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For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecules-forces], etc.

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Strengthening a clay rocket nozzle with sodium silicate and calcium chloride

"I strengthen the bentonite clay nozzle by dipping the rammed nozzle in a $50\%$ sodium silicate solution and allow to dry in warm oven. Then dip in a strong solution of Calcium Chloride, again dry. ...
2
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2answers
75 views

The molecular orbitals of lithium hydride

So my understanding of molecular orbitals is as follows: the molecular orbitals of $\ce{LiH}$ can be thought of as being formed from the interaction/overlap of two atomic orbitals, one from lithium ...
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0answers
29 views

Are Ethene and Propene isolated hydrocarbons? If so, how is it possible for a hydrocarbon with less than four carbons to be called isolated? [on hold]

I understand what is meant by "isolated" when dealing with hydrocarbons. It is the presence of more than one single bond between each double bond. But how can such a structural arrangement be possible ...
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0answers
37 views

Why do the 2 carbon atoms does not participate in 2 molecular orbitals of benzene?

I have seen the below given molecular orbital diagram of benzene, I did not understand why does the 2 carbon atoms in $\pi_3$ orbital and $\pi_5$ orbital does not participate in overlapping.
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1answer
85 views

How can the solid state structure of cyclopentadienyllithium be explained?

In the solid state, LiCp adopts a polymeric multidecker structure where Li atoms are sandwiched between two Cp rings (shown in this diagram from Organometallics 1997, 16 (17), 3855–3858): If we ...
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1answer
28 views

What force attracts electrons from another atom to a non-closed valence shell? [duplicate]

As I understand the balance in an atom is reached when the number of protons is equal the number of electrons. And the force responsible for this is based on each proton attracting one electron. But ...
3
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3answers
34 views

Relative strengths of methyl, primary, secondary, and tertiary C–H bonds

Which of the highlighted C–H bonds in the following compounds is weakest? (R = generic alkyl group) I personally thought that the answer was 1 but it is given as 4 in the answer key. I didn't ...
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0answers
11 views

What actually happens to the orbital path of an electron in the overlapped area of a single covalent bond? [duplicate]

In a single covalent bond, when the electronic orbitals overlap what happens to the orbital path of an electron ? I mean does it just revolve around "it's" nucleus, or it moves to-and-fro from one ...
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0answers
30 views

Do all chemical reactions require breaking of bonds? [duplicate]

That's the question basically. İ haven't seem to have gotten a precise answer. On the internet İ found this info : ''All chemical reactions, including exothermic reactions, need activation energy to ...
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1answer
23 views

Bent's rule vs Resonance

In CH2=CHCl and CH3CH2Cl , according to Bent's rule, more s character should be towards '=' bond and more p character is towards C-Cl bond in first molecule but in the second one, there should less p ...
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0answers
10 views

Rating Polarity: Periodic Trends or Dipole Moment Equation

Recently, our professor clarified that bond polarity is really determined by the dipole moment formula = sep of charges x distance between nuclei. Merely asking who's more electronegative is ...
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2answers
90 views

Hydrogen bonds - why not in HCl? [duplicate]

In a textbook1, I found the following clear definition of hydrogen bonds: The strongest secondary bonding type, the hydrogen bond, is a special case of polar molecule bonding. It occurs between ...
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0answers
76 views

Do bond lengths change upon protonation of a molecule such as an H2O molecule?

Wouldn't the hydrogen atom in a hydronium cation feel a greater proton repulsion force from the oxygen atom and orient away from the oxygen atom to maximize the attractive force it has for the shared ...
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2answers
99 views

Proof that BF3 exists? [closed]

What I know is, elements with octet are stable, But In BF3, Boran doesn't get octet, So, How come BF3 molecule exist? If it exists, How do we know whether it is BF3 or not? Is there any proof that ...
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2answers
30 views

How can you tell when a molecule forms a lattice [closed]

I came across the molecule SiO2 and didn't realize that in fact, it forms a lattice. How could I have found out that, in fact, it forms a lattice?
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0answers
75 views

How is the structure of triiodide ion (I3-) possible?

I have seen the structure of triiodide ion ($\ce{I3-}$) but I cannot understand why this structure is even possible. I have seen in my textbook that $\ce{I_3^-}$ is formed by combination of $\ce{...
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0answers
24 views

Is bentonite self-healing?

