Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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Can side wise overlap result in sigma bond [closed]

In PCl5 structure, our teacher told us that the 3 axial bonds are 'sd' orbitals and the 2 equatorial bonds are 'sp2' hybridised orbitals. 'sd' orbitals should form pi bond but actually it is sigma ...
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Which resonance hybrid structure of NO2- is correct? [closed]

I saw on youtube that you could write the Lewis structure of $\ce{NO2-}$ as given in the second image where we can add the red dots on either side since both of them have an equal formal charge $(-1/2)...
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1answer
71 views

Finding the chemical formula for an ionic compound made using iridium and nitrite ion [closed]

What is the most likely chemical formula for an ionic compound involving the elements iridium and nitrite? The charge on the polyatomic ion $\ce{NO2}$ is $-1$, whereas $\ce{Ir}$ is a transitional ...
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In certain scenarios, can the d-orbital be singly occupied before the filling of the previous 3 p-orbitals? [duplicate]

I have a question regarding the occupation of atomic orbitals with elements where n (shell number) is bigger than or equal to 3. For example, in sulfur, the electron configuration is [Ne] 3s2 3p4. I ...
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Can single molecules of C and O2 react in isolation, and if so how will momentum be conserved?

I am trying to figure out how is it possible to reconcile the reality of exothermic reactions, which means that kinetic energy is transferred to (heats) the surrounding matter, with the principle of ...
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1answer
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But what are anti-bonding pi-orbital? In search for an intuitive explanation

Imagine that you want to explain to an undergraduate why they have to to shade the pi-orbitals in a symmetrical way, i.e. dark on top (+), white on bottom (-) for two neighbouring pi-orbitals because ...
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1answer
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How does the position of hydroxyl group in a nucleotide monomer affect the dehydration synthesis of nucleotides?

In dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, the hydrogen atom from the 3' carbon on the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide reacts with the hydroxyl group on the phosphate group of another nucleotide to ...
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1answer
40 views

Is hypervalency a real thing? [duplicate]

I saw a proper debate going on between answers to a question about whether the octet rule could be violated. Some people were pointing to hypervalency in period 3 elements, due to the available d-...
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Why is it rational that salt-bridges (in proteins) are described as a combination of H-bond and ionic bond?

This is a fundamental question that came to me as I was trying to draw the electrostatic attraction between Aspartate (D) and lysine (K). I have always considered the charge on nitrogen, in the lysine ...
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1answer
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Can a metallic bond with a sea of electrons form inside the human body? [closed]

I’m interested if atoms or ions can for a metallic bond inside the human body? I’m talking about a metallic bond as described here: https://www.britannica.com/science/metallic-bond So I’m thinking of ...
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1answer
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Contradiction of general rules of bond character [closed]

The rules the ionic character of metal halides of halogens is given in order $\ce{MF > MCl > MBr > MI}$. While judging polarisability we say that a compound that has large cation and small ...
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Is it possible for already charged metal ions to form a metallic bond? [closed]

I would like to know if it is possible for already charged metal ions to become part of a metallic bond. I was thinking of a possible metallic bond formation with other already charged metal ions or a ...
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Metal coordination in enzymes: What type and number of bonds form between amino acid residues and Fe(II)?

My understanding: Transition (d-block) metals, as found in intracellular proteins, are limited to about 10 elements including amongst others Fe, Ni, and Cu. Due to the reductive environments inside ...
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1answer
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In metallic bonding, what causes a metal to lose its outer electrons and become an ion? [duplicate]

In metallic bonding, what causes a metal to lose its outer electrons and become an ion? I am trying to understand metallic bonding, atoms and ions.
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Can d(x²-y²) form π bonds with other p- or d-orbitals? [closed]

$d_{x^2-y^2}$ doesn't change sign when transformation of $x\rightarrow-x$ or when similar transformation with $y$ is made. However no such thing occurs with any p- or d-orbital. Thus, can we say that $...
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1answer
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bonding in polar covalent bonds

I have recently learned that pure ionic and covalent bonds are just the extremes of a spectrum of bonds from this article from Chemguide. But I can't seem to square this with my understanding of how ...
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1answer
72 views

Backbonding in phosphorous pentoxide

I read this today in a book that $\ce{P=O}$ in $\ce{P4O10}$ consists of a coordinate bond and pπ-dπ backbonding, but why does this happen? Can't phosphorus share its lone pair with one of the lone ...
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1answer
128 views

Which of the following has a stronger hydrogen bonding: F-H- -O or F-H- -F?

