functional group. In the above compounds, the number of carbon atoms around the ester ...
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How many condensed tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are there?

Recently I have been asked to sketch the chemical structures for every condensed tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. I have managed to find 7 structures, but my chemistry teacher's solution was ...
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rate of SN2 reaction

In epoxidation of halohydrins when the carbons have more branchs (methyl) the rate of reaction will be incresed, than the halohydrin without methyl branchs? Whats the reason?
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How is HCl relevant in the reaction of iodomethane and ammonia? [closed]

The following reaction is conducted using $\pu{1.8 g}$ of $\ce{CH3I}$ and $\pu{250 mL}$ of a $\pu{0.2 mol L-1}$ solution of aqueous $\ce{HCl}$. $$\ce{CH3I (l) + NH3 (aq) -> CH3NH2 (aq) + HI (aq)}$...
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Carbonylation of Ether [closed]

What is the reaction mechanism of the following reaction: $ ROR+CO $->$RCOOR $ I tried to search but couldn't find online.
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2answers
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Given that they contain an OH group, why do carboxylic acids not act as base? [closed]

As far I know carboxylic acids have a OH group but during dissociation only hydrogen gets separated. The CO moiety is polar, demonstrating that oxygen is much more electronegative than carbon. Why ...
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if we a have a molecule can we calculate its energy as a whole with it bonds electrons and protons and neutrons and to how match accuracy [closed]

sry i well explain better and simplify if we a have a molecule can we calculate its energy as a whole with it bonds electrons and protons and neutrons and to how match accuracy
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Which one of these products is the most stable? [closed]

Which one of these products is the most stable, and why?
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1answer
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Chain isomers of hexane [closed]

Why does hexane just have 5 chain isomers when I can think of more, like 2,2,3-trimethylbutane? That's just one of the top of my head, I could think of more.
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Confusion in the mechanism

I am confused what reaction would be this as I thought this should be MPVR or Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley reduction. But there we need an alcohol,which is not available here. Can someone say what ...
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How to count electrons for a bridging alkylidene ligand

How many valence electrons does this complex have? How do you count electrons for a bridging alkylidene ligand?
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1answer
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Why is t-butyl chloride favored over t-butanol at 0°C? [closed]

To make t-butyl chloride from t-butanol, you need to bubble HCl gas into a 0°C ether solution of t-butanol. To make t-butanol from t-butyl chloride, you can dissolve t-butyl chloride into water (not ...
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1answer
549 views

Why is iso-octane different from other iso-s?

While learning nomenclature of organic compounds I found the common names to be a bit difficult to learn than the IUPAC ones. One of these common name stuff is the iso-,neo-, sec-, etc. So I searched ...
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Alc KOH vs Aq KOH [duplicate]

Why does alc KOH prefers elimination reactions while aqueous KOH prefers substitution reactions in organic chemistry? I dont think so there must be any difference in the medium as the elimination just ...
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How to calculate relative abundance if given 3 peaks [closed]

The mass spectrum of 1,2-dibromoethane ($\ce{BrCH2CH2Br}$) shows three peaks at $m/z$ ratio of 186, 188, and 190. If the ratio of $\ce{^{79}Br}$ to $\ce{^{81}Br}$ is 1:1, calculate the relative ...
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Enantioselectivity of Noyori Asymmetric Hydrogenation

I'm unable to understand the enantioselectivity of Noyori's hydrogenation reaction, and would appreciate any help with the same: Here's a mechanism I found on Wikipedia: but, to my disappointment, ...
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1answer
45 views

Why aren't all bonds in cyclobutadiene not equal? [duplicate]

Cyclobutadiene is like benzene in that it has alternating single and double bonds in a ring. However, it's bonds are not the same length, the double bonds being shorter than single bonds. The molecule ...
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I wanted to know how the β-elimination for a 3° alkyl halide will take place [closed]

I've heard that the rate of the reaction is determined by the alkyl group present and goes in order of decreasing rate like this:3°>2°>1° but I was just wondering how the actual reaction takes place ...
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Reaction Mechanism of a ring contraction [closed]

I found this question in an IIT JEE paper from a few years back. It is a vicinal diketone on a cyclohexane ring contracting to a cyclopentane ring with an alcoholic substituent group and an ester ...
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Do isotopic groups cause optical activity?

I understood the simplified reason for optical activity of a compound based on the difference in the angular velocities of counter-rotating circularly polarized light. The difference is due to the ...
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Nucleophilic reactions on benzene ring [closed]

Which bond is stronger, the $\ce{C-Cl}$ bond in chlorobenzene or the $\ce{C-OH}$ bond in phenol? And why?
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Stability of butene

Why is isobutene (2-methylprop-1-ene) more stable than cis-2-butene ((2⁠Z)-but-2-ene)? I can't find a reason as both of them have the same number of alpha hydrogens.
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1answer
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UV of product vs UV of reactant for a diels alder reaction [closed]

I am really stuck on how to interpret the change in wavelength and absorbance of my synthesized product and comparing it to the given UV of the reactant. I am supposed to include the shift in ...
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Orientation of Nitro group w.r.t aromatic system [closed]

How do I know about orientation of nitro group with respect to aromatic system.
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1answer
43 views

Sodium hydride 60% dispersion in mineral oil [closed]

I've got a bottle of sodium hydride 60% dispersion in mineral oil. It's not "in mineral oil" it's just powder with an oil coating. I'm using it in an inert reaction, is there a way to remove the oil?
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1answer
63 views

Good books/advice for reaction design [closed]

I'm a postgraduate doing a masters by research and I'm for the first time designing my own experiments but don't know where to start. Solvent choice, solvent, substrate ratio and catalysts for ...
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COT molecule and aromaticity [closed]

Why is COT molecule anti aromatic eventhough it satisfies Huckles rule (4n+2)pi electrons for aromaticity but its dianion or dication is aromatic?
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Why can zwitterions be difficult detect by HPLC-MS?

