Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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In-phase and out-of-phase combinations in Molecular Orbitals

In MO theory's approach for describing the $\ce H2$ molecule, we assume that two orbitals are formed during the combination of both the atoms viz. The bonding and non-bonding orbitals. But these ...
BlackKnight23's user avatar
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Lone pairs are more spread out, but how does this increase repulsion? [closed]

Both lone pairs and bonding pairs consist of 2 electrons. From my understanding, bonding pairs are localised between two atoms and thus lie further from the nucleus, and have a longer sausage shape. ...
2qeqw's user avatar
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Ionic Character of Metallic (Alkali Metals) Hydrides , and Reactivity

In my book , the following line has been written:- All the alkali metal hydrides are ionic solids with high melting points The ionic character , however, decreases from Li to Cs The reason being ...
Adhway's user avatar
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Why can't group 2B metals (Zn, Cd, Hg) form complexes with ligands such as CO, nitrosyl (NO), and olefins but do from complexes with NH3, CN- etc?

Why Group 2B metals (Zn, Cd, Hg) can form complexes with Ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$), Cyanide ($\ce{CN-}$) etc. and not with ligands such as carbonyl ($\ce{CO}$), nitrosyl ($\ce{NO}$), and olefins? What I ...
Bilal Malik's user avatar
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Why cant H2O be linear? [duplicate]

My understanding is that a H2O molecule cannot be linear due to repulsions between the electrons of the non-bonding domains and the hydrogen: However i was wondering why the structure could not take ...
Varshil MVH Pets's user avatar
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Question Involving Bonding (VSEPR AND VBT)

So basically any chemistry book will tell you about the extent of overlapping in different orbitals. For formation of sigma bonds, head on overlapping happens. Chemistry textbooks always state that $p-...
afrin's user avatar
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Where are the electrons located when two atomic orbitals overlap? (VBT)

According to the valence bond theory(VBT), a covalent bond is formed by the overlapping of atomic orbitals containing electrons of opposite spin which pair together. However what is the physical ...
Nothing's user avatar
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Why SO2 doesn't have dative bonds? [duplicate]

Why doesn't the SO2 Lewis structure have, instead of two double bonds, one double bond and one dative bond? This way, the octet rule is also satisfied for sulfur.
continuous at b's user avatar
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2 answers
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Why does boron have higher affinity for fluorine than oxygen?

$\ce{F-}$ can displace $\ce{OH}$ in $\ce{B(OH)3}$ and form $\ce{BF3}$. $\ce{BF3}$ is stable due to resonance, but donation of oxygen should be stronger, as -I power of fluorine dominates its lone pair ...
EagerToLearn's user avatar
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1 answer
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What does the dot indicate in the molecular formula for white lead? [duplicate]

I came across the following molecular formula for white lead: $2\mathrm{Pb}\mathrm{CO3}·\mathrm{Pb(OH)_2}$. What does the center dot indicate here? Is this a non-covalent interaction of some kind? ...
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The mechanism for the addition of HCl to propylene

Problem: The mechanism for the addition of HCl to propylene is described below. Complete the mechanism in step 1 with one curved arrow showing the electron movement that occurs when the double bond ...
Nora's user avatar
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What is the reason for the difference in melting point between oleic acid (9-octadecenoic acid) and isooleic acid (10-octadecenoic acid)

Isooleic acid only differs from oleic acid in the position of the double bond. I don't understand why this might lead to an increase in the melting point. The degree of saturation hasn't changed and ...
Richard Xun's user avatar
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1 answer
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Which of these monomers can polymerize by chain addition reaction?

Problem: Which of these monomers can polymerize by chain addition reaction? Solution: The monomers with red crosses underneath them can polymerize by chain addition reaction. Question: So, how I am ...
Nora's user avatar
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How do you identify an organic base?

Problem: Solution: The molecules with red crosses underneath them are considered organic bases. Question: From my understanding an organic base has an atom with a lone pair of electrons. Doesn't ...
Nora's user avatar
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How do we judge whether a bond is a coordinate bond?

We know a coordinate bond refers to a covalent bond in which one atom provides a lone pair and the other provides an empty orbital. When OH- gets a proton and becomes H2O, O provides a lone electron ...
Zes M Young's user avatar
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How does more s character shorten bonds and strengthen bonds?