I want to make a shallow pond (3 - 4 ft. max depth) lined with bentonite for both my ducks and willow tree. However, the willow's roots need to be able to penetrate the pond liner and thus the liner ...
2
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1answer
50 views

Hybridization and bonding in ethenone H2C=C=O?

My book says ethenone is a planar molecule, so I was trying to understand its hybridization,I feel that like allenes ethenone too will not be planar. Supposing oxygen and the carbon near it to be in ...
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0answers
54 views

The nature of Chemical Bonds [closed]

It was nearly a year ago when I appeared for my first interview through the KVPY (a research oriented scholarship exam) when one of the questions the panel asked me was : What is a chemical bond? ...
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1answer
87 views

Bond dissociation energy order for C-C,N-N,O-O & F-F single bond

I couldn't understand the trend of bond dissociation energy of various single bonds. Why C-C>N-N>F-F>O-O. I had mugged up the trend the now, and according to me BDE should continuously increasing ...
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1answer
31 views

What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonding? [duplicate]

What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonding?    ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍      ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍    ‍
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1answer
87 views

Which chemical reactions don't involve bond breaking?

I recently came across a question in which an option is 'Breaking a chemical bond is the first step in any chemical reaction', which lead me to think of reactions which do not involve bond breaking. ...
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0answers
26 views

Effect of Electronegativity on Bond Angles in NH3 and NF3 [duplicate]

I am reading a book: Concise Inorganic Chemistry by J.D.Lee (Fifth Edition) In the chapter-The Covalent Bond, the author says: $\ce{NF3}$ and $\ce{NH3}$ both have structures based on a tetrahedron ...
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1answer
64 views

Why does ethane release more energy than ethyne when burned?

My book explains that since ethane contains a single bond, ethene contains a double bond, and ethyne contains a triple bond, and that when burned ethane releases the most energy because "the fact that ...
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2answers
48 views

Why does the compound formed after a coordinate bond have a net charge? [closed]

Why does the molecule have net positive charge?
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1answer
47 views

Thermal Conductivity of Calcium Carbonate?

Is Calcium Carbonate (Group 1 and 2) able to conduct heat more than other carbonate (Transition metal) allowing for them to be decomposed faster. The reason I am asking this question is because my ...
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0answers
61 views

How are bond lengths measured experimentally?

How is the bond length between any two atoms in a compound measured? For example, in the case of graphite, the bond between its two layers is 340 pm. This number must have been measured, so what are ...
3
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1answer
158 views

Ionization energy of C2-, C2, and C2+

My textbook says that $\ce{C_2}^-$ has a lower ionization energy than both $\ce{C_2}$ and $\ce{C_2}^+$. I calculated that the bond orders of $\ce{C_2}^+$, $\ce{C_2}$, and $\ce{C_2}^-$ are 1.5, 2, and ...
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1answer
49 views

Terminology for describing nuclei participating in metallic bonds

I've read many times that in metals (for example sodium metal), what constitutes the crystal lattice is an arrange of atoms, since no electron is given or lost, they are just shared between all the ...
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0answers
19 views

Predicting which bond breaks during homolysis to generate free radicals

Given is the tertbutyl hypochlorite compound. On homolytic cleavage of a particular bond in the compound, two radicals will be generated. How can one predict which bond in the compound will cleave ...
4
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2answers
152 views

How does the 1.5 bond order of ozone contribute to its instability?

I'm confused as to why ozone is so unstable? I've been told it's because it has a fractional bond order. However, this doesn't make sense to me. Don't fractional bond orders mean resonance and doesn't ...
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0answers
51 views

Bond order analysis in molpro

I'm trying to compute bond orders in a molecule, let's consider S2 as an example. I'm not entirely sure what's the right way to do that, but I assume NBO (Natural Bond Orbital) should give me what I ...
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0answers
68 views

Electroplating diamond grit

I want to do electroplating with diamond grit and make profiling, grinding and cutting disks. (see the attached photos) I want to know the process to make the machine or the company whom is selling ...
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0answers
32 views

Are dopant ions on a crystal lattice free or bonded?

This question seems simple but I don't seem to find many answers right away for this. When you make a crystal doped with ions (like a luminescent phosphor) and the ions then become a defect in the ...
3
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1answer
97 views

Why does the C-C bond break earlier than the C-F bond in the pyrolysis of perfluroethane?

