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Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecules-forces], etc.

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2answers
37 views

Why does bond breaking in ATP release energy? [duplicate]

We always come across that formation of bonds releases energy, and bond breaking requires energy, but in the case where ATP converts into ADP or AMP (bond breaking), energy is released. Why? Further, ...
0
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0answers
21 views

My problem with Tollen's reagent [duplicate]

The formula of Tollen's reagent is $\ce{[Ag(NH3)2]+}$. What is the bond existing between the silver(I) atom and the ammonia groups? Because ammonia is stable, it doesn't need to gain or donate any ...
0
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0answers
24 views

at what distance does chemical bonding initiate? [on hold]

I'm trying to understand the mechanics of protein folding, and it is raising questions about bonding of all types (hydrogen, ionic, etc.). Over what distance (physical separation) between atoms/...
1
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0answers
24 views

Drawing bonds and delocalised electrons in condensed formulae

The $\LaTeX$ mhchem package provides commands for drawing bonds within condensed chemical formulae. Some of them have a clear allocation to covalent bonds while others have not. Single, double, and ...
0
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0answers
15 views

How do three-electron bonds work in MO theory?

When we're taught MO theory in basic chemistry, a rule-of-thumb hammered into our heads is that an orbital takes up to 2 electrons with opposite spins. Sigma or pi bonds are represented by stable ...
0
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2answers
44 views

What would be the intermolecular forces between the molecules of methanetetrol?

Methanetetrol has the following chemical formula: $\ce{CO4H4}$. It is also referred to as orthocarbonic acid. Since the molecule has a molecular geometry of a tetrahedron, similar to that of a ...
2
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1answer
50 views

Why is carbon monoxide a monodentate ligand

Carbon monoxide has lone pairs on both the carbon and the oxygen atoms. However, I have never seen any complex where the oxygen atom or both the oxygen and the carbon atoms are the donors. I know ...
9
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0answers
52 views

Explanation of the strength of phosphorus-oxygen bond

When discussing the Wittig reaction, Clayden's Organic Chemistry cites the strength of the $\ce{P=O}$ formed in triphenylphosphine oxide as a driver of the reaction through enthalpy: The $\ce{P=O}$ ...
2
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0answers
49 views

Why doesn't lithium form dilithium crystals? (Calling Mr.Spock) [duplicate]

Hydrogen is in the first column of the periodic table. At STP it is a diatomic gas. When cooled and/or under pressure it forms a crystalline solid of di-hydrogen molecules. Calculations indicate that ...
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2answers
51 views

What is the bond in H2O (water) molecule ? And why? [duplicate]

Is it covalent or coordinate covalent bond ? Because it can be a bond between O and 2 H atoms and so it will be covalent bond . And it can be a bond between H (+ve) ion and Oh(-ve)ion and it will be ...
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1answer
43 views

How hydrogen molecule is formed? [closed]

How two hydrogen atoms come close to form a bond ? Textbooks refer to a potential energy diagram but what i cant understand is what is this potential energy if the atoms are neutral . How they come ...
9
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1answer
217 views

Explanation for bond lengths in trans-hexatriene

Hexatriene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon with six carbon atoms and five carbon-carbon bonds, three of which are double bonds. However, the bond lengths of the $\ce{C=C}$ bonds are not the same. The ...
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0answers
31 views

pπ-dπ bonding in SO2X2

Sulfuryl Chloride and Sulfuryl Fluoride have π-bonds between S and O atoms. I have read that SO2Cl2 has one pπ-dπ and one pπ-pπ bond, but can't verify it anywhere on the net. Is the above statement a ...
1
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0answers
16 views

Why does covalent nature in ionic solids increase the lattice energy?

I have observed in my textbooks that ionic solid that have a greater covalent character tend to have higher lattice energy. Can this be generalised as fact?
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0answers
41 views

Proof of the VSEPR shapes

The VSEPR predicts that the atoms arrange themselves in such a way that the electron pair repulsion is minimized. Thus the atoms arrange themselves in space in such a manner so as to be as far apart ...
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0answers
29 views

Hydrogen bonding deshielding

In NMR spectra it has been stablished the deshielding effect on those hydrogens participating in a hydrogen bond but my question is: if the $\ce{O}$ of a $\ce{-CH2OH}$ group acts as a donor, does it ...
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0answers
36 views

Why is the structure of ozone not an equilateral triangle? [duplicate]

In the structure of ozone, there is a double bond and a coordinate bond, which causes the accumulation of positive charge on the central oxygen due to sharing of the lone pair. Wouldn't a triangular ...
1
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0answers
23 views

Why does diatomic oxygen have five filled molecular orbitals, but is considered to have two bonds?

