Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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what is the difference between valency and oxidation number?

I know that oxidation number is the charge any species has in its molecular or ion form. And valency is the number of electrons a species contain in its valence shell, that always tends to be used in ...
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How can the difference between surface energy and electrostatic repulsion be calculated in electroplating?

When metals are electroplated unto surfaces, there are a myriad of forces at play. To set a clear example, if one were to electroplate a magnet with a diamagnetic metal such as bismuth, there will be ...
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Can someone give me examples of Hydrogen's ionic bonding?

When I google for examples I find examples of Hydrogen bond. Theoretically, Hydrogen should be able to bond with compounds with a much higher or much lower electronegativity than 2.2. I am 8th grade ...
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Why is the bond angle of sulphur difluoride greater than that of hydrogen sulphide?

Why is the bond angle of $\ce{SF_2 (98.05^\circ) > SH_2 (92.11^\circ)}$? Isn't this contradicting Bent's rule or otherwise electron repulsion rule ? Fluorine is more electronegative and hence it ...
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What happens to the 2s orbital in carbon-hydrogen bonds? [closed]

I was taught in high school that carbon atoms by themselves are capable of establishing covalent bonds with with as far as four hydrogens atoms. Nowadays, trying to understand the topic in-depth, I ...
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How can orbitals of Hydrogen and Chlorine atom combine to form molecular orbitals of Hydrogen Chloride? [closed]

Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) states that orbitals can only combine if the energies and shape of the orbitals are same. $3p$ orbital of Chlorine and $1s$ orbital of Hydrogen are the ...
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Nitrogen with shortest bond length in histidine?

The question asks what nitrogen in the ring of histidine has the shortest bond length. I was thinking that since it has resonance, the initial thought of the nitrogen with the $\pi$ bond is incorrect. ...
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What is meant by partial negative and positive charge? How can a charge be partial? [closed]

My teacher stated, oxygen has a greater electronegativity than hydrogen. Thus, in water, oxygen develops partial negative charge and hydrogen develops develops partial positive charge. I am not able ...
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When to consider back bonding and when to not; when will it change hybridisation and when will it not?

This question has been troubling me since my professor taught this concept. Points that she taught: pi back bonding can only happen amongst elements of 2nd and 3rd period. At least one of them needs ...
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56 views

How are 3 center-4 electron bonds any different from 2 center-2 electron bonds? [closed]

How are the bridge bonds in $\ce{Al2Cl6}$ different from the terminal bonds? We could have just mentioned the bridge bond formed by $\ce{Cl}$ as a coordinate bond. Why introduce this extra concept? I ...
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Can you create a temporary bond in between an atom and a filter by electrically charging the filter?

I want to be able to turn a filter on and off by electrically charging the filter so that it creates a temporary bond that blocks up the filter then, by discharging the filter, releasing the temporary ...
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What is the LUMO of a molecule with an alkene and a carbonyl?

In a molecule that has both an alkene (C=C) and carbonyl (C=O) that are NOT conjugated, such as pent-4-en-2-one, how do you determine which π* anti-bonding orbital is the LUMO? Essentially, I'm trying ...
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Why are the hydrogen-carbon bonds bent in a graphical depiction of an alkene, but are straight horizontally and vertically in an alkane?

In propane, for example, the $\ce{C-H}$ bonds are depicted by straight vertical and horizontal lines. But in propene, the same bonds are bent. Is it a rule that $\ce{C-H}$ bonds are always bent if the ...
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1answer
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Could a 'polymer' be formed by hydrogen bonding? [closed]

For example, given you had a molecule with a carboxyl functional group on either side, could it form a continuous chain of dimers? I understand this may not fit under the definition for polymer but I ...
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Why doesn't an sp3s hybridisation exist?