I'm aware that having more s character means that electrons are in the lowest energy state (?) and very close to the positive atomic nucleus. But then what’s the connection between having electrons ...
Ki Ki's user avatar
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Best representation of 1310384-76-9 / 1104637-53-7, a molecule with a coordination bond between nitrogen and boron

If you look up the above CAS numbers, you will sometimes find this structure: which, I think correctly, our chemistry validation software tags as 'bad valence'. In other websites you will find the ...
user6376297's user avatar
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Stability comparison between Acetylene/Ethyne (C2H2) and Nitrogen Gas (N2) [closed]

N≡N is more stable than H2N—NH2 (hydrazine) But HC≡CH is less stable than H3C—CH3 Why is it so? Even though the size of the corresponding compounds and hybridization is the same? (Usually ethane is ...
Maddy's user avatar
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Why O-H bond and not C-O bond breaks in Acid Catalyzed Hydration of Alkene?

Recently, while studying Hydrocarbons I came across this reaction (Acid catalyzed hydration of an alkene) What I don't get here is that the breaking of O-H bond (in Step 3) and not the C-O bond, even ...
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Amalgam Reaction

I have some doubt about Amalgams. On google it says that amalgams are mixtures. However, when I mixed Na and Hg it 'reacted' to form the amalgam. If they are just mixtures, why do they react to form? ...
Tanmay Joshi's user avatar
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1 answer
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Does dative bonding cause polarity?

When two atoms form a dative non-polar bond, does the one that shares the couple of electrons acquire a +δ charge and the other a -δ charge? I have been told that in a dative polar bond the charge ...
Antozoa's user avatar
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Lewis dot structure vs orbitals

I am currently teaching myself AP Chemistry, so am at a very basic level still. I am studying chemical bonds now, but am wondering why the orbitals don't make a difference to the way atoms bond. To ...
harpomiel's user avatar
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Why is Sulfur Trioxide has SP² hybridization? [duplicate]

When I google what is the type of hybridization in SO₃ it gives me "SP² hybridization". The problem I have is why does it has the above hybridization when it has 3 double bonds with the ...
donthababakka's user avatar
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1 answer
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Cesium Chloride Density Gradient Centrifugation and Isotopes

In Cesium Chloride Density Gradient Centrifugation, as used by Meselson and Stahl, Cesium ions can be seen as strongly affected by centrifugation, so much so that they can overcome their ionic bonds ...
Young Jun Lee's user avatar
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2 answers
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Stability of H3MnO4, H2MnO4, HMnO4

I cannot seek out the reason why while $\ce{H3PO4}$ (phosphorus oxidation +5) is relatively stable and obtainable but $\ce{H3MnO4}$ (the same oxidation state +5) is rarely mentioned and perhaps ...
Shira's user avatar
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Why is expected bond energy the *geometric* mean of two pure bonds?

Suppose we are calculating the electronegativity of a bond A—B. In my textbook (Chemical Principles) calculation of electronegativity, they calculate electronegativity in terms of a variable ...
Lysanderoth's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
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Why would the chlorine atom be assigned a positive partial charge in chloroform and carbon tetrachloride?

Looking at electronegativity tables, chlorine consistently has a higher electronegativity than carbon. However, when I use simple algorithms (molcalc, acc2), I get a positive partial charge on the ...
Karsten's user avatar
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Why does the two OH bonds in H2O have different bond disassociation enthalpies? How does the bond cleavage happen here?

I came across this question, and in the text it was written as 'change in the chemical environment'. I wasn't satisfied with this explanation, so I am looking for a more detailed answer on this matter ...
goldi mathews's user avatar
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What is electrovalency and covalency?

I know that valence is defined in the Gold Book, and valency, electrovalency, and covalency are not defined. However, there are some terms that are confusing me. According to the given definitions, a ...
ananta's user avatar
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Ionic bond formation [duplicate]

When two separate pieces of sodium chloride crystals are physically put together, no wonder that they will not fuse with each other. But I don’t understand why. Ionic bonds are described to be non-...
Freeby Freeby's user avatar
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2 answers
256 views

Do PH3F2 and XeS2 exist (in the light of hybridisation and Valence Bond Theory)? [Doubt in JEE question]

Do $\ce{PH3F2}$ and $\ce{XeS2}$ exist, in accordance with Valence Bond Theory? According to Drago's Rule, if the central atom of a compound is an element of the third period, and the attached atom has ...
Bongo Man's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why is the statement regarding the strength of ionic bonds reasonable? [closed]

In largely ionic compounds (e.g. NaBr and NaI), it seems to be generally true that, the greater the differences of electronegativity between the forming substances (i.e. The compound has more "...
蕭力諶's user avatar
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1 answer
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A water molecule is bent. Why? [duplicate]

Consider the bent shape of $\ce{H2O}$ with a bond angle of $104°$. From my understanding, this is due to the lone pair repulsion between the 2 pairs of lone pair electrons. Hence, it adopts a ...
Quin Gardiner Bax's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
424 views

If charge is quantised, how can It delocalize?

