Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecules-forces], etc.

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Antibonding, Nonbonding and Bonding orbitals

Recently I came across nonbonding orbitals. I know something about bonding and antibonding orbitals and their formation, but I have no idea about nonbonding orbitals. Could someone explain their ...
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Why does a tetrahedral molecule like methane have a dipole moment of zero?

I was studying chemical bonding when I noticed something odd. We say compounds like $\ce{CCl4}$ and $\ce{CH4}$ have a tetrahedral geometry (which is a 3D structure) but when we talk about their ...
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Nature of the bonding in hexaaquaaluminium complex

$\ce {[Al(H2O)6]^3+}$ is a well-known complex ion formed by the $\ce {Al^3+}$. I have always had the understanding that only the aqua complexes of transition metal ions, such as $\ce {[Fe(H2O)6]^3+}$, ...
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What's the mechanism behind mineral oil loosening cyanoacrylate bonds?

Per industry literature I found that mineral oil is used to loosen out "super glue" and aid in removal from skin. I am exploring the chemistry of this loosening and I am intrigued. Please help me find ...
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Calculating bond dissociation enthalpy of F-F bond

$$\ce{N2 + 3 F2 -> 2 NF3} \quad ΔH = \pu{-263 kJ mol-1}$$ The bond dissociation enthalpies of the nitrogen triple bond and nitrogen–flourine bond are $\pu{946 kJ mol-1}$ and $\pu{272 kJ mol-1}....
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Atoms and atomic bonding [duplicate]

Why exactly do atoms have a propensity to fill their outermost energy level with the allowed number of electrons? Is there some sort of instability from the lack of thereof?
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Bond dissociation energy calculation

I am looking for methods to determine the dissociation free energy in a precise way, ideally from a simulations. My hope is to get the most precise values possible that are specific to the structure ...
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1answer
342 views

Which molecule has maximum bond angle amongst BF₃, BCl₃ and BBr₃? [closed]

$\ce{Br}$ is the least electronegative from the given compounds. So, in $\ce{BBr3}$ the electrons will be the closest towards boron and thus due to electron-electron repulsions $\ce{BBr3}$ will have ...
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47 views

Is fluorine also hybridised in carbon tetrafluoride?

I had read that when an atom forms multiple bonds, it hybridises it's orbitals to minimise the repulsion and decrease the overall energy. But do the terminal atoms also exist in hybridised form? E.g. ...
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1answer
59 views

What kind of bonds (σ or π) are formed by px, py and pz orbitals? [closed]

Our chemistry teacher said that two $\mathrm{p}_z$ orbital only form sigma bond whereas two $\mathrm{p}_x$ and two $\mathrm{p}_y$ orbitals form only pi bond. He also stated that only $\mathrm{p}_z$...
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Reduction of conjugated double bond by sodium borohydride

Some of my teachers were debating about whether a double bond in conjugation with a ketone is reduced or not by $\ce{NaBH4}.$ One of my teachers presented the evidence from Clayden which had an ...
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Amphoterism and the Metal and Non-Metal Oxides/Hydroxides. Why does amphoterism occur in these? [closed]

I am having trouble understanding why Beryllium Oxide and Aluminum Oxide are amphoteric. Also, while they are not oxides, Aluminum and Beryllium Chloride as well. Most of the things I have been ...
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Reaction enthalpy using bond energy in resonating molecules

To find out and enthalpy of a reaction using bond energy we use the formula $$\Delta H = \sum\Delta_\mathrm{bond}H_\mathrm{reactants} - \sum\Delta_\mathrm{bond}H_\mathrm{products}$$ since we use all ...
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1answer
40 views

Hydration, Coordinate Bonding, and Reduction Potential in Groups 1 and 2 Elements [closed]

Whenever an alkali metal such as Lithium is hydrated/solvated, coordinate bonding occurs and it is the high hydration enthalpy of lithium which makes it the strongest reducing agent in aqueous ...
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Difference between Ascorbate & Semi-DHA (both C₆H₇O₆)

I wanted to know how Sodium Ascorbate functions in the AA family of molecules. However, all normal routes lead to dead ends (typically AA). Forcing NCBI to search only for Sodium Ascorbate mostly ...
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30 views

Bond dissociation energy among halogens [duplicate]

Among the halogens, why is it that the fluorine has the lowest bond dissociation enthalpy, considering the fact that fluorine is the smallest and the internuclear distance between the fluorine ...
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How can we find out the type of bonding present in a compound or a molecule?