Trying to prove that nitrogen doesn't split its lone pair to form 5 bonds, I thought of a situation that I couldn't rule out; the paired electron being excited to the 3s orbital, so that five bonds ...
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Application of statement: extent of overlapping is always less than 50% because of electronic repulsion [closed]

Question from the online class: Can two s-orbitals overlap as shown? Dotted circles in diagram depict maximum probability region of s-orbitals in ideal situation when atoms A and B are not bonded. ...
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In benzene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene, which one has greater C=C bond length? [closed]

In benzene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene, resonance will occur, so both will have a partial pi character. Technically, all bonds in benzene have partial pi character, whereas in 1,3-cyclohexadiene, some have ...
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Why is the sulphate ion sp3 hybridized? [duplicate]

I've read about $\mathrm{sp}$, $\mathrm{sp^2}$, and $\mathrm{sp^3}$ and understand that for $\mathrm{sp}$ there will be 2 $\mathrm{sp}$ orbitals, for $\mathrm{sp^2}$ there will be 3 $\mathrm{sp^2}$ ...
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Hydration vs Dissolution

While revising Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry from revision material published by Arihant publications I encountered the following mentioned statement. During dissolution, the physical state of ...
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Why is a C-N bond weaker than a C-C?

As far as I could remember, in the same period, a bond to a more electronegative atom implies in a more polar and stronger bond, due to the greater ionic character. However the bond dissociation ...
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1answer
91 views

Why are the two bonds in sulphur dioxide identical? [duplicate]

Triatomic molecules are either linear or bent. If we analyse the $\ce{SO2}$ molecule, it turns out that it is bent. I know that $\pi$ bonds do not alter shape, but merely the bond lengths. Now since ...
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1answer
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Why is a sodium chloride molecule stable?

The ionization energy of sodium is $\pu{5.139eV}$. This is the energy absorbed when a neutral sodium atom is stripped of its outermost electron. The electron affinity of chlorine is $\pu{3.62eV}$. ...
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Relation between the number of hybridised orbitals and the number of sigma bonds

March's Advanced Organic Chemistry (8th Ed.), has in its first chapter several tantalizing statements of the following variety; Boron has only three valence electrons available to form bonds, hence ...
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How to apply the Fajans' rules?

Outside of bonds between metal atoms=metallic bonds, non-metals=covalent bonds (molecules), it is difficult for me to determine what kind of bond it is. I know that in the rule metals and non-metals ...
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How is kinetic energy accounted for when describing diatomic bonds with a Morse potential?

The Morse potential can be used to describe the potential energy of the a diatomic bond: This curve suggests that the lowest state $v = 0$ is the most stable, since it has the lowest potential energy....
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Do Metal Carbonyl complexes exhibit multiple back donation at the same time?

I came across a question which renewed one of my doubts that I had regarding bonding in metal Carbonyl complexes. According to me, metal should exhibit multiple back donation at the same time. ...
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How are intermolecular forces between non-metallic substances affected when the substance is heated to its melting point?

I have 3 main questions that I am unsure of: Are intermolecular forces acting simultaneously causing attraction between particles in a sample of a substance? Example: Hydrogen bonding and dipole-...
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1answer
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Lone pairs of electrons and covalent bonding [closed]

Every time I saw a covalent bond structure, I notice that there are always lone pairs or no electrons left in the outer shell of the atoms. Is it compulsory for covalent bonds to have lone pairs or no ...
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How do bond electrons covers both atoms in covalent bond? [duplicate]

I want to know how bonding electrons behave when they have to cover for both atoms. Electrons can spin around only one atom right? If so, then what happens when a covalent bond forms? Let's say we ...
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Reactivity order among Interhalogens

I was reading about Interhalogens in JD Lee and in the book it is stated that (without any reasoning) the reactivity order for few of the interhalogens is :- $\ce{ClF_3 > BrF_5 > IF_7 > ClF &...
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Do high-energy chemical bonds indicate strong chemical bonds?

In my head it seems reasonable that a high-energy bond would indicate that the bond is strong, however a question got me thinking. Take for example lead azide, a very explosive compound that is often ...
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Which d orbitals are involved in “d3s hybridisation”?

I was reading about hybridisation and came across a point saying that $\mathrm{d^3s}$ hybridisation involves only $\mathrm d_{xy}$, $\mathrm d_{yz}$, and $\mathrm d_{zx}$ orbitals and not $\mathrm d_{...
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1answer
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What is the mechanism of formation of alkali metal superoxide?