As I was trying to understand resonance, I got to know that it was imaginary phenomenon and it is just a tool to explain mechanisms and structures that are unexplained by Lewis dot structures or ...
Dheeraj Gujrathi's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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Bond order of carbon monoxide and nitrosyl cation

The following question was asked in JEE Mains exam in 2022, a competitive exam for engineering in India. The difference between bond order of CO and NO$^+$ is $\frac{x}{2}$ where $x$ = ____. (Round ...
Bongo Man's user avatar
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1 answer
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If diborane has 3c-2e bonds, then why are both boron atoms still electron deficit?

This is an image of the structure of diborane. It has a 3-center-2-electron bridge bond. As we can see in the bridge bond, the electron in the hydrogen atom and one electron in either boron atom is ...
Bongo Man's user avatar
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1 answer
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Dipole Moment in P4O8 molecule

So from the structure, which seems to be quite symmetrical, according to me the dipole moment should be zero.
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What is the name of the bond between oxygen atoms and Na+ ions when NaCl dissolves in water?

When NaCl (sodium chloride, table salt) dissolves in water, the NaCl molecules break apart. The hydrogen atoms form hydrogen bonds (I think?) with the Cl- ions. What is the name of the bond between ...
Jake Levi's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why are HFOs like R-1234yf considered okay (for now) but PFAs are under attack? Don't they both contain strong Carbon-Fluorine bonds? [closed]

The popular (and professional) press is awash with alarms about some so-called 'forever' chemicals, the PFAs... The older, ozone-destroying CFCs and HCFCs, as well as global-warming-inducing HFCs, and ...
Kurt Hikes's user avatar
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Why have my recent boiled eggs contain water within the membrane?

My wife recently boiled eggs from the grocery. Every single one of the eggs has contained water with in the membrane where the hollow portion of the egg is normally. I have only seen this if maybe the ...
Fred Shalackey's user avatar
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Why doesn't ClO2 dimerise?

My teacher has told us that ClO2 does not dimerise due to delocalization of unpaired electron, but didn't elaborate on this. I didn't understand it.
Wallflower06's user avatar
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How does bond strength affect catenation?

I am wondering why C with single bond strength 347 Kj/mol is able to form much longer linear bond chain, while S with single bond strength 266 Kj/mol is able to do so with difficulty, although not ...
KeShAw's user avatar
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4 votes
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What is the probability the bonds broken with sunlight reforming back?

The maximum wavelength $\lambda$ capable of breaking a chemical bond can be estimated as $\lambda = hc/E.$ UV-A $(\pu{380 nm})$ can break bonds with the energy up to $\pu{315 kJ mol^-1},$ UV-B $(\pu{...
Neal Conroy's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
141 views

Can the strength of a covalent bond be compared to the stiffness of a spring?

I am modelling a solid with the density functional theory. The solid contains different types of atoms. The atoms are covalently bonded. I want to estimate the strength of each bond. How can I do it? ...
Vladislav Gladkikh's user avatar
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1 answer
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Calculating salinity from sodium and chloride in water [closed]

let me start by saying that I am definitely no chemist, so this question might (or might not) seem trivial to all you professionals out there. I have recently found a brand of carbonated water here in ...
Henrik Hillestad Løvold's user avatar
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1 answer
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Delta Bond Or Pi Bond, Which Is More Strong? [closed]

It is pretty evident that sigma bonds are more stronger than pi bonds. (due to the extent of overlapping) But when there are 4 lobes of two d-orbitals involved in overlapping as that is the case in ...
chemist_heisenberg's user avatar
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Bonding and then breaking radioactive molecules

I was looking at Radon and noticed that it has a half-life of 3.8 days, yet still makes compounds with some other elements. This got me wondering, are there any examples of chemical processes or ...
G. Putnam's user avatar
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6 votes
1 answer
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Weakness of S−I and Se−I bonds

After recent question about non-existent pnictide(V) iodides, I stumbled upon a similar issue in oxygen group. For example, $\ce{SI2}$ was reported to be found… but at the temperature as low as $\pu{9 ...
Mithoron's user avatar
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2 votes
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The electron structure in transition metallic bonding [duplicate]

Copper has an electron structure of $\ce{[Ar] 3d^10 4s^1}$. In salts it may form two stable ions, the $\ce{Cu^+}$ and $\ce{Cu^2+}$. (It's actually not very clear to me why the 2+ ion is common, why ...
James K's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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What is the effect of dissolving ammonia in water on hydrogen bonding?

Hydrogen bonding exists between $\ce{NH3}$ molecules. When $\ce{NH3}$ is dissolved in water, I know that hydrogen bonds are formed between $\ce{NH3}$ and $\ce{H2O}$ molecules. However, do the $\ce{NH3}...
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