Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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Do orbitals hybridize even without a chemical bond?

Orbital Hybridization is usually taught as part of Valence Bond Theory to explain the 3D shapes of molecules. But I'm wondering if orbitals would also hybridize even in a lone atom? My guess is yes. ...
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80 views

Does sanding the oxide layer of a magnesium sample break bonds?

We all know that if we keep a piece of magnesium metal exposed in open air, an oxide layer forms on it. This layer prevents further oxidation of the bulk metal. If we then rub it with sand paper, the ...
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Honey moisture and increase in temperature? [closed]

I've been interested quite lately on how moisture would be affected as the temperature increases. My experiment methodology is that I will be manipulating temperatures of the honey between 20,40,60,80 ...
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How the attraction takes place between a hydrogen atom and the acceptor atom in a hydrogen bond

In hydrogen bonds present in water,does the hydrogen atom attracts to the lone pair of electrons present on the oxygen atom or to its partial negative charge? If former is the case are there any ...
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1answer
44 views

Bond rotation energy comparison of aromatic compounds

Which of the above compounds has a lower bond rotation energy? Here is my progress: We basically need to find which compound has more single bond character. Now both compounds will break the double ...
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How to compare bond lengths of OF bond in O2F2 and OF2 using bent's rule [closed]

I Tried to solve it by using bond angles but can you show how bent's rule can be used in this
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Arrange MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO in order of increasing lattice energy [closed]

The answer provided is BaO You can apply Fajan's rule to this problem, right?
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2answers
50 views

How do you explain partial charges in molecules that have a dipole? [closed]

For example if i have hydrogen and fluorine covalently bonded with each other, it would result in a polar molecule with the valence electrons being pulled closer to the fluorine than it is to the ...
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2answers
42 views

Covalent bond nature in electronegativity gap

Does a large difference in electronegativity mean the covalent bond is weaker? In a covalent bond between two atoms of different electronegativities, the bonding electrons are pulled towards the more ...
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1answer
102 views

Is carbon–sodium bond mainly ionic or covalent?

We all know that carbon mostly forms covalent bonds (almost always) and sodium mostly forms ionic bonds (almost always). But if $\ce{NaOH}$ reacts with ethyne, then $\ce{HC#CNa}$ and $\ce{H2O}$ are ...
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What does it actually mean by stability of an atom

There are several rules related to stability of an atom, like octet rule, half filled or fully filled d orbital etc. But none of them (at my best knowledge) does not explain why an atom is stable when ...
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Backbonding in chlorate ion (ClO3-) between Cl and O [duplicate]

In chlorate ion, is there a backbond between Cl and O? Why can't O change its hybridisation to donate a lone pair to Cl through backbond? Cl has 3 empty d orbitals and O has also got its lone pairs, ...
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Why are chelating ligands often used to treat poisoning by heavy metals (e.g. mercury, lead)?

Why are chelating ligands such as EDTA often used to treat poisoning by heavy metals (e.g., mercury, lead)? I have a vibe that it has something to do with the lone pairs of electrons that are able to ...
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38 views

Distance requirement for hydrogen bonding to occur

I am trying to understand the distance requirement for hydrogen bonding to occur (more specifically in the context of protein folding). There needs to be a donor and acceptor atom for bonding to occur....
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Heterolytic vs homolytic cleavage of the C−H bond in cyclopentadiene

Consider the cleavage of the indicated hydrogen in cyclopentadiene: The hydrogen indicated will be easily removed as $\ce{H^.}$ or $\ce{H^+}$. Assume a nonpolar medium. My question was that would ...
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Thermodynamic model of inclusion process of alpha-cyclodextrin

I have a question about thermodynamic model of inclusion process of CD, published by Tabushi (DOI: 10.1021/ja00471a043). Here, in 3rd step, action is described as: "An apolar solute (guest molecule) ...
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What is an exothermic reaction in terms of bond breaking and bond formation? [duplicate]

