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Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecules-forces], etc.

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electron donation affecting carbonyl bond strength

I have been told that electron donation decreases carbonyl bond strength and thus decreases the bond stretch frequency, but electron withdrawal increases it. This does not seem to make any sense as ...
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1answer
13 views

Why are higher oxides of non-metals more acidic?

I have studied that if the electronegativity difference between O- and element M is more then it is a basic oxide and if the difference is less then it is an acidic oxide. However, it is a fact that ...
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1answer
73 views

Which diatomic molecule would have the largest bond energy? [on hold]

Of the following diatomic molecules is I2 the molecule with the largest bond energy? F2 Cl2 Br2 I2
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1answer
257 views

Does the Location of Line-Dash-Wedge Notations Matter?

In Line-Dash-Wedge notation, when illustrating that an atom or bond is directed towards or away from the viewer (solid triangle for coming forward, dotted lines for going back), does the location of ...
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2answers
44 views

molecular orbital theory [on hold]

i read in my textbook that the energy diagram of moleculal orbits is different for atoms nitrogen and below them. my question is which one of the energy diagrams to use in heteronuclear compounds like ...
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1answer
40 views

Why aren't all bond lengths equal in cyclobutadiene? [closed]

even when there is a possibility of conjugation why aren't bond lengths equal?
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Why Difference is raised between 16e-and14e-rule (π2Px andπ2Py) in MOED? [closed]

I had listened that there is difference while writing electronic configuration of O2 and N2 why there is a difference between them?
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0answers
30 views

Hybridisation of Nitrogen monoxide

What is the proposed hybridisation for nitrogen and oxygen atoms in mono nitrogen mono oxide (NO) molecule ?
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21 views

Is the 12-6 Lennard Jones potential a good description of van der Waals interaction energy?

It seems to me that the Lennard Jones potential oversimplifies the more complex nature of van der Waals forces. However, in most of the MD simulation package, this is generally accepted.
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20 views

Metallic Versus Covalent Bonding

Given that a metal's low ionisation energy is often used to explain the metallic bond (as are other factors such as temperature and pressure and possibly a number of other factors), is there any known ...
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1answer
35 views

Electric conductivity

Well I was wondering why some materials have a higher resistivity than others . So I took two elements randomly . I picked carbon and silicon . Carbon has lower resistivity than silicon and obviously ...
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2answers
71 views

During formation and breaking of bonds, can the terms potential energy and bond energy be used interchangeably?

My chemistry professor uses these terms interchangeably and I was wondering if they refer to the same thing. From what I understand, bond energy is the energy required to break one mole of covalently ...
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1answer
31 views

When a bond is formed between an electophile and a nucleophile, they both lose energy and become more stable right?

This is a section from clayden's organic chemistry textbook. I do not understand why it says energy gain and not energy loss
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1answer
28 views

Is there any difference between thermal energy at room temperature in fluids(water) vs air?

Context of the question: I was reading on hydrogen bonds, specifically how close they are to the thermal energy of the fluids. So I googled the value of thermal energy at room temperature, which was $\...
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1answer
52 views

Reaction energy of oxygen and hydrogen

From the bonding energy of following bonds that I found in a Wikipedia article, I calculated the reaction energy that would be released when oxygen and hydrogen are reacted to produce water. The phase ...
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4answers
933 views

Does a neutral dimercury molecule exist?

Is a neutral $\ce{Hg2}$ molecule possible, as a gas under extremely low (partial) pressures? What is the enthalpy of formation or similar? It is my impression that usual mercury vapors are monatomic? ...
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2answers
89 views

Why does bond breaking in ATP release energy? [duplicate]

We always come across that formation of bonds releases energy, and bond breaking requires energy, but in the case where ATP converts into ADP or AMP (bond breaking), energy is released. Why? Further, ...
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0answers
25 views

My problem with Tollen's reagent [duplicate]

The formula of Tollen's reagent is $\ce{[Ag(NH3)2]+}$. What is the bond existing between the silver(I) atom and the ammonia groups? Because ammonia is stable, it doesn't need to gain or donate any ...
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0answers
30 views

Drawing bonds and delocalised electrons in condensed formulae

The $\LaTeX$ mhchem package provides commands for drawing bonds within condensed chemical formulae. Some of them have a clear allocation to covalent bonds while others have not. Single, double, and ...
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0answers
27 views

How do three-electron bonds work in MO theory?

When we're taught MO theory in basic chemistry, a rule-of-thumb hammered into our heads is that an orbital takes up to 2 electrons with opposite spins. Sigma or pi bonds are represented by stable ...
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2answers
75 views

What would be the intermolecular forces between the molecules of methanetetrol?

Methanetetrol has the following chemical formula: $\ce{CO4H4}$. It is also referred to as orthocarbonic acid. Since the molecule has a molecular geometry of a tetrahedron, similar to that of a ...
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1answer
85 views

Why is carbon monoxide a monodentate ligand

Carbon monoxide has lone pairs on both the carbon and the oxygen atoms. However, I have never seen any complex where the oxygen atom or both the oxygen and the carbon atoms are the donors. I know ...
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1answer
186 views

Explanation of the strength of phosphorus-oxygen bond

When discussing the Wittig reaction, Clayden's Organic Chemistry cites the strength of the $\ce{P=O}$ formed in triphenylphosphine oxide as a driver of the reaction through enthalpy: The $\ce{P=O}$ ...
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0answers
53 views

Why doesn't lithium form dilithium crystals? (Calling Mr.Spock) [duplicate]

Hydrogen is in the first column of the periodic table. At STP it is a diatomic gas. When cooled and/or under pressure it forms a crystalline solid of di-hydrogen molecules. Calculations indicate that ...
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2answers
82 views

What is the bond in H2O (water) molecule ? And why? [duplicate]

Is it covalent or coordinate covalent bond ? Because it can be a bond between O and 2 H atoms and so it will be covalent bond . And it can be a bond between H (+ve) ion and Oh(-ve)ion and it will be ...
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1answer
50 views

How hydrogen molecule is formed? [closed]

How two hydrogen atoms come close to form a bond ? Textbooks refer to a potential energy diagram but what i cant understand is what is this potential energy if the atoms are neutral . How they come ...
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1answer
249 views

Explanation for bond lengths in trans-hexatriene

Hexatriene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon with six carbon atoms and five carbon-carbon bonds, three of which are double bonds. However, the bond lengths of the $\ce{C=C}$ bonds are not the same. The ...
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1answer
45 views

Why does covalent nature in ionic solids increase the lattice energy?

I have observed in my textbooks that ionic solid that have a greater covalent character tend to have higher lattice energy. Can this be generalised as fact?
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0answers
24 views

Why does diatomic oxygen have five filled molecular orbitals, but is considered to have two bonds?

So I'm taking an introductory chemical physics course and we are covering LCAO-MO. We learn about the molecular orbitals that arise out of a combination of the two atoms atomic orbitals. This totally ...
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1answer
278 views

Bond length in NO3- [duplicate]

I am doing a multiple choice question for which one of the possible answers is, for the Lewis structure of NO3- (one of the oxygens is double bonded to the nitrogen and the other two are single bonded)...
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1answer
43 views

Inorganic Chemistry

Which of the following is a covalent bond? 1.Al2O3 2.AlF3 3.AlCl3 4.Al2(SO4)3 The correct answer is AlCl3.But I have a confusion between option c and d.A/c Fajan's ...
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1answer
66 views

Comparing the bond strength between a polar bond and non-polar bond

According to NCERT class 12 part 2, $\ce{ICl}$ has lesser bond enthalpy than $\ce{I2}$. I have read that non polar covalent bonds are weaker than polar covalent bonds as in polar covalent bonds ...
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2answers
180 views

Why the bond strength of HCl is more than HBr?

Most people say that it is because the 3p orbital of chlorine when overlapping with the s orbital of hydrogen covers more area than when 4p orbital of bromine overlaps with the s orbital of hydrogen ...
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0answers
30 views

Bond lengths in iodine compounds

Why the bond length of $\ce{I-I}$ bond in $\ce{I3-}$ greater than $\ce{I3+}$ . Is that because the former has more p character than s
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2answers
181 views

Which has the greater N–O bond length, NO₂⁻ or NO₃⁻?

Which has the greater N–O bond length, $\ce{NO_2^{-}}$ or $\ce{NO^_3^{-}}$? I don't understand why the N-O bonds should be of different lengths in these two molecules (don't the same bonds have the ...
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2answers
500 views

Choose the molecule with the strongest bond

Choose the molecule with the strongest bond: $\ce{F2, Cl2, Br2, I2,}$ or all are equal. All of them are nonpolar-covalently bonded, so I had thought that the answer would be "all are equal". However,...
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0answers
117 views

H-N-H bond angle in ammonia boron trifluoride adduct

In the reaction: $\ce{NH3 + BF3 -> NH3-BF3}$ does the HNH bond angle increase or decrease? Surely, the FBF bond angle decreases because boron changes from $\ce{sp^2 -> sp^3}$. But how can we ...
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1answer
192 views

Explain the structure of HNC (Hydrogen Isocyanide)

What are the different types of bonds present in the structure? Does Nitrogen donates one electron from its lone pair to carbon and acquires a positive charge? How do I determine the Oxidation state ...
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1answer
123 views

Are 3-center-2 electron bonds and and banana bonds same?

While reading about diborane, I came to know that the two bridging hydrogen atoms in diborane form 3 center 2 electron bonds. On account of repulsion between the two hydrogen nuclei, the delocalised ...
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1answer
79 views

Do all sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds? [closed]

Many textbooks refer that sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds . But each individual bond ( between different atoms) have different bond energy. So how we know for sure that every possible sigma ...
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1answer
372 views

According to MO theory, why is the dilithium cation more stable than the dilithium anion?

According to molecular orbital theory, $\ce{Li2}$ fills up two electrons in the $\sigma_\mathrm{g2s}$ molecular orbital; $\ce{Li2+}$ fills up one electron in the $\sigma_\mathrm{g2s}$ MO, and $\ce{...
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1answer
459 views

Why lattice energy of NaCl is more than CsCl?

Why is the lattice energy of Nacl more than that of CsCl? If size of Na is smaller than that of Cs, then according to Fajan's rule, Na should polarise Chlorine more and therefore, NaCl must have more ...
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1answer
554 views

Bonding in Zeise's salt

I am not sure I completely understand the bonding in coordination compounds formed by donation of pi electron cloud by the ligands to the central atom. For example, consider Ziese's salt: I came ...
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2answers
182 views

Carbonyl bond vs alkene bond

Why is that carbonyl bonds are stronger than those of alkenes? It's a basic question but I've never really thought much about it. I've read several times that carbonyl bonds are shorter and you need ...
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2answers
106 views

Hybridization in ethene [closed]

I recently learned that there is such thing as a hybridization in chemistry, but I don't really get it. For example, in $\ce{C2H2}$ (Ethene), they say the there are 3 electrons in three ${sp^2}$ and ...
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0answers
179 views

Calculation of average bond length from force constant and IR absorption?

I need some help beginning a problem set problem (just want hints, I'd like to figure it out myself). The problem gives me the IR absorption for a diatomic, as well as the force constant for the ...
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1answer
40 views

Can a bond form between two atoms that don't have 8 electrons?

Generally, atoms like to have 8 valence electrons. But, I'm wondering if it's possible for two types of atoms to form a bond where neither of them gains 8 electrons. Take Carbon, which has 4 valence ...
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0answers
144 views

What studies show that d orbitals don't play an important role in covalent bonding? (> period 2 elements) [closed]

Take a look at all the following molecules: $\ce{SO3^{2-}}$, $\ce{SO2}$, $\ce{SO4^2-}$, $\ce{PF5}$ and many more you can add. In all these there is a controversy of one of these two types: Is formal ...
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175 views

What bonding allows chloroaluminate (AlCl4-) to form?

How is $\ce{AlCl4-}$ formed when $\ce{Al}$ only has $3$ electrons in it's outershell. It would be able to give $3$ electrons away with $\ce{AlCl3}$ for it to have a full outershell but how does it ...
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0answers
36 views

Strengthening a clay rocket nozzle with sodium silicate and calcium chloride

"I strengthen the bentonite clay nozzle by dipping the rammed nozzle in a $50\%$ sodium silicate solution and allow to dry in warm oven. Then dip in a strong solution of Calcium Chloride, again dry. ...