I was studying about alkali metals. I can get how oxides and peroxides are formed. In alkali metal oxides, both of the bonds of the dioxygen molecule first undergoes homolytic cleavage, then the ...
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Determining whether a compound is ionic or molecular in nature [closed]

$\ce{HCl}$ is a molecular compound because there is a covalent bond between $\ce{H+}$(a proton) and $\ce{Cl-}$ (a chloride ion) $\ce{NH4NO3}$ is an ionic compound because there is an ionic bond ...
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1answer
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Why does methane have 4-different bond dissociation energies?

I will elaborate on my question here. In my Lecture Notes it is mentioned that for methane, there are 4 different $\text{C-H}$ bond energies. I plotted a quick graph of the bond energies to analyse ...
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1answer
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Do hydrides, like NaH or CsH, also form H-bond? [closed]

I know that when hydrogen acts as a cation, it can form H-bonds with the electronegative ions or groups. But, is this also true for anionic hydrogens? Will they form similar bonds, other than the ...
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Why does dilithium have a longer bond length than dihydrogen?

I've tried MO theory however they both have a bond order of 1. Which means we can not relate the bond order to the bond length. My thinking - I think that the h2 bond length is shorter due to only ...
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Comparing bond lengths in metal carbonyls

Question: It's solution is given as: Now I don't understand which d$\pi$ electrons have been considered here. For example, in $\ce{Fe(CO)_5}$, according to this, number of d$\pi$ electrons would be ...
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Lattice Energy and Stability in s block compounds

Lattice energy decreases down the group but stability of the compound still increases why? For the purpose of this post I'll take alkali earth metal carbonate as an example. As we go down the group ...
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Why does π-backbonding in a metal-carbonyl complex lead to a decrease in C-O bond strength?

I understand that π-backbonding in this complex involves the σ-donation of carbonyl to an empty d orbital of the metal, and the π-donation of the d electrons of the metal to the π* MO of the carbonyl. ...
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How does the force constant change when a heavier atom is used in vibrational spectroscopy?

(iii) The fundamental band in the IR spectrum of $\ce{^1H^{127}I}$ is found at $\pu{2308 cm^-1}.$ Calculate the force constant for the bond. Assume the molecule can be treated as a harmonic oscillator....
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What difference between pi bond and bent bond? Is it possible to replace sigma-pi bond model and use only bent bond instead?

Between sigma-pi bond and 2 bent bonds, is it actually equiavalence? Or there is specific molecule that require to be bent bonds and cannot exist as pi bond and vice versa? I felt like we actually don'...
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Why is HF much more covalent than KI despite having a greater electronegativity difference? [duplicate]

Generally, the percent of ionic character in a two-element compound correlates quite well with the difference in the electronegativities of the two elements making up the compound, as can be seen in ...
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Why are steric effects repulsive?

Normally, I think about orbitals interacting in the context of bonding. When two atomic orbitals overlap, they can do so in-phase or out-of-phase. The in-phase overlap results in a bonding molecular ...
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Confusion regarding $\delta$ charge compared with electronegativity

I heard on a lecture of an online site that, let us say, we have two orbitals (1 and 2). Now, it will be like a spherical cloud. Now, what they say is that Now, we can notice that for orbital number ...
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How can I Solidify / cure silicon caulk used to create tubing

Curing and preventing silicon caulk from sticking to itself Food Grade RTV Silicone Sealant Adhesive Clear 10.3oz when creating tubes. Some videos show using hot water and some videos show using cold ...
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Comparing O−O bond length in hydrogen peroxide and dioxide(2−) ion

Problem How can we qualitatively compare the bond lengths between $\ce{H2O2}$ and $\ce{O2^2-}?$ Answer Attempt I tried using molecular orbital theory, but since both have peroxide $\ce{O2^2-},$ the ...
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268 views

What is the definition of thermodynamic stability?

The term thermodynamic stability is used on this site, but I can't find a good definition. Is is a quantitative or a qualitative concept? Does it apply to a single compound, or a pair of compounds? ...
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In dative bond S→ S, why are the Oxidation state of donor S = +2 and recipient S= -2 although both of them have the same electronegativity?

We know that if the dative bond is directed towards less electronegative element, it is ignored while calculating the oxidations state and it is considered as +2 for donor and -2 for the recipient ...
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1answer
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Estimating BDE Values

I'm having trouble understanding how to "estimate" the value of the BDE for the compound shown below (I believe it is a secondary benzylic C-Br value) shown below (the 58 kcal/mol). We are ...

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