According to me $\ce{C-F}$ bond is highly polar and thus is a weaker bond as compared to $\ce{C-C}$. Hence, $\ce{C-F}$ should break first in the pyrolysis of perfluroethane. Instead, in J. D. Lee, it ...
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1answer
150 views

Will there be change in electronegativity difference in C-O and C=O?

Is there any change in EN difference in C-O and C=O. If yes, why? Does EN difference change if its bond is changed to single, double, or triple?
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1answer
65 views

Why is graphite solid but water liquid? [closed]

$\ce{H2O}$ has primary covalent and secondary hydrogen bonds (hence it is liquid). Graphite has primary covalent and secondary Van der Waals bonds. Still, graphite is a solid. Why is this so?
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1answer
43 views

Sum of Bond Enthalpies in an Exothermic Reaction

The following reaction is exothermic. In an exothermic reaction, heat is given out to the surroundings so the enthalpy of the reaction mixture should decrease. Hence $\sum$ Reactant Bond Enthalpies ...
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0answers
27 views

Hybridization and sigma bond

Hybridization occurs when two orbitals overlap with each other.two types of bonds are formed i-e pi and sigma bonds. I know that pi bonds are formed as a result of the p-p overlap. And sigma bonds can ...
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0answers
67 views

How does the Jahn-Teller distortion result in both elongation and compression?

Recently, I have been reading up on the Jahn-Teller effect and I have read articles and posts on it, such as What is the mathematical basis behind the Jahn-Teller effect?. However, many of these ...
2
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1answer
19 views

What measures of the dielectric constant mark whether the solution is ionic, polar and nonpolar? [closed]

At what numerical values of ε, then what organic compounds if any mark these thresholds. How is that only for a vacuum has ε=1? This is absolute lowest limit?
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1answer
57 views

Breaking degeneracy in phosphorus pentachloride

Recently, in a class discussion, the following point was brought up: Although the axial and equatorial bond lengths in $\ce {PCl5}$ are inequivalent, when we consider the time-averaged $\ce {P-Cl}$...
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1answer
72 views

How can we say whether or not an organic compound is soluble? [closed]

In the exam recently conducted by my school, they asked whether 2-hydroxyacetophenone is water soluble or not. I thought that since there is intramolecular H-bonding in this compund, it won't be ...
7
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2answers
161 views

Determine minimum C-H bond length in ethane derivatives

Which of the following compound has minimum C-H bond length? ethane ethene 1,2-dibromoethene 1,2-dibromoethane How can we know the comparison of $\ce{C-H}$ bond length (not $\ce{C-C}$...
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2answers
211 views

Can a π bond form between the py and d(x2-y2) orbitals along the x-axis?

π bond does not form due to overlap between $\ce{d_{x^2-y^2}}$ and $\ce{p_y}$ along x axis? True or false? Here is a diagram of the orbitals. This pair of orbitials should be distingished from $\...
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1answer
239 views

Comparision of ONO Bond angle in NO2 and N2O4

How can I compare the bond angle between $\ce{O-N-O}$ atoms in $\ce{NO2}$ and $\ce{N2O4}$? In $\ce{NO2}$ there is lone pair-bond pair repulsion, and in $\ce{N2O4}$ there is bond pair-bond pair ...
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1answer
30 views

How can an ionic bond have partial covalent in character? [duplicate]

I was going through the topic of 'ionic bond' and read this: No bond is 100% ionic in character. It has some percentage of covalent character. I didn't understand how an ionic bond can be ...
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2answers
58 views

Energy of activation vs Bond energy

In the second chapter, Methane Energy of activation and Transition state in the textbook Organic Chemistry by Morrison and Boyd, Energy of activation is given the following definition: The minimum ...
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0answers
41 views

Bond dissociation energy of the trihydrogen cation

Recently, in one of the questions in an assignment on the topic of energetics, we were asked to explain why the bond dissociation energy for the trihydrogen cation is much larger than what we would ...
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1answer
312 views

if difference of electronegativity between two atoms is 0.9 then which type bond will be formed an ionic or a covalent bond?

Bonds are formed by sharing of electrons .The difference of electronegativity determines which type of bond will be formed. If difference of electronegativity between two atoms is less than 0.9, then ...