Questions tagged [bond]

For questions about chemical bonds (ionic/covalent/etc.), their properties (length, energy, angle, etc.) or their relation to other molecular properties (intermolecular forces/dipole moment/etc.). Do not confuse this tag with [lewis-structures], [dipole], [intermolecular-forces], etc.

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Well I know ions have same bond order but does it also mean there bond length is same too? [closed]

This is question regarding that if bond order is same then is it necessary to have bond lengths same and if not what is true order of bond lengths
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What is the bond energy of Si-O?

I was taught that deprotection of silyl ethers (and more generally the cleavage of silicon-oxygen bond) could be done with fluoride ions, this reaction being driven by the fact that the Si-F bond is ...
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AlCl3, Al2O3, Al(OH)3. What is more ionic?

I tried with fajans' rules. First I got AlCl3 and Al2O3. There, because O2- has high negative charge I decided that Al2O3 is less ionic. But my teacher told us that we can get the same thing by ...
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How does formal charge impact electron donation and withdrawal?

I am wondering whether an atom's formal charge impacts its ability to withdraw and donate electrons, assuming that all other factors such as hybridization remain constant. For example, does the ...
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Do diatomic isoelectronic molecules have the same bond order even when the octet rule is not followed?

It can be observed and proven that diatomic isoelectronic molecules have the same bond order when they follow the octet rule (upto 3rd period elements). But what about when they do not follow the ...
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HCL is generally aqueous, so hasn't the HCl already reacted with water? [duplicate]

So, we all have studied the reaction of HCl and water, which results in the formation of a hydronium ion and a Cl- ion but my question, a rather silly one is, HCl is already an aqueous solution ...
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Why covalently bonded molecules have strong bonds within the molecule?

While studying the chapter carbon and it's compounds in NCERT page 60 I came across this line: Covalently bonded molecules are seen to have strong bonds within the molecule but intermolecular forces ...
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Why does silicon's larger size prevent it from showing catenation as much as carbon?

My textbook (and other resources) says that while silicon has the same number of valence electrons as carbon, it cannot form as many compounds with other silicon atoms the way carbon can (i.e. ...
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In acids why does polarising the O-H bond weaken rather than strengthen it?

In hexaaquaions it is generally true that aqueous solutions of complex ions with a higher positive charge on the central metal ion will have a lower pH. Explanations typically note that the greater ...
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Can chloride donate an electron pair to silver(I)?

According to the Lewis dot structure of $\ce{Cl-}$, $\ce{Cl-}$ has octet fulfilled and should be able to donate a pair of electrons as it is a Lewis base. The Lewis dot structure of $\ce{Ag+}$ seems ...
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What theory accurately explains metallic bonding in beryllium?

Since beryllium is an alkaline earth metal, the bonds between beryllium atoms could be considered metallic and we can use molecular orbital theory (MOT) to explain metallic bonds in metals. Consider ...
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When would a R-O-R bond be linear?

While rummaging in my molecular model kit, I noticed that it contains a surprising number of $180^\circ$ oxygen atoms, i.e., oxygen that is meant to be covalently bonded to two partners in a linear ...
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Can there be a molecule where every atom is covalently bonded to every other atom? [closed]

I was wondering if muliple atoms could bond in a ring, but share a pair of electrons with every other atom in the molecule so that every atom is connected to every other atom. Would it be possible for ...
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Why does a carbon double bond "break readily" but this is not so for other elements (nitrogen double and triple bonds are stronger)? [duplicate]

A level chemistry student here, fairly basic question. We always learnt (from GCSE bond enthalpies) that "Bigger bonds are stronger", so to speak; my teacher often quoted $\ce{N#N}$ as very ...
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Is the shortness of boron trifluoride's bonds better understood and explained now than it was "way back" in the 20th century?

Wikipedia's Boron trifluoride; Structure and bonding says: In the boron trihalides, BX3, the length of the B–X bonds (1.30 Å) is shorter than would be expected for single bonds,7 and this shortness ...
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%s character distribution of phosphorus hybrid orbitals

The following question was asked in the Indian Olympiad Qualifier Chemistry Part I (IOQC) today: For the given compound, %s character of phosphorus hybrid orbitals which contribute to various bonds ...
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Why aren't ionic crystals stronger than diamond?