I thought of two approaches to solve this question . Since the electronegativity of Oxygen is lower than Fluorine it would be a better donor than Fluorine to the electron deficient Hydrogen . Another ...
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1answer
38 views

What is exposed in the surface tension of water?

(I guess) I understand the covalent bonding of water and the hydrogen bonding of water between two different molecules, but I would like to know which part is the part that that exposes itself to the ...
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2answers
53 views

Why do atoms on the periodic table have the number of valence electrons that they do?

I'm studying year 11 and am learning about valence electrons and how these electrons drive intermolecular bonds. What I have not been able to find an explanation to is why all the elements on the ...
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Dipole moments of cis and gem alkenes [duplicate]

The procedure for comparing dipole moments for cis- and trans-alkenes is quite easy, but how to compare dipole moments of 1,1 dichloroethene (1); and cis-dichloroethene (2)? My teacher told me that ...
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1answer
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How to bond polymer to polymer (TPU on PMMA)

I wanted to bond TPU films to PMMA slab. I have tried thermal bonding but it is was not practical(I do not know why?). Can anyone please give me a method to bound them? Thanks
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why does lithium fluoride have a higher lattice energy than lithium iodide?

Based on my knowledge, lattice energy is proportional to the multiplcation of the charge of the ions, divided by the sum of the radius of ions, as follows. Since iodide has a larger radius than ...
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1answer
56 views

what is the graphic difference between ionic and covalent bonds?

Reading my chemistry 101 again I can not find a graphical difference between an ionic bond (gaining-losing and electron) and a covalent bond (sharing) an electron when I try to think of the orbits/...
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Aspartic acid conjugate base acidity

Question Which hydrogen among the four in the conjugate base of aspartic acid is most acidic? Answer My attempt I am confused between Hb and Hc I know Hd has $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a \approx 9$, so ...
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How do you know what elements will bond in a reaction? [closed]

I know all about the types of reactions, synthesis, decomp. etc., but when a bond is broken, how do you know that the free element will bond to another molecule? Is it because that element has a ...
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1answer
166 views

What is the hybridisation of the bridging oxygen atoms in the borax anion?

Below is a neat looking borax anion. While exploring the molecule in a computer simulation (Gaussian 16, level of theory: HF/3-21G), I found that the oxygen atoms in the 8-membered outer ring had sp2 ...
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1answer
67 views

How is bond angle of a molecule measured?

Simply, how are (average?) bond angles for simple (or complex) molecules such as methane or ethene measured (determined)? I'm guessing that X Ray crystallography can be used to determine bond angles ...
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1answer
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Calculation of rupture force in a covalent bond

Is there any way to theoretically or mathematically calculate the rupture force of a covalent bond? One of the articles I saw said that it is the maximum derivative of the potential energy curve. Is ...
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1answer
141 views

What is the hybridisation in HCN molecule?

According to VSEPR theory hybridisation of the central atom should be sp. However, my teacher says that there exists a near-100% s-character in the carbon orbital that bonds with hydrogen due to some ...
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What is the exact statement of Drago's rule? [duplicate]

While studying the topic of chemical bonding, I came across a statement given by my teacher: Elements of the third period and above do not show hybridisation. An example, in the case of $\ce{PH_3}$, $...
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1answer
91 views

Why HBr has stronger attraction between molecules than CH3NH2?