Nitrogen + Hydrogen -> Ammonia This reaction has a $\Delta H$ of -93kJ This reaction is exothermic. Explain what it means in terms of bond breaking and bond formation I know an exothermic reaction ...
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Percentage ionic/covalent character [duplicate]

I recently went through the various types of organometallic compounds. All of them had varying percentage of ionic character which ovieously infers that they had varying covalent character too as ...
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Taking a look at the electrons of NO2

The $\ce{NO2}$ molecule is neutral. I've been taught that there's also a co-ordinate bond involved. A co-ordinate bond is a kind of a covalent bond where a single atom itself donates it's lone pair ...
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The source for the N-N bond dissociation energy of 240 kJ/mol in the table

Authoring an exam question, I made the mistake of taking a bond dissociation energy from a table I found on the internet. It comes in different styles, but is always labeled Table 7.1. It gives a bond ...
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Why is energy released when lattice formation takes place? [closed]

Whenever an ionic bond formation takes place it does so by forming a lattice and a subsequent amount of energy is released. What are the cause of release of energy and where does this energy come from ...
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Bond length in cyclic organic compound

Why is bond length $(a)$ greater than that of $(b)$? Is this because $\ce{-NH}$ is electron donating group (+M) and this results in a higher electron density in the ring causing repulsion?
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What effect does lone pair have on bond angle? [closed]

I have read that the presence of lone pair decreases the bond angle.Shouldn't it increase the bond angle since there is repulsion between the electrons?
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Short description for destriptors output by PaDEL-Descriptor

I am trying to implement this paper & it uses PaDEL-Descriptor to get additional features. To be specific they extracted: Bond count: number of single, double, triple bond including and excluding ...
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Bonding in SO2Cl2

I am trying to figure out the bonding in $\ce{SO2Cl2}$. One of the reference books I have has mentioned it as having equal number of pπ-pπ and pπ-dπ bonds. I know that π bonds are formed by non ...
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1answer
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Can two metals combine to form a compound? [closed]

what I mean is can a metal react with another metal to form a compound? non-metals react with each other and form compounds with covalent bonds can the same happen with metals.
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Bonds in R-H3N+ group

Source: Wikipedia I am confused about the ammonium group in this molecule. I can see that we have a nitrogen atom and 3 hydrogens. The group is attached to a carbon. Nitrogen has atomic number 7 so ...
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does stirring honey make it less viscous? [closed]

After making some research, I found that crystallized honey does get less viscous as we stir it, so is it the same thing with pure honey or not? and also if not could we use the Zahn cup experiment to ...
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Do SALC-AOs really belong to their symmetry species?

I'm working through a molecular symmetry textbook and something keeps nagging at me. If I derive the SALC-AOs for NH3 (using the projection operator method), I'll get A1: $ \frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}(\...
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Bond strength of carbon compounds

I read online that C=O is more stronger than C=N and the reason behind this was, 'Since bond between C and O is more polar hence it will have a slightly higher ionic nature than C and N. As we know ...
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Ionization and bond energy of isotope [closed]

Is there a database with the direct values, or the ingredients to calculate them, for ionization and bond energies of isotopes (i.e. $^{17}O_2$). If I understand it right, ionization energy can be ...
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45 views

Dipole moment difference between ch2f2 and ch3f [duplicate]

In CH3F and CH2F2 the net dipole moment increases from 1.82 to 1.97 while in all other halogen substituted carbon atoms the dipole moment decreases. In the case of CH3Cl and CH3F the chlorine ...
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What is the difference between a dπ-dπ and delta bond [closed]

I have always been wondering the difference between a dπ-dπ bond and a delta bond. What are the situations that either bond is formed in overlap of two d orbitals.
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Molecular Geometry of IF₄⁺

Recently I came across a question asking for the geometry of the aforementioned molecule. The answer key claimed the shape as an irregular tetrahedron, but as per my knowledge, it should have been ...
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Molecular orbital diagram for I₃⁺ cation

Do I need to go through the whole process of reducible representations/projection operator method to come up with the bent SALCs for the $\ce{[I3]+}$ molecule? Or is it simpler than that?
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Can bond rotation take place in Pinacol-Pinacolon rearrangement

I was given a question of pinacol pinacolon rearrangement of butan-2,3-diol where the methyl groups were anti to the respective hydroxy groups. Can the C2-C3 bond be rotated to allow hydrogen to be ...
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1answer
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Why do stable compounds have a lower heat of combustion?