So I'm taking an introductory chemical physics course and we are covering LCAO-MO. We learn about the molecular orbitals that arise out of a combination of the two atoms atomic orbitals. This totally ...
0
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1answer
63 views

Bond length in NO3- [duplicate]

I am doing a multiple choice question for which one of the possible answers is, for the Lewis structure of NO3- (one of the oxygens is double bonded to the nitrogen and the other two are single bonded)...
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1answer
40 views

Inorganic Chemistry

Which of the following is a covalent bond? 1.Al2O3 2.AlF3 3.AlCl3 4.Al2(SO4)3 The correct answer is AlCl3.But I have a confusion between option c and d.A/c Fajan's ...
2
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1answer
52 views

Comparing the bond strength between a polar bond and non-polar bond

According to NCERT class 12 part 2, $\ce{ICl}$ has lesser bond enthalpy than $\ce{I2}$. I have read that non polar covalent bonds are weaker than polar covalent bonds as in polar covalent bonds ...
1
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2answers
110 views

Why the bond strength of HCl is more than HBr?

Most people say that it is because the 3p orbital of chlorine when overlapping with the s orbital of hydrogen covers more area than when 4p orbital of bromine overlaps with the s orbital of hydrogen ...
1
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0answers
25 views

Bond lengths in iodine compounds

Why the bond length of $\ce{I-I}$ bond in $\ce{I3-}$ greater than $\ce{I3+}$ . Is that because the former has more p character than s
3
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2answers
82 views

Which has the greater N–O bond length, NO₂⁻ or NO₃⁻?

Which has the greater N–O bond length, $\ce{NO_2^{-}}$ or $\ce{NO^_3^{-}}$? I don't understand why the N-O bonds should be of different lengths in these two molecules (don't the same bonds have the ...
3
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2answers
236 views

Choose the molecule with the strongest bond

Choose the molecule with the strongest bond: $\ce{F2, Cl2, Br2, I2,}$ or all are equal. All of them are nonpolar-covalently bonded, so I had thought that the answer would be "all are equal". However,...
2
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0answers
70 views

H-N-H bond angle in ammonia boron trifluoride adduct

In the reaction: $\ce{NH3 + BF3 ->}$ NH3-BF3 does the HNH bond angle increase or decrease? Surely, the FBF bond angle decreases because boron changes from $\ce{sp^2 -> sp^3}$. But how can we ...
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1answer
93 views

Explain the structure of HNC (Hydrogen Isocyanide)

What are the different types of bonds present in the structure? Does Nitrogen donates one electron from its lone pair to carbon and acquires a positive charge? How do I determine the Oxidation state ...
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1answer
78 views

Are 3-center-2 electron bonds and and banana bonds same?

While reading about diborane, I came to know that the two bridging hydrogen atoms in diborane form 3 center 2 electron bonds. On account of repulsion between the two hydrogen nuclei, the delocalised ...
1
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1answer
40 views

Do all sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds? [closed]

Many textbooks refer that sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds . But each individual bond ( between different atoms) have different bond energy. So how we know for sure that every possible sigma ...
0
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1answer
197 views

According to MO theory, why is $\ce{Li2+}$ more stable than $\ce{Li2-}$?

By MO theory, $\ce{Li2}$ fill up two electrons in $\sigma_{g2s}$ molecular orbital. $\ce{Li2+}$ fill up one electron in $\sigma_{g2s}$ MO. $\ce{Li2-}$ fill up two electrons in $\sigma_{g2s}$ MO, and ...
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votes
1answer
249 views

Why lattice energy of NaCl is more than CsCl?

Why is the lattice energy of Nacl more than that of CsCl? If size of Na is smaller than that of Cs, then according to Fajan's rule, Na should polarise Chlorine more and therefore, NaCl must have more ...
4
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1answer
194 views

Bonding in Zeise's salt

I am not sure I completely understand the bonding in coordination compounds formed by donation of pi electron cloud by the ligands to the central atom. For example, consider Ziese's salt: I came ...
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2answers
97 views

Carbonyl bond vs alkene bond

Why is that carbonyl bonds are stronger than those of alkenes? It's a basic question but I've never really thought much about it. I've read several times that carbonyl bonds are shorter and you need ...
0
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2answers
66 views

Hybridization in ethene [closed]

I recently learned that there is such thing as a hybridization in chemistry, but I don't really get it. For example, in $\ce{C2H2}$ (Ethene), they say the there are 3 electrons in three ${sp^2}$ and ...
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0answers
235 views

pi molecular orbitals of benzene

I found the following picture of the $\pi$ molecular orbitals of benzene. Now, I am having problem on understanding $\pi_3$ and $\pi_5 ^*$ In both of these, we can see that, on right and left, bond ...
1
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0answers
106 views

Calculation of average bond length from force constant and IR absorption?