Which of the following compounds exhibits dipole-dipole forces as its strongest attraction between molecules? a) $\ce{CO2}$ b) $\ce{CH3NH2}$ c) $\ce{Kr}$ d) $\ce{H2}$ e) $\ce{HBr}$ From what I ...
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2answers
249 views

Comparing bond angles in carbonyl dichloride and carbonyl dibromide

Background I was studying VSEPR and hybridization theory and one of the popular questions in many textbooks was comparison of bond angle of $\ce{NH3}$, $\ce{NF3}$ and $\ce{NCl3}$. $\ce{NF3}$ had ...
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1answer
36 views

How do orbitals overlap in difluorosilane? [closed]

In $\ce{SiH2F2}$ four orbitals of silicon $(\mathrm{3s},$ $\mathrm{3p}_x,$ $\mathrm{3p}_y,$ $\mathrm{3p}_z)$ overlap with two hydrogen $(\mathrm{1s})$ and two fluorine $(\mathrm{2p}).$ I want to know ...
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Importance of halogens and nitrogen in degree of unsaturation

Why is oxygen (or other elements) isn't present in the formulae for calculation of the value of degree of unsaturation $(\mathrm{DU})$ as it usually more common than nitrogen and halogens. And whats ...
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1answer
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Solubility of Amides

I was looking into how the solubility of amides compares to other compounds e.g. acids and amines, and came across these two statements on the wikipedia page for amides: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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How is bond length of C-O and C-N same?

In NCERT and many other books it is given that bond length of $\ce{C-O}$ and $\ce{C-N}$ is same. But, how can it be possible as size of oxygen is smaller than that of nitrogen so bond length of $\ce{C-...
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Hypervalency of orthonitrate

I have always believed that it is impossible for the atoms of period 2 elements (when they are the central atoms in polyatomic ions/molecules) to accommodate more than 8 electrons in their valence ...
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1answer
22 views

what happens to the intramolecular bonds within water molecule during phase changes? [closed]

Does intramolecular bonds within water molecule change during phase changes?
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Effect of magnetization on oxidation (rusting) of iron

Can magenetizing a piece of iron bar slow-down (or speed-up) the oxidation (rusting) process? In other words have any influence on it ? From what I've looked up( wikipedia, quora), it appears that the ...
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2answers
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Average energy concept

Problem When the number of electrons in bonding molecular orbitals is equal to number of electrons in anti-bonding molecular orbitals bond cannot be formed between two atoms because A) Bonding effect ...
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Does the electron displacement effect act only on sigma electrons?

Our teacher told us that the inductive effect or the electron displacement effect can only affect the sigma electrons. I did not understand why this should be. I reasoned it can not affect the pi ...
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Dimeric alkali metal cations?

This answer points to a reference that appears to suggest the existence of $\ce{M2^{2+}}$ ions where $\ce{M}$ is an alkali metal. How is that possible when each monomeric cation has a closed-shell, ...
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3answers
221 views

The meaning of permanent dipole moment

I was asked in one question that which of all given molecules have a permanent dipole moment? And $\ce{XeF6}$ was given as a correct answer quoting that it is a distorted octahedral, and hence the ...
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What is “ionic-covalent ”resonance?

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry: A Comprehensive Text on Pg. 228, Chapter 8 titled 'Boron' talks about three factors which appear to be responsible for the shortness of $\ce{B-X}$ bonds(where $\ce{X}$ is ...
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Is the C-I bond polar?

Carbon and iodine have similar electronegativities. The reason quoted for the C-I bond having polarity is that iodine is more polarisable. But what does this actually mean? Carbon distorts the ...
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Bond strength and length of HF and H2O

I know that acidity of an acid increases across a period (with electronegativity increase of the atom bonded to hydrogen) and hence $\ce{HF}$ is more acidic than $\ce{H2O}$ or $\ce{NH3}$. But the ...
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1answer
89 views

Does sanding the oxide layer of a magnesium sample break bonds?

We all know that if we keep a piece of magnesium metal exposed in open air, an oxide layer forms on it. This layer prevents further oxidation of the bulk metal. If we then rub it with sand paper, the ...
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1answer
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Honey moisture and increase in temperature? [closed]

I've been interested quite lately on how moisture would be affected as the temperature increases. My experiment methodology is that I will be manipulating temperatures of the honey between 20,40,60,80 ...
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How the attraction takes place between a hydrogen atom and the acceptor atom in a hydrogen bond

In hydrogen bonds present in water,does the hydrogen atom attracts to the lone pair of electrons present on the oxygen atom or to its partial negative charge? If former is the case are there any ...

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