My brain somehow doesn't accept that more stable compounds require have less enthalpy. Isn't it like, if a compound is stable, it requires more energy to break the bonds because the compound doesn't ...
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1answer
47 views

How can I make AgNO3 more basic? [closed]

Is there anything that I can add to the AgNO3 solution that will make it more basic without forming a precipitate such as reacting with OH or HCl? Please be more specific and give an example.
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Is the total ionic-dipole bond (hydrogen bonds) acting on an ion stronger than the lattice energy holding the ions together?

When magnesium chloride dissolves in water, its $\Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{sol}$ is negative. Since $\Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{sol} = \Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{hyd} - \Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{latt},$ this means $-\Delta H^⦵_\...
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Does direction matter in breaking a bond?

Im not sure if this question belongs here or in another community. I was wondering if the direction that we apply a force in order to break a bond matters and how it affects strength. Say we have one ...
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Hybridization theory (orbitals used in different hybridizations)

Why is $d_{x²-y²}$ orbital used in $sp^3d$ (square pyramidal geometry) while $d_{z^2}$ orbital in $sp^3d$ (trigonal bipyramidal geometry)? I came across this information while reading J.D.Lee Concise ...
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For an electron arrangement diagram, is it necessary to show the inner electron shells or is it customary to only show the valency electrons?

Which electron arrangement diagram is correct? The one that shows all electron shells or the one that only shown the valence electron shell?
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Why are the acidities for H-CH3 and H-OH so different?

I was comparing the acidity of H-CH3 and H-OH, and a lot of things weren't making sense. Generally, the process of turning H-X into $H^{+}$ and $X^{-}$ can be broken into 2 hypothetical steps: 1.) ...
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Why is average bond enthalpy measured by homolytic fission?

Average bond enthalpy: the energy required for 1 mole of a specific gaseous bonds to undergo homolytic fission Why specifically homolytic fission? Is it to allow comparison, but if that were the case,...
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Why is the carbon monoxide triple bond stronger than the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond?

The $CO$ triple bond has a bond enthalpy of 1072 kJ/mol while the $N_2$ triple bond has a bond enthalpy of 945 kJ/mol, at least according to my source. The molecules are isoelectronic, so I couldn't ...
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If all bond angles in AX₃ are the same, then which of the following are correct conclusions about AX₃?

Question If all bond angles in $\ce{AX3}$ are the same, then which of the following are correct conclusions about $\ce{AX3}?$ (A) $\ce{AX3}$ must be polar. (B) $\ce{AX3}$ must be planar. (...
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Reason behind more Reactivity of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons [closed]

My textbook says that unsaturated hydrocarbons are more reactive than saturated ones. But double and triple bonds are stronger than single bonds. What is the explanation for this?
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Why do certain signals in proton NMR experience extensive splitting despite only having 1 neighbour?

I came across the compound 3-methylpentan-2-ol. Looking at its proton NMR spectra, it seems there is a lot of splitting for the signal at 4 ppm. I'm assuming that the 4 ppm represents the proton in ...
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1answer
53 views

Covalent Bonds and Ionic Bonds [duplicate]

Covalent bond is a strong bond compared to Ionic Bonds but Ionic Compounds have higher melting and boiling points then covalent compounds. Why?
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48 views

For bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of double and triple bonds, is number shown in tables for that second or third bond? Or all of them?

Simple, 'dumb' question.... Is the kJ/mol number given in tables of bond strengths or bond dissociation energies , when it comes to double and triple bonds, just for the 'last' bond or for both (or ...

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