Questions tagged [water]

For questions relating to water (H₂O), specifically its structure, properties, and uses in chemistry. For questions not about water but rather about solutions in water, use tags [aqueous-solution] or [solubility] instead.

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24 views

Capillary action [closed]

I recently brought some carbon-coated paper, the one used for art and copying. I brought it due to it having nearly 0 solar reflectivity, I need it to make a project where I use capillary action to ...
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1answer
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Karl Fischer Titration simple explanation

I'm looking for a simple explanation how the Karl Fischer method to determine the content of water works. I'm not a chemist but an engineer from an electronic-physical field and my chemistry courses ...
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1answer
36 views

What is exposed in the surface tension of water?

(I guess) I understand the covalent bonding of water and the hydrogen bonding of water between two different molecules, but I would like to know which part is the part that that exposes itself to the ...
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43 views

Why does the solubility of haloalkanes in water decreases as the length of the carbon chain increases?

Due to the polar halogen-carbon bond in haloalkanes, they are more soluble than hydrocarbon in water. But the solubility is still very low because the overall influence of the dipole-dipole ...
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1answer
33 views

What happens when you put a battery in saltwater? [closed]

If somebody puts a battery in a salt solution, what path do the electrons take?
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1answer
65 views

Ice geometrical shapes [duplicate]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice https://www.google.com/search?q=ice&prmd=inmv&sxsrf=ALeKk028fJvrUcWLWu8EV-KsRGuiw0iWWw:1596098668929&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=...
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1answer
48 views

Leaving Group Tendencies in Amide Hydrolysis

When we do hydrolysis of amides in basic conditions, we come across a mechanism in which the $\ce{OH-}$ ion attacks the carbonyl forming an intermediate as given in the photo: When the carbonyl gets ...
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44 views

What acids, solvents is lithium-6 fluoride soluble in (other than HF)?

$\ce{LiF}$ is quite insoluble in water, and I'm trying to use some water-soluble acid or solvent to dissolve $\ce{^6LiF}$ (95% enriched) in. I'm not a chemistry person, I'm a radiation detection ...
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1answer
59 views

Amine vs Amide Solubility

I had a question regarding the solubility of amines and amides. I was looking into the solubility of butanamide and n-Butylamine, and it turns out that whilst butylamine is miscible in water, the ...
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1answer
32 views

How to accelerate the evaporation of water at temperature below 5 °C? [closed]

How can we make the water to evaporate at low temperature? Does addition of high evaporating solvents help or decrease in the hydrogen bonding by addition of solute will help? Is there any other ...
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1answer
194 views

Why is a drop of chloroform stretched/pulled apart on a water surface?

I distributed drops of chloroform (with a lipid in them) on water (in a Langmuir-Blodgett trough). The chloroform drops form a layer on the water (so that the lipids are distributed on the water ...
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Does the depth of a lake affect how quickly its water is evaporated? [closed]

Suppose there are two freshwater lakes, each with identical surface areas and circumferences. One lake is 1 ft deep and the other is 20 ft deep. Although they exist in nature, lets assume they are ...
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How can I measure the scale in water?

I have hard water in my house. All the taps have tartar around. It generates some problems in some of my home appliances so I have bought polyphosphate salt but when I boil water I don´t get the ...
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1answer
58 views

Reaction Of Carbonic Acid With NaCl [duplicate]

I was just wondering if it was possible for anyone to specify what reaction conditions are required for the reaction between $\ce{H2CO3}$ (Carbonic Acid) and $\ce{NaCl}$ (Sodium chloride)? Does this ...
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1answer
53 views

Can elemental silicon react with water at room temperature and pressure? [closed]

Free silicon is not found in nature (in water, it might be present in the form Si(OH)4). So how is Si(OH)4 formed? Is there any possibilities of direct reaction with water?
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Bleach in water only good for one day? [closed]

In this time of COVID-19 our establishment is being told by government sources to spray down surfaces with a 9:1 water bleach solution, and then told to throw it out within 24 hours. What makes it ...
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1answer
54 views

How much time for a water molecule in pure water to reach the top of a glass of water?

I have a curiosity to know how long it will take for a water molecule to move a certain distance in pure water. I can put it simply as how much time for a water molecule to travel the whole length of ...
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1answer
88 views

How does the entropic force arise within the hydrophobic effect?