If ionic bonds are stronger than covalent bonds, then why aren't ionic crystals stronger than diamond, which is bonded by covalent bonds? Diamond has tetrahedral structure with carbons forming ...
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How do I keep my homemade liquid fabric softener from separating?

I have a recipe for a homemade liquid fabric softener that smells good and works great, but I have to shake it every time before I use it. It gets old fast. The recipe calls for: 12 cups hot water, ...
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What is the product of the following reaction(different sources give different answers) [closed]

$$\ce{FeS +dil HNO3}$$ $$\ce{FeS +conc HNO3}$$ I got different answers to these reactions in different sources Source1 Jd lee: Source 2 Op Tandon: Can anyone please explain which is the correct one ...
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Difference between the specific heat capacity of potassium chloride solution and sodium chloride solution

I am curious about the difference between the specific heat capacity of a potassium chloride solution (KCl + water) and a sodium chloride solution (NaCl + water) - particularly the specific heat ...
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Why is there no charge in NH3

The formation of $NH_3$ is by covalent bond,i.e sharing of electrons take place. Here $N$ now has 8 electrons in it's outermost shell,$3$ more than it's original state,so it should have charge $-3$. ...
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How do we find hybridization when molecule has resonance?

Consider the following image which shows the resonance structures of $\ce{CO_3^{2-}}$ ion. What is the hybridization of $\ce{O}$? How do we proceed in such cases? In one resonance structure, the top ...
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Why isn't Beryllium a noble gas? [closed]

Somebody answered it before on physics StackExchange, but I couldn't follow the high-level parlance. All I could follow is that it is related to the p subshell. I cannot understand why elements form ...
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3 answers
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Copper turned silver-color with crystalized soldered joints. How did this happen?

Please remove if this question if not allowed on this sub-exchange. I can post elsewhere if suggested. I was working on a small project requiring cleaning and polishing copper pipe, but found ...
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How do you derive the boiling point elevation equation using Raoult’s law and Clausius-Clapeyron relation?

I know that Raoult's law is $P_{solution}=X_{solvent}P_{solvent}$ and Clausius-Clapeyron equation is $ln(\frac{P_{2}}{P_{1}})=-\frac{L}{R}(\frac{1}{T_{2}}-\frac{1}{T_{1}})$ But how do you derive the ...
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Do Forces ( contact / distance ) effect the formation of a bond between two atoms? [closed]

On this website they describe the Necessary Conditions For Formation of Bond. I do not understand it completely though. My question is: Do any of the Forces (Forces) effect the process of formation of ...
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How do you draw the pi MO diagram for the acetate ion CH3COO-

How do you draw the pi MO diagram for the acetate ion CH3COO- ? I get stuck with the number of electrons on the 2p orbital of Oxygen atom. My teacher said 1 oxygen has 1e, the other has 2e. But ...
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11 votes
3 answers
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Can two hydrogen atoms with parallel electron spins form a covalent bond?

Is it possible for two hydrogen atoms with parallel electron spins (i.e. a pair of spin-up electrons, or a pair of spin-down electrons) to form a covalent bond? I've seen some say there is no sigma ...
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3 votes
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Are there any organic compounds with three or more oxygen atoms bonded together in a straight chain?

Recently, there was a question which enquired about some oxygen rich compounds that burn themselves completely and thus not requiring any external atmospheric oxygen. The author came up with the ...
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How can I use the MO diagram of hydrogen fluoride to demonstrate that the molecule is polar?

I am trying to explain that HF is a polar molecule using the MO diagram. Normally I say that the F atom has a higher electronegativity than the H atom, which causes a net positive dipole moment. ...
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Can uv light cause heterolytic cleavage?

All sources I've read stated that UV-light can only cause homolytic cleavage (homolytic fission), producing radicals while not mentioning whether it was possible for it to cause heterolytic cleavage ...
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Can two noble gases attract each other?

If two hydrogen atoms are far apart, they have no effect on one another. But as they are bought closer together, they begin to excerpt an effect. The two nuclei, having the same positive charge, repel ...
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Phosphate transfer in hexokinase

In glycolysis, hexokinase transfers a phosphate group from ATP to glucose. This is an example of the coupling of an exergonic reaction with an endergonic reaction, such that the endergonic reaction is ...
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5 votes
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Bond-order parameter $g_6(r)$

I would like to know the explicit steps to compute the bond correlation function $$g_6(r) = \langle\Psi_6^*(0) \cdot \Psi_6(r)\rangle$$ for colloids in my experiment (2D). I have the position of all ...
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How to experimentally determine the dissociation energy (electronegativity) between identical atoms?