For example, if the bonding in diamond, ice, MgO or CO2 is to determine, how can I find it out? How to determine van der Waals forces?
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Does aluminium(III) hydride have banana bonding? If not, then why?

No mention there in Wikipedia about bonding in $\ce{AlH3}$. There must be as in $\ce{BH3}$.
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Bond lengths in P₄O₁₀

According to JD Lee's Concise Inorganic Chemistry: The double bond $\ce{P=O}$ in $\ce{P4O10}$ contains p(π)–d(π) backbonding, where a full p-orbital on oxygen overlaps with an empty d-orbital on $\...
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1answer
150 views

How to you show a 3-center 2-electron bond in a Lewis structure?

How would you write $\ce{PCl5}$ or other hyper-conjugate molecules as a Lewis structure that indicates 3-center 2-electron bonds? I have seen depictions [1] for transition metal complexes but not for ...
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29 views

Why is it easier to break a C-H bond of methane after another C-H bond has already been broken?

Bond energy explanations say the number given is often an average. For instance, in methane, the $\ce{C-H}$ bond dissociation energy is the total energy required to remove all four hydrogens, ...
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65 views

In the Lewis structure for barium fluoride, why does barium lose its valence electrons?

I searched for $\ce{BaF2}$ Lewis structure, and found out that the Barium atom loses its 2 valence electrons to form $\ce{F- Ba^2+F-}$. Before seeing it I thought each of $\ce{Ba}$'s valence ...
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59 views

Why can sulfur have an expanded octet but not oxygen?

In my search to understand the bonding in structures like $\ce{SF6}$ I found many sources that said it was because sulfur has d orbitals to accommodate an expanded octet, which made sense to me. But I ...
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If carbon dioxide is non polar, why does it react with water?

I’ve read in many places that carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid with water since the carbon is partially positive and thus the oxygen bonds with it. But isn’t carbon dioxide in its entirety non polar ...
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As you heat up a substance will it's bonds begin to dissipate?

As you heat something up does it slowly start to dissipate? Water, for instance, boils at 100 degrees Celsius, but if you are heating it up at 90 degrees will its bonds be weaker?
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dipole–dipole interactions: OCR Sample Paper wrong? [closed]

I was doing OCR A Level Chemistry A, H432/01 Periodic table, elements and physical Sample Question Paper. Question 6 was: The boiling point of hydrogen bromide is –67 ºC. The boiling point of ...
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1answer
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Lattice energy while bond formation [closed]

My chemistry lecturer taught us that lattice energy is the energy required to break an ionic bond between two oppositely charged ions in a crystal lattice. He then told us that lattice energy is ...
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45 views

Why are d(xy),d(yz) and d(xz) orbitals involved in d³s hybridisation?

Shouldn't d(x²-y²) dxy and dz² orbitals participate? Since this corressponds to the best case overlap? What factors decide the participating orbitals in hybridisation? P.S I am well versed with the ...
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Strongest overlap among s–s, p–p, s–p [duplicate]

So, I was wondering, when overlap of orbitals takes place, among s–s, s–p, p–p which type of overlapping is stronger? Because in s–s more volume is being used in overlap, but the electron density is ...
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Ozonolysis of 1,2,3,4,5,8‐hexahydronaphthalene

Consider 1,2,3,4,5,8‐hexahydronaphthalene: If one equivalent of ozone is added, then which double bond will undergo ozonolysis? If it attacks the more electron rich one, then unstable 10 membered ...
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2answers
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Why are triple covalent carbon to carbon bonds drawn linearly in skeletal structure? [duplicate]

In the link see that cyclic C-C structure with a triple covalent bond is drawn with an angle, probably the only way to draw it but why is it drawn linearly in non-cyclic and not like single or double ...
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When we tear a piece of paper do some of the molecules fall of as we tear? [duplicate]

So I mean are some of the molecules lost(fall of) while we tear the paper? Or all the molecules present in the sheet of paper just get divided in the two new pieces created?
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Trend of thermal stability of Group 2 chlorides down the group [duplicate]

Thermal stability of group 2 chlorides follows the order: $\ce{BeCl2>MgCl2>CaCl2}$. Talking about carbonates of group 2 metals, the thermal stability increases as we move down the group due to ...
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1answer
104 views

Is a hydrogen molecule smaller than hydrogen atom?