I know that the hydrophobic effect is usually explained by the entropic effect originating from the disruption of hydrogen bonds between molecules of water and the nonpolar substance. The hydrogen ...
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28 views

Is it possible to determine if a substance can dissolve in water just by looking at its chemical structure? [duplicate]

Is it possible to determine if a substance can dissolve in water just by looking at its chemical structure? For example, how am I supposed to know if $\ce{NaHCO3}$ and $\ce{Na2CO3}$ can dissolve in ...
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1answer
35 views

Why does Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate (Sodium Bisulfate) produce moisture?

In my chemistry lab, I have a vial of Sodium Hydrogen Sulfate (Sodium Bisulfate). I've noticed that when I take a spoonful using a spatula, the spatula gets covered in many tiny droplets, and the lid ...
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1answer
135 views

Does CO2 dissolve in water?

First of all not a homework question, but one day it suddenly popped into my head while opening a bottle of soda and accidentally leaving a glass out for a while. I get that $\ce{CO2}$ in water is not ...
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28 views

Why does ethanol have a stronger cooling effect on the body than water? [duplicate]

Why does ethanol have a stronger cooling effect than water (i.e. it feels cooler when dropped onto one’s hands) even though water has a higher heat of vaporization compared to ethanol? If we drop a ...
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1answer
53 views

1.0 g of AlCl3 is added to 100.0 ml of water. What would be the resulting pH?

$1.0\ \mathrm g$ of $\ce{AlCl3}$ is added to $100.0\ \mathrm{ml}$ of water. What would be the resulting pH? I think the answer may be $4.022$ but I'm not certain. The reaction wasn't provided but I ...
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2answers
41 views

What's the most effective way to reliably trigger and observe hard water scale buildup at a micro level?

We live in an area that's got some really hard water. It's so hard that it kills most of the fish we try to care for in our aquariums and shrimp?... forget it. While this is sad and challenging for ...
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24 views

Surface Tension of Water and Breaking through that surface tension

I know that the high surface tension of water makes it relatively more difficult for light objects to break through the surface (i.e. it's why insects can "walk" on water). So that seems to work when ...
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1answer
48 views

Are phase transitions reversible when performed at supercooled temperatures?

For the state transition of supercooled water to ice, is the process reversible? I wonder this because I want to know if I can use entropy change of the universe is 0. If it isn't reversible, how do ...
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1answer
49 views

Creating a 10 ppb Lead Nitrate Solution

I’m trying to make a 10 ppb Lead Nitrate solution as part of a concentration calibration step for a Beer Lambert’s Law experiment. I plan on performing a dilution in three steps. The calculations have ...
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1answer
164 views

Confusion about Titration Formula [closed]

When performing a titration of a monoprotic acid and a monoprotic base, water can not be added to the titrant but water can be added to the analyte. To prove this statement to myself, I decided to ...
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1answer
50 views

Thermodynamic model of inclusion process of alpha-cyclodextrin

I have a question about thermodynamic model of inclusion process of CD, published by Tabushi (DOI: 10.1021/ja00471a043). Here, in 3rd step, action is described as: "An apolar solute (guest molecule) ...
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Normal Mode Analysis of proteins

I'm trying to do Normal Mode Analysis for my MD trajectory. I'm following Amber tutorial (http://ambermd.org/tutorials/advanced/tutorial3/py_script/section5.htm) which uses an example of estrogen ...
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1answer
29 views

Why is distilled water such a poor conductor of electricity?

Water is composed of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions. Since ions do conduct electricity, why is distilled water such a poor conductor of electricity?
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1answer
96 views

Did I accidentally create phosgene gas [closed]

I accidentally mixed bleach and acetone trying to remove hair dye stains from my shower wall. The mixture turned orange when the bleach and acetone touched. Could I have created phosgene gas ...
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1answer
36 views

Indirectly Measuring Diffusion of NO2 into Water

I am working on a data science project with the central hypothesis is that air-born pollutants can become water-born through diffusion. The example I am using as a proof of concept is $\ce{NO2}$. The ...
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1answer
129 views

How to calculate bicarbonate and carbonate from total alkalinity [closed]

It's been a long time since I did my chemistry classes and I'm currently trying to analyze groundwater samples for hydrogeology purposes. I would like to evaluate carbonate and bicarbonate ...
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2answers
99 views

Can Na2CO3 remove temporary hardness of water?

This was asked in my test and I remembered that all compounds that can remove permanent hardness of water can remove temporary hardness of water also. But my teacher marked it wrong and I cannot find ...
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Total Dissolved Solids and Alkalinity [closed]

I need to calculate total dissolved solids (TDS) of various groundwater samples from chemical analyzes. I have concentrations of ions/molecules in mg/L. I’ve found various formulas to calculate TDS ...
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5answers
175 views

Why is the molecular structure of water bent?

Water has the formula $\ce{H2O}$ and we can draw a Lewis structure with two lone pairs on the central oxygen. As a physics student and not a chemist, I think to myself, "Okay, there are two lone pairs,...
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51 views

Protons and osmotic potential

In a hypothetical enclosed membrane only permeable to water (including hydronium), where inside the pH is lower than the outside, would water move inside?
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1answer
23 views

Creating 1L of 1000 ppb stock solution of Pb2+

I’m testing on samples that require a concentration of 1000 ppb (or 1 mg/L) of Pb 2+. My first thought was to simply dissolve 1 mg of Lead nitrate in 1 L of deionized distilled water to create 1 L of ...
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1answer
49 views

How to store small amounts of gas

I need to store small amounts of gas. I already saw devices that look similar to the image below, but I don't know how they are called. Does someone here know how these devices are called? I am also ...
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1answer
16 views

Methods to quantify lead(II) concentration in water on the ppm/ppb level

While there are several ways to quantify metal concentrations in water, a lot of them are only specific to select metals. For example, there is the orthophenanthroline method for quantification of Fe(...
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can a vapour denser than air evaporate in a closed chamber? [closed]

Imagine a closed container filled with air. There is some liquid substance on a bottle placed on the floor of the container. Let's heat the liquid until it starts to evaporate. Let's say 20% of the ...
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2answers
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Boiling Soda Reaction - Does It work? [closed]

I've come across a series of reactions, where $$\ce{2NaHCO3 <=> Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2}$$ at temperatures above 50 degrees Celsius, and $$\ce{Na2CO3 + H2O <=> NaHCO3 + NaOH}$$ I Have 3 ...
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3answers
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Does anyone know a database that shows the effect of electrolyte concentration on the production of hydrogen gas during electrolysis of water?

I'm currently studying in the International Baccalaureate model. This high school model asks their students to do an individual work called the Internal Assessment. One of the subjects I study is ...
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2answers
75 views

Concentration when done wrt mass or volume [closed]

I have a question asked in jee main 2020. 10.30 mg of o2 is dissolved into a litre of sea water of density 1.03 g/ml. The concentration of o2 in ppm is? Well I know that ppm is generally possibly ...
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Why is the ionic product of water $K_w$ the same in acid, water, and alkali?

Seen on the web: The concentration of [H+] and [OH−] both vary based on the the composition (acid/alkaline) of the solution, but the remarkable thing is that their product does not. When [H+] goes ...
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1answer
39 views

Auto-ionization equilibrium of water shifted with acid-base addition? [closed]

Adding acids or bases to water, so that either pH or pOH decreases independently of the other, will that affect the auto-ionization of water? For example, pure water + auto-ionized state, with some ...
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0answers
69 views

Is there a difference between hand soap and body soap with killing viruses? [closed]

With the Coronavirus in full swing around the globe, I wanted an answer to this, particularly since my dad has just been diagnosed with Leukaemia. We can't find hand wash anywhere but instead I just ...
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1answer
59 views

Intermolecular Forces of Attraction [closed]

Imagine a bottle 85% filled with water and the rest is just air, and the cap is closed. Here are now my questions. Since the cap is closed completely, the air bubble is formed. Is that air bubble ...
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1answer
67 views

How to dissolve magnesium malate in water? [closed]

When I mix magnesium citrate with hot water, it quickly dissolves and the water becomes transparent. When I do the same with magnesim malate, it does not dissolve, it sinks to the bottom as sand. ...

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