Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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38 views

Why does water ionize on adding dry ammonia to it?

On adding pure dry NH₃ to H₂O, the lone pair in ammonia molecule forms a coordinate covalent bond with the hydrogen ion in water to form ammonium ion. But why will the hydrogen ion separate from water ...
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What is the typical bond energy on a sample surface (calculated from single bond energy)?

I am trying to figure out a way to calculate the surface bond energy from the single bond energy (only roughly). Assuming the surface energy of silicon is the heat of sublimation (approximately 4.5 eV)...
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32 views

Why is the transition state the highest energy point? [closed]

If partial bonds form during transition state, it means some energy is released, so how can it have the highest energy? Shouldn't the point before transition state be highest energy? (the point where ...
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Ni(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+ and the anion Cl- | Formula of coordination compound containing cation and anion and how many possible geometric isomers are there? [closed]

What is the formula of the coordination compound containing cation [Ni(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+ and the anion Cl-? How many possible ...
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Find avg. Bond energy of Xe-F if enthalpy of formation for XeF2, XeF4 and XeF6 are given [closed]

FULL QUESTION : I) The standard enthalpies of formation of gaseous XeF2, XeF4, & XeF6, are -108, -216 , -294 kJ/mol respectively and the bond energy in F2, is 159 kJ/mol. Calculate the average Xe-...
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How big a role does electron repulsion play in regard to the bond length of a covalent bond? [duplicate]

In a covalent bond, there are several forces acting together to determine the bond length. Electron-electron repulsion increases the bond length. Proton-proton repulsion increases the bond length. ...
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25 views

How to "draw" a coordination bond (dashed bond) in MOLFILE?

How can we "draw" a coordination bond (dashed bond) in MOLFILE? I cannot find a bond property or option that would allow me to choose such a thing. So many drawings of organo-metallic ...
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Does overlapping partial density of states indicate formation of chemical bond?

Does overlapping partial density of states of two adjacent atoms indicate formation of chemical bonds between the two atoms? The partial density of states here means the density of states of an ...
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1answer
141 views

Bond type in Grignard reagent

I just want to confirm if the $\ce{R-Mg}$ bond is a covalent bond which undergoes heterolytic fission during reactions while the bond between magnesium and halogen atom is ionic. Am I right or wrong?
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Manganese and valence layer [closed]

Why does manganese make $4$ bonds in $\ce{H_2MnO_4}$ when it has only two electrons in the valence shell?
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How does covalent character affects the melting and boiling point of ionic compounds? [closed]

The melting and boiling point of ionic compounds is related to their lattice energy due to the formation of stronger ionic bonds between the oppositely charged ions. Generally, the greater the ...
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Why are sulfoxides usually stable as ylides (S charged positively and O negatively)? What's the BDE for S-O?

I can't find any info on BDE for singularly bonded S to oxygen. Moreover, I'd like to understand, why is it quite usual to find sulfoxides structure written with charge separation?
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Why exactly do we need formal charge? [closed]

Formal charge is considered to be the charge present in one atom by considering all the bonds to be 100% covalent.What is the significance of 100% covalent here? Why are we considering the bonds to be ...
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In the LCAO method for $H_2^+$, why do we only add or subtract orbitals but never alter one of the phases of the orbitals?

TLDR: Atkins' physical chemistry contains the quote "In general, from N atomic orbitals we can build N molecular orbitals". In the case of $H^+_2$, we use a combination of N=2 orbitals to ...
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What does it mean by non-bonding p pi orbital?

In a paper by Peng et. al.,[1] I read about the valence band maximum of $\ce{TiO2}$ consists of non-bonding O pπ orbitals ... the valence band maximum (VBM) consists of non-bonding O pπ states What ...
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Does a larger bond energy in reactants mean a more exothermic reaction?

In the book "Combustion Physics" for C.K Law, page 42, it is stated that: The parameter that has the next strongest influence on [adiabatic flame temperature] $T_{ad}$ is the $C/H$ ratio of ...
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Materials for McBride's Freshman Organic Chemistry at Yale University

I have been looking over the online Organic Chemistry course taught by McBride at Yale and named "Freshman Organic Chemistry", 125A, which is on Itunes University. Only the lectures are ...
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How does caesium triiodide exists?