Recently I came across a textbook of physical chemistry which stated the following: In the formation of a stable hydrogen molecule, two hydrogen atoms share a pair of electrons between them and two ...
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Justify this statement whether correct or incorrect . He2^+ has the same energy as two isolated He atoms [closed]

My explanation : how can a stable molecule be at the same energy level as two isolated inert gas atoms?? Is this even possible?
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Comparing strength of the C-H, N-H, and O-H bonds

$$ \begin{align} \ce{CH4(g) + Cl(g) &-> CH3(g) + HCl(g)} &\quad ΔH^\circ &= \pu{-14 kJ mol-1}_\mathrm{rxn}\\ \ce{NH4(g) + Cl(g) &-> NH2(g) + HCl(g)} &\quad ΔH^\circ &= \...
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What are the other ways (if they exist) that atoms can gain or lose electrons that aren't bonding?

I know that electrons can be isolated through human intervention from their atoms. My question rather concerns if electrons are ever lost or gained naturally. I recognize that this is a stupid ...
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1answer
51 views

Relation between ionic resonance energy and polarity

The ionic resonance of the bonds are given as follows: $$ \begin{array}{cr} \ce{A-B} & 24.3 \\ \ce{A-C} & 50.6 \\ \ce{A-D} & 102.3 \\ \ce{A-E} & 105.9 \end{array} $$ Which of ...
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997 views

Elements other than carbon that can form many different compounds by bonding to themselves?

My textbook says the following: Unique among the elements, carbon can bond to itself to form extremely strong two-dimensional sheets, as it does in graphite, as well as buckyballs and nanotubes. ...
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1answer
94 views

Does dilithium exist? [duplicate]

Lithium has two electrons in $\mathrm{1s}$, filling the first energy level; and one valence electron in $\mathrm{2s}$. Could two $\ce{Li}$ atoms form a bond to create $\ce{Li2}$; like $\ce{O2}$ or $\...
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Can a double bond extend beyond the plane and if so, how would it be drawn?

Can double and triple bonds, etc., extend beyond the plane in a Lewis structure, and if so, how are they represented? I.e., how would 1 and 2 in this image be drawn if they were doubles or triples?
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What happens when an ionic compound is boiled? [duplicate]

Do ionic compounds such as NaCl become individual ions such as one Na ion and one Cl ion or are they hold together by ionic bonds even when they are boiled. Thanks in advance.
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Why is there a lone pair in thionyl fluoride?

Why is there a lone pair in $\ce{SOF2}$? I drew its structure, which according to me should look like this: Why is there a lone pair on sulfur? Isn't its octet complete? If yes, why should it expand ...
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2answers
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Predict the number and nature of bonds using Molecular Orbital Theory

I found the following question in a high school chemistry problem book: According to Molecular Orbital Theory which of the following is true: (A) In $C_2$ molecule both the bonds are $\pi$ ...
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1answer
65 views

Sigma bonds, pi bonds and the puzzling symmetry of methane [duplicate]

My A-Level Chemistry textbook assures me that: a sigma bond is formed when two s orbitals overlap. a pi bond is formed when two p orbitals overlap. all single bonds between carbon and any other atom ...
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1answer
66 views

Definition of Lattice Energy

From previous studies, I recalled in my lecture theatre today that lattice energy was the energy released when an ionic compounds is formed from individual atoms in the gaseous state. I thought this ...
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62 views

Which has greater N-O bond length: NO or NOCl?

I came across this question. According to me NO should have a shorter bond length as it has a triple bond, while NOCl has a double bond. But the answer is given that NO has greater bond length than ...
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1answer
67 views

Why is $1s-1s$ orbital overlapping stronger than $2p_x-2p_x$ orbital overlapping?

Assume the x-axis to be the internuclear axis. Hence, both $1s-1s$ and $2p_x-2p_x$ will form $\sigma$ bonds. Also consider the fact that $p$ orbitals have more directional characteristics. Given the ...
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1answer
35 views

What is the correlation between electronegativity and the sharing of electrons?

For example in a C-O bond, the electronegativity difference is 1.2. does this mean that the Oxygen has 1.2 of the shared electrons and Carbon 0.8 (or some other numbers)? Is there a specific equation ...
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How is energy released when a chemical bond is formed? [closed]

Chemical reactions are classed as endothermic or exothermic. Defn: exothermic (of a reaction or process) accompanied by the release of heat. The heat is released when the chemical bonds in the ...