I was reading on Wikipedia about how Pauling electronegativities are determined through $$ \vert \chi_\ce{A} - \chi_\ce{B} \vert = \sqrt{E_\mathrm{d}(\ce{AB}) - \frac{E_\mathrm{d}(\ce{AA}) + E_\mathrm{...
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4 votes
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Electronegativity, polarity, pi bonds, and nitriles

While googling some numbers, I found that the dipole moment of acetonitrile is, according to wikipedia 3.92D. Compare this to the dipole moment of ethylamine, according to NIST of 1.220D. Now, I've ...
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Can an atom bond with any other atom?

I am designing a game for students which has a sandbox for atoms to create molecules like building blocks. I have the valance of each atom mapped and they can bond with other atoms based on their ...
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Is there a molecule which has only lone pair electrons? [closed]

Lone pair electrons are "valence electrons that are not shared with another atom in a covalent bond" (Wikipedia). Is there a molecule which has only lone pair electrons?
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Justification for using valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory together?

Elementary gen chem books will make the careful distinction between the two theories and then proceed to claim that chemists can use both to complement each other to explain the behavior of certain ...
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1 vote
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Why is the Br-C-H bond angle in CH3Br smaller than the Cl-C-H bond angle in CH3Cl?

Can someone explain for me why the Br-C-H bond angle in CH3Br is smaller than the Cl-C-H bond angle in CH3Cl? From what I know, F-C-H in CH3F has a smaller bond angle than Cl-C-H in CH3Cl because F is ...
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What are the Ionic Properties of Co-ordinate Covalent Bonds? [closed]

In my 10th grade book, it says that A coordinate bond has properties of both covalent and ionic bonds. Therefore, it is also called dative or co-ionic bonds. I understand that it has properties of ...
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Determining which of these has the maximum S-O Bond Length?

S-O Bond length is maximum in? (a)$\ce{SOBr_2}$ (b) $\ce{SOCl_2}$ (c) $\ce{SOF_2}$ (d)$\ce{SO(CH_3)_2}$ Initially I thought it would be (d) since if a Halogen was attached, the S-O bond would become ...
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If bond types are in reality intermixed, how come different bonds form completely different structures?

According to the bond triangle, compounds don't exist as solely ionic or solely covalent, but rather have ionic, covalent, and metallic character to them. So each bond type is connected and similar in ...
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How does double bond placement, in an alkene, affect the boiling point of the alkene? [closed]

Will having the double bond be closer to the middle of the molecule result in a higher or lower boiling point than that of an isomer with the double bond closer to one of the ends? Also, does the same ...
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Is each bag of plastic a polymer/macromolecule? If yes, why does it tear so easily? [duplicate]

For example, polyethene is a macromolecule. So each bag of polyethene should be one molecule. Doesn't tearing it therefore involve breaking strong covalent bonds? Shouldn't the energy needed to do ...
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The meaning of USFDA (in cosmetics) [closed]

The full meaning of USFDA base on the definition of cosmetic meaning and production
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How to compare the Leonard-Jones potential energy curves of diatomic molecules?

The graph shows the dependence of potential energy on internuclear or intermolecular distance according to the L-J model, but how to compare lennard-jones potential energy curves of diatomic molecules,...
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Why is maximum number of covalent bonds 3? [duplicate]

In my textbook it is mentioned that maximum 3 covalent bonds can be formed within 2 atoms, which makes sense as 1 p orbital from each can be used for sigma bond and the remaining 2 can form pi bonds. ...
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1 vote
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Why is the transition state the highest energy point? [closed]

If partial bonds form during transition state, it means some energy is released, so how can it have the highest energy? Shouldn't the point before transition state be highest energy? (the point where ...
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How big a role does electron repulsion play in regard to the bond length of a covalent bond? [duplicate]

In a covalent bond, there are several forces acting together to determine the bond length. Electron-electron repulsion increases the bond length. Proton-proton repulsion increases the bond length. ...
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