How does $\ce{CsI3}$ exists? Means it contains $\ce{Cs+}$ and $\ce{I3^{-}}$ ions or $\ce{Cs+}$, $\ce{I-}$ and lattice $\ce{I2}$ Molecule? I was confused at this question? Can anyone help me which will ...
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how can I add double bonds to Triazine-derivatives for OpenBabel generation of pdbqt files? [migrated]

The double bonds are initially present at the sdf file but disappear or are misplaced after .pdbqt conversion. I tried all kinds of combinations using renumbering ...
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Where should the double bonded C attached to Sulphur be at? Equatorial or Axial position?

The maximum number of atoms that may lie in the same plane in $\left(\mathrm{CH}_{3}\right)_{2} \mathrm{C}=\mathrm{SF}_{2}\left(\mathrm{CH}_{3}\right)_{2}$ is ____ : Where should the the S=C bond lie ...
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Do different types of MOs have different occupancies?

There was a question in my textbook regarding the number of electrons in a molecular orbital. The maximum number of electrons in a sigma, pi, and delta molecular orbital are respectively? Now, I ...
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50 views

Do orbitals overlap during formation of an ionic bond?

During the formation of NaCl, do orbitals of Na and Cl overlap? If not then how electrons just come out of it's orbital in Na and go to other empty orbitals of Cl without orbital overlapping?
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Bond Angle of NH3, NCl3 and NBr3 [duplicate]

I have read the other answer on chemistrystackexchange regarding the bond angles of $\ce{NH3}$ and $\ce{NCl3}$. The bond angle of $\ce{NCl3}$ is more than $\ce{NH3}$ due to back bonding between p-...
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Why is the thermal stability of calcium carbonate higher than that of magnesium carbonate even though lattice energy decreases down a group?

The difference in thermal stability of $\ce{CaCO3}$ and $\ce{MgCO3}$ can be explained using Fajans' rules, but why not using the lattice energy method? Why is the thermal stability of $\ce{CaCO3}$ ...
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120 views

Why London Dispersion force is attractive not repulsive

The London Dispersion force is caused by the formation of temporary dipoles in the electron cloud of neutral atoms that attract each other. Why is this only attractive? Why don't the like poles repel,...
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Finding Potential Depth of Multiple-Minimum in a PEC

Suppose we have the following curve with more than one well and different maximum points: My simple question is how to calculate the potential depth of each well? Do we calculate all the potential ...
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1answer
53 views

Role of 'p' Orbitals in Graphite Carbons

In the graphite arrangement of carbons, if we model them according to hybridization theory, the carbons in graphite are sp2 hybridized. This would mean that one s and two p orbitals hybridize, making ...
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Why does iodine trichloride dimerize?

In which of the dimerization process, the achievement of the octet is not the driving force $\ce{2AlCl3 \to Al2Cl6}$ $\ce{BeCl2 \to BeCl2}$ (solid) $\ce{2ICl3 \to I2Cl6} $ $\ce{2NO2 \to N2O4}$ ...
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63 views

Planarity at the Junction between multiple Rings

My Approach: As cyclohexane should be in the chair form and cyclopentane should be in the envelope form, more the number of five-membered rings more should be its planarity, as envelope form is more ...
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76 views

Nature of π-bonds in permanganate ion

I was doing a question which asked about the nature of $\pi$ bonds between the $\ce{Mn}$ and $\ce{O}$ atoms in $\ce{MnO4-}$. According to the answer all the three $\pi$ bonds were formed by $p\pi-d\pi$...
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Dative Bond in Nitrogen Dioxide

I learnt that a coordinate covalent bond forms only when Donor atom has a complete octet and also has at lest 1 lone pair. The receiving atom must have an incomplete octet and possess at least 1 ...
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1answer
210 views

What's the "Charge" in Steric Number Formula

I was reading about the Steric Number Formula here. There, I came to know that the Steric Number $N=\frac{V+M \pm I}{2}$ where $V = n(\ce{e-})$, the number of valence electrons of central atom, which ...
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1answer
75 views

Comparing strengths of σ-bonds formed by $\mathrm d_{z^2}$ and $\mathrm p_z$ orbitals

According to my professor $\mathrm d_{z^2}–\mathrm d_{z^2}$ σ-bond is stronger than $\mathrm p_z–\mathrm p_z$ σ-bond as the extent of overlapping is greater in $\mathrm d_{z^2}–\mathrm d_{z^2}$ ...
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Does (BeCl2)n have 3c - 4e- bonding or not?

The title really explains what the issue is here. I would think that it has multicenter bonding akin to $(\ce{BeH2})_n$ polymer because they are pretty much iso-structural (although it shouldn't have $...
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1answer
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Do covalent bonds fit in with the orbital theory of atomic structure?