I understand that to separate molecules by HPLC (or SFC) you commonly adjust the pH of the mobile phase to get preferable charges (i.e. negative charges) on the molecules - so that they interact with ...
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2answers
92 views

Is there any way to chemically check sweetness level in any drink or water or tea etc?

I was wondering if there is a test or way to find out how sweet any drink is? For example, if I mix sugar in water, how can I test its level or number of sweetness?
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1answer
23 views

Concentrating mixtures of volatile compounds

My interest is primarily food-related here but I think this is a fairly general chemistry question. Let's say I took some liquid like lemon juice and ran it though a rotary evaporator to get just the ...
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base substitution mutagen 's role in frameshift mutation [closed]

Why a base substitution mutagen can sometimes revert a frameshift mutation which occurs early in a DNA coding sequence? Please explain the mechanism.
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1answer
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Reactivity in electrophillic substitution [closed]

When comparing maximum reactivity of a compound in electrophillic addition, what factors are kept in mind while comparing propene and trans-2-butene? Why use trans-2-butene more reactive in this case ...
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To get clear plasma out of a minute particle (such as fibrin), is it necessary to vortex sample before centrifugation? [closed]

I'm going to analyse plasma samples that contain a lot of fibrin. It is necessary to centrifuge the samples to be able to pipette the plasma. After the samples are centrifuged I can't vortex them ...
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1answer
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Are there optically active molecules in which all atoms lie in the same plane?

I've learnt that when a molecule is non-superposable on its mirror image, it exists as a pair of enantiomers and is optically active. Absence of plane of symmetry is given to be one of the properties ...
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1answer
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Aromatic compound and Grignard reagent reaction

Am I correct in thinking a Grignard reagent like MeMgBr acts as a nucleophile? And would that mean it will substitute another group? So for example if you reacted it with bromobenzene, would the Br be ...
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1answer
56 views

If we use Magnesium instead of the sodium with alkyl halide in dry ether then will a reaction similar to Wurtz reaction will occur

I know that a grignard reagent will formed will be formed but if you look at his question then the answer of this question is b. so I just want to know if something like wurtz reaction will take place ...
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1answer
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why is water not compatible with lewis acids in a friedel-crafts alkylation [closed]

I know that it destroys the lewis acid character but that doesn't tell me anything.
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17 views

Anthocyanin content [closed]

I've done an experiment in the school's lab and so far I've done this: 1. put 57.99g of purple cabbage in a 100 mL solution of 90mL 96% alcohol and 10ml water 2. Taken out 10mL of the total solution ...
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How to choose the kinectically favourable least energy states? [closed]

Say, you have an organic reaction $$\ce{A + B -> Y}$$ which happens under some arbitrary conditions. Then $\ce{Y}$ is not a singular product; it is a collection of compounds which 'could' be ...
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Effect of intramolecular hydrogen bonding on the stability of a molecule

What will be the effects of intramolecular hydrogen bonding on the stability of a molecule? Will it increase or decrease the overall stability of a molecule? Or will it not have any impact on the ...
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How to disperse and disolve acrylate copoylmer?

I've made many attempts to dissolve my acryalte copolymer into water, i've tried both hot and cold, stirred and used a grinder to dissolve it but it doesn't. Anyone who can help?
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1answer
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Ion chromatography of anions [closed]

Using an eluent of 1.00 mM NaHCO3 and 8.00 mM Na2CO3 in Milli-Q water, chromatographs were taken of the following anions: fluoride, chloride, nitrate, sulfate And phosphate. Why were the retention ...
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What is a non-toxic adhesive that can be used in the creation of cosmetics? [closed]

I'm not a chemist so bare with me! I am in the process of creating non-toxic cosmetics but I am having trouble getting my products to stick when they're applied. The products I create immediately get ...
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R/S Cahn-Prelog Naming Question

I would appreciate some clarity with regards to this! From the rules that I've understood online, you just follow the chain until you break the tie. I get that. But, which chain are you supposed to ...
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Role of CCl4 in bromination of alkenes [closed]

Say you have an alkene and you react with $\ce{CCl4}$ (carbon tetrachloride) and $\ce{Br2}$, a di-substituted bromine derivative of the alkene would be formed. In this reaction, what is the role of $...
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Does an aryl compound with any functional group attached to it, undergo benzylic oxidation? [duplicate]

> If you look at this compound, only the benzylic carbon on the top has a hydrogen attached to it, so how do we oxidize only the top part without touching the lower one (not sure if this product is ...
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1answer
42 views

Fehling's solution turning yellow and then black?

While testing for formaldehyde (an aldehyde), I added Fehling's solution to the sample and let the test tube simmer in a water bath for some time. I returned ~15 minutes later to see a black/dark grey ...

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