I need some help beginning a problem set problem (just want hints, I'd like to figure it out myself). The problem gives me the IR absorption for a diatomic, as well as the force constant for the ...
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1answer
39 views

Can a bond form between two atoms that don't have 8 electrons?

Generally, atoms like to have 8 valence electrons. But, I'm wondering if it's possible for two types of atoms to form a bond where neither of them gains 8 electrons. Take Carbon, which has 4 valence ...
2
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0answers
128 views

What studies show that d orbitals don't play an important role in covalent bonding? (> period 2 elements) [closed]

Take a look at all the following molecules: $\ce{SO3^{2-}}$, $\ce{SO2}$, $\ce{SO4^2-}$, $\ce{PF5}$ and many more you can add. In all these there is a controversy of one of these two types: Is formal ...
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0answers
112 views

What bonding allows chloroaluminate (AlCl4-) to form?

How is $\ce{AlCl4-}$ formed when $\ce{Al}$ only has $3$ electrons in it's outershell. It would be able to give $3$ electrons away with $\ce{AlCl3}$ for it to have a full outershell but how does it ...
1
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0answers
28 views

Strengthening a clay rocket nozzle with sodium silicate and calcium chloride

"I strengthen the bentonite clay nozzle by dipping the rammed nozzle in a $50\%$ sodium silicate solution and allow to dry in warm oven. Then dip in a strong solution of Calcium Chloride, again dry. ...
2
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2answers
164 views

The molecular orbitals of lithium hydride

So my understanding of molecular orbitals is as follows: the molecular orbitals of $\ce{LiH}$ can be thought of as being formed from the interaction/overlap of two atomic orbitals, one from lithium ...
9
votes
1answer
112 views

How can the solid state structure of cyclopentadienyllithium be explained?

In the solid state, LiCp adopts a polymeric multidecker structure where Li atoms are sandwiched between two Cp rings (shown in this diagram from Organometallics 1997, 16 (17), 3855–3858): If we ...
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1answer
32 views

What force attracts electrons from another atom to a non-closed valence shell? [duplicate]

As I understand the balance in an atom is reached when the number of protons is equal the number of electrons. And the force responsible for this is based on each proton attracting one electron. But ...
3
votes
3answers
174 views

Relative strengths of methyl, primary, secondary, and tertiary C–H bonds

Which of the highlighted C–H bonds in the following compounds is weakest? (R = generic alkyl group) I personally thought that the answer was 1 but it is given as 4 in the answer key. I didn't ...
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1answer
66 views

Bent's rule vs Resonance

In CH2=CHCl and CH3CH2Cl , according to Bent's rule, more s character should be towards '=' bond and more p character is towards C-Cl bond in first molecule but in the second one, there should less p ...
1
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2answers
316 views

Hydrogen bonds - why not in HCl? [duplicate]

In a textbook1, I found the following clear definition of hydrogen bonds: The strongest secondary bonding type, the hydrogen bond, is a special case of polar molecule bonding. It occurs between ...
2
votes
0answers
119 views

Do bond lengths change upon protonation of a molecule such as an H2O molecule?

Wouldn't the hydrogen atom in a hydronium cation feel a greater proton repulsion force (nucleus-nucleus repulsions) from the oxygen atom and orient away from the oxygen atom to maximize the attractive ...
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2answers
179 views

Proof that BF3 exists? [closed]

What I know is, elements with octet are stable, But In BF3, Boran doesn't get octet, So, How come BF3 molecule exist? If it exists, How do we know whether it is BF3 or not? Is there any proof that ...
1
vote
2answers
69 views

How can you tell when a molecule forms a lattice [closed]

I came across the molecule SiO2 and didn't realize that in fact, it forms a lattice. How could I have found out that, in fact, it forms a lattice?
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0answers
1k views

How is the structure of triiodide ion (I3-) possible?

I have seen the structure of triiodide ion ($\ce{I3-}$) but I cannot understand why this structure is even possible. I have seen in my textbook that $\ce{I_3^-}$ is formed by combination of $\ce{...