Which atomic model do covalent bonds adhere to? In the the covalent bond between $2$ oxygen atoms, we consider each oxygen atom to have $6$ valence electrons, thus resulting in a double covalent bond. ...
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Can molecular systems display negative magnetic susceptibility of a higher magnitude than bismuth?

Bismuth has the biggest value when it comes to a negative magnetic susceptibility than all other elements, ignoring superconductors, as they would have a value of -1. Yet, when tables displaying ...
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Is strength of pi bonds greater than sigma bond of nitrogen molecule?

I am referring to molecular orbital (MO) theory. In the nitrogen molecule (and elements of lower atomic number) $\textrm{sp}$ mixing occurs and the sigma orbital set is raised above the pi orbital set....
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1answer
48 views

Computational determination of the diagram of molecular orbitals of a polyatomic chemical species

A diagram of molecular orbitals for $\ce{H2O}$ would be as follows: The above diagram has been constructed qualitatively following the steps that I have been instructed in various classes on this ...
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1answer
42 views

Can exact bond angles in cycloalkanes be calculated?

I know that bond angles in cycloalkanes are usually different from $\ce{109.5}^{\circ}$ as predicted by the VSEPR theory because of their shape, and a higher deviation will cause a higher ring strain. ...
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213 views

Rotation of partially double bonds in cinnamaldehyde

Is rotation about that bond free? I learned that sigma bonds rotate and I want to know if there are any exceptions for a bond like that.
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86 views

How can we predict the formula of a coordination compound by just knowing the ligand and central metal? [closed]

Question: On complete reaction of $\ce{FeCl3}$ with oxalic acid in aqueous solution containing $\ce{KOH}$, resulted in the formation of product A. The secondary valency of $\ce{Fe}$ in the product A ...
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How many bonds does oxygen really make in minerals?

I'm studying some metallurgy things and interested in iron oxides. The simple 2-D representation of a mineral like hematite shows $\ce{O=Fe-O-Fe=O}$. But the crystal structure seems to show each ...
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71 views

Finding the molecule with the smallest bond angle in the following lists of elements

For each of the following lists of elements, find (and give a justification for your choice) the molecule with the smallest bond angle: a) $\ce{OSF_2, OSCl_2, OSBr_2}$ b) $\ce{SbCl_3, SbBr_3, SbI_3}$ ...
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61 views

Linear equations for constructing molecules with covalent bonds

(By training I am a math-guy and my knowledge of chemistry is restricted to school level) I have read a little bit about the electron spheres and sub-spheres, the Aufbau principle and covalent bonds ...
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1answer
126 views

Bond Polarity vs bond length's effect on reactivity of haloalkanes

My textbook says: Carbon acquires partial positive charge whereas halogen acquires partial negative charge. Halogen becomes nucleophilic in character, which can be replaced by another nucleophile on ...
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1answer
127 views

Which compound of these following have electrovalent, covalent, coordinate as well as hydrogen bond?

Which compound have electrovalent, covalent, coordinate as well as hydrogen bond ? A) $\ce{[Cu(H2O)4]SO4.H2O}$ B) $\ce{[Zn(H2O)6]SO4.H2O}$ C) $\ce{[Fe(H2O)6]SO4.H2O}$ D) $\ce{[Fe(H2O)6]Cl3}$ Answer ...
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1answer
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what is the difference between valency and oxidation number? [duplicate]

I know that oxidation number is the charge any species has in its molecular or ion form. And valency is the number of electrons a species contain in its valence shell, that always tends to be used in ...
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18 views

How can the difference between surface energy and electrostatic repulsion be calculated in electroplating?

When metals are electroplated unto surfaces, there are a myriad of forces at play. To set a clear example, if one were to electroplate a magnet with a diamagnetic metal such as bismuth, there will be ...
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1answer
84 views

Can someone give me examples of Hydrogen's ionic bonding? [closed]

When I google for examples I find examples of Hydrogen bond. Theoretically, Hydrogen should be able to bond with compounds with a much higher or much lower electronegativity than 2.2. I am 8th grade ...
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Why is the bond angle of sulphur difluoride greater than that of hydrogen sulphide?

Why is the bond angle of $\ce{SF_2 (98.05^\circ) > SH_2 (92.11^\circ)}$? Isn't this contradicting Bent's rule or otherwise electron repulsion rule ? Fluorine is more electronegative and hence it ...

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