Questions tagged [water]

For questions relating to water (H₂O), specifically its structure, properties, and uses in chemistry. For questions not about water but rather about solutions in water, use tags [aqueous-solution] or [solubility] instead.

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Why is there no gooey water?

Why do pure water (and most other small molecular compounds) undergo a sudden transition from solid to liquid without going through a gooey stage? What I understand: Attractions between water ...
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Why is de-ionized water recommended vs distilled water to mix with automotive coolant antifreeze when it is corrosive to metals? [closed]

I have concentrated OAT/HOAT automotive coolant that needs to be mixed 50:50 with water. Most "authoritative" information on the web advises that de-ionized water (not distilled water) ...
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4 votes
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How do you write fractional hydrates in words?

Apart from sequihydrate and hemihydrate (1.5 and 0.5 respectively), I can't find a way to write any other fractional hydrates. Wikipedia states: The notation "hydrated compound⋅nH2O", where ...
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Does manganese reacts with water at "not" standard conditions?

In my answer, I stated that manganese is said to not react with water under normal conditions although some sources say it reacts with water to liberate hydrogen gas. Does it implies that it reacts ...
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Determining the concentration of chloride in water using ppm vs mg/L

I'm currently testing my drinking water for chloride, but I'm running into issues on units and what is an acceptable level of chloride in drinking water. According to the CDC the acceptable level of ...
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Chemical name of a solution of ions such as salt dissolved in water [closed]

Is there any chemical name for the solutions of ions in water? I want to find out the name given to an aqueous solution of ions such as $\ce{Na+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$ ions in water. Would it be something ...
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How can I increase dissolved nitrogen in flowing water?

Will injecting pure nitrogen gas using a diffusion stone increase the dissolved nitrogen content in water while the water is flowing through a pipe?
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What is the mechanism of sodium reacting with water vapor?

We all know that $$\ce{2Na +2H2O(g)->2NaOH +H2}$$ The question is: What is the mechanism (not the reason that sodium is more 'electropositive' or more reactive than hydrogen, as in this question; ...
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3 votes
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Will iron(III) sodium EDTA release its nitrogen into a water medium and become bioavailable to aquatic plants?

I am wanting to create an N-free Hoagland's solution and have discovered a recipe that includes sodium ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetate salt $(\ce{C10H12FeN2NaO8}).$ Will the nitrogen in EDTA ...
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Melting and Freezing [closed]

Ok so I needed some help understanding one concept, for eg:- we are in an isolated room that has a room temperature of 0 degrees Celsius. And I bring in some water in the room, so eventually it will ...
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What does $n$ represents in "hydrated compound⋅nH2O"? [closed]

On wiki it is written that in "hydrated compound⋅nH2O" $n$ is the number of water molecules per formula unit of the salt. I don't understand what that means and this is indicated in that I ...
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Reverse Engineering of Cooling Wallet [closed]

I am looking to reverse engineer the Cooling wallet scenario. For e.g. FRIO has created technology where their inner pouch soaked in water and it cools down and keeps it there for 45h (as per their ...
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Why does chickpea flour need to rest for several hours?

Many traditional Italian recipes make use of chickpea flour (e.g. farinata and cecina). Before cooking the recipes suggest to mix the flour with water and make it rest for several hours (in some ...
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Is there a good citation for the impact of inelastic neutron scattering on the measurement of the intramolecular geometry of H2O?

I have tried to find a good citation for the experimental measurement of the intramolecular geometry of H2O in the liquid phase and come across a problem: It seems that the method of choice for such a ...
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Can water synthesis and decomposition be in a dynamic equilibrium?

When heated at extreme temperatures, water can spontaneously decompose. According to Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_splitting): In thermolysis, water molecules split into their atomic ...
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How do I keep my homemade liquid fabric softener from separating?

I have a recipe for a homemade liquid fabric softener that smells good and works great, but I have to shake it every time before I use it. It gets old fast. The recipe calls for: 12 cups hot water, ...
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1 answer
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What is the relationship between the concentration of potassium chloride in water and its specific heat capacity?

I am curious about the effect that adding potassium chloride to water in varying concentrations has on its specific heat capacity. I have been unable to find any online information about this? ...
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How soluble is water ice in liquid H2S?

This seems to be ridiculously hard to research, as Google only wants to give me results about dissolving H2S in water (rather than the other way around)--and when I tried to get around that by looking ...
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2 votes
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Salt extraction from water without affecting mercury concentration

I am looking to theoretically bio-analyze a water sample regarding its mercury concentration from both sea and lake water using a biosensor with an enzyme biorecognition element. However, a big issue ...
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3 votes
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Can we find dipole moment of water from a familiar property?

There are many videos on Youtube showing deflection of a stream of water by a charged rod. My question is whether we can do a rough calculation of the dipole moment of water molecules using this ...
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Saturation of air within isolated system with water and ethanol

I am planning an experiment in an isolated system that contains two droplets. One droplet is water and the other one is a 40% ethanol-water mixture. The isolated compartment is filled with air at 20°C....
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The use of far-infrared ceramics for water purification?

I am struggling to understand how exactly far infrared ceramic balls help purify the water. It is stated that active ceramic taormine balls help purify the water by forming a 2 micrometer wavelength ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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How does water sublimate at normal atmospheric pressures/conditions (i.e., without a phase boundary between solid and gas)?

I remember my high school chemistry teacher stating that water could sublime under normal atmospheric conditions that would exist in e.g., Lancaster County, PA, where Amish would hang clothes to dry ...
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pH of water on paper vs meter

We have both a professional (lab) pH meter, and several different version of lab grade pH paper, but are experiencing a very weird phenomenon. We have calibrated all the papers against standards, and ...
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Specifically how does the presence of moisture and oxygen affect the yield of ferrocene? [closed]

In a lab this week at uni we made ferrocene (I'm a second year Chemistry student). This was done by reacting nBuLi with cyclopentadiene (kept in freezer) to create the Cp anion in-situ. To this ...
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Hydrophobic effect/interactions

$\text{Water molecules cause hydrophobic interactions because:}$ $\text{A- they can disrupt surfaces with no hydrogen bonds.}$ $\text{B- they prefer to be close to hydrophobic surfaces}$ $\text{C- ...
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Can addition of a "neutral" salt like NaCl assist pH test strip measurement accuracy in low ionic strength/poorly buffered solutions?

After a web-search, it seems ISAs (Ionic Strength Adjusters) are offered commercially to assist pH electrode/probe measurements. Presumably meant to increase conductivity (without affecting pH ...
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Using a pH meter to measure the presence of water in liquid ammonia? [closed]

I intend to do some experiments with building an ammonia-water gas adsorption refrigerator similar to a Crosley Icyball Wikipedia - Icyball. When recharging the icyball, it is important to not ...
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2 answers
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How to calculate/estimate the contamination rate of ultra pure water (UPW) in the presence of metals?

Metals are known to release ions into ultra pure water. Do any equations or empirical data sets exist for estimating the rate of contamination with different metals? I don't need a specific solution; ...
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2 votes
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Characteristics of metals compatible with semiconductor grade Ultra Pure Water (UPW)?

I am looking to build a water conductivity sensor for semiconductor grade Ultra Pure Water (UPW). UPW conductivity sensors already exist, but because of price and low water volume I need to fabricate ...
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how dilute should the solution be for a noticeable enough colligative property such as relative lowering in vapor pressure?

I was mixing soup powder with boiling water today and noticed the vapors coming from the water suddenly vanish; seemed like the powder being non volatile decreased the mole fraction of water in the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How to make a steady supply of water from a supply of H2 and O2

writing a survival novel where a guy needs to survive and needs to make water to do so. It is on another planet and he access to sci-fi type manufacturing machines that can make most tings. He has a ...
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Nanoscale hydrogen batteries that use water-splitting technology

It was claimed in this article in 2019 that a nano-battery using water splitting technology is developed. It is described as: The battery gains its charge by interacting with water molecules present ...
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Pressure increase in a chamber with 1 ml of water heated to 200 °C [closed]

For safety reasons I want to know how much pressure will be generated in a sealed chamber with $1~\mathrm{ml}$ of water, pure nitrogen at $1.3~\mathrm{bar}$ at $22~\mathrm{^\circ C}$. This chamber ...
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0 votes
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Preventing water from freezing (-20 °C) in a vinyl container [closed]

What is a safe anti-freezing liquid to use to dilute water, to prevent it from freezing at -20°C, without damaging the vinyl container it's stored in? This container is a heavy bag, for punching. So ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Are there any cold temperature reactions in liquid where ice forms as a precipitate?

The title asks the entire question, but I'll elaborate: Precipitates form in aqueous reactions when some product is insoluble in water. Is there a reaction in some other solvent where solid water ...
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How does part of frozen liquid ( like soup) boil and still be frozen at same time if temperature stays same while melting?

I was reading the following basic question about temperature change during phase change (During phase change in matter, why doesn't the temperature change?), and the answers provided clearly ...
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water to hydrogen to water [closed]

I'm trying to find out if there is any loss of water when converting water to hydrogen and then back into water and can't find an answer anywhere I've searched. I understand that the water produced is ...
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Which reaction is happening in the preparation of sulfuric acid through contact process?

I've read that in the preparation of $\ce{H2SO4}$ through the Contact process, on the absortion tower, the gas $\ce{SO3}$ is getting in contact with $\ce{H2SO4} (l)$ , because adding $\ce{SO3}$ to $\...
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5 votes
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Does distilled water still have ions in it? Does deionized water lack ions, but still have other "stuff" in it?

This isn't a question about the difference between Deionized and Distilled water, my hope is that for once it's actually a chemistry question related to this topic. Distilled water is created by ...
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How to make my water destillery most effective?

I got a destillery for water with a capacity of 10l and a get the most of a spiral cooler in a 1l cooling pot mounted on top. I'm happy with the efficiency, however there's always room for improvement ...
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2 votes
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Is there a difference in electrolsys rate limiting effects between electrodes of different area if one reverses the electrical polarity?

If one has two concentric stainless steel tubes with the small one being 1/2 the circumference and inside the other, and KOH for the electrolyte, then given the different surface areas between the ...
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I mix table salt and baking soda with water to make mouth rinse, and leave them for several days. It started to form precipitation, and a bad odor [closed]

I mixed 2 spoons of baking soda with 1 spoon of salt and mixed them with water (but not mixing totally) and left them for several days. At first I saw some bubble but the water was clear, but then it ...
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1 vote
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Water density in the calculation of the ionic product of water

In 2019 the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam released this document for the semi-empirical calculation of the ionization constant of water: http://www.iapws.org/relguide/...
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Adding H2O2 in water does what to the pH of the water?

Not looking for numbers (unless required). I searched for this question on Google and found irrelevant results, with only the following link of some use but it doesn't appear to answer my question (...
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Mission: Impossible? Hydrocarbons in an aqueous liquid (e.g. humulene in beer)

Your mission, should you decide to accept it, is to describe how hydrocarbons can be stably mixed into a water-based liquid such as beer, as in this question. According to the usual textbook wisdom, ...
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2 votes
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Hazardousness of Chlorothalonil & metabolites in shower water? [closed]

Recently it came out, that in some parts of Switzerland (where I live), there is Chlorothalonil & metabolites/breakdown-products of it in the drinking water. Yikes. Problem is, chlorothalonil ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Computational determination of the diagram of molecular orbitals of a polyatomic chemical species

A diagram of molecular orbitals for $\ce{H2O}$ would be as follows: The above diagram has been constructed qualitatively following the steps that I have been instructed in various classes on this ...
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Can stainless steel be electrically insulated with (oven-dried) Sodium Silicate Solution?

Can I electrically insulate stainless steel by painting Sodium Silicate solution on it and heating it to 200C for 30min or so? The solution should be conductive, and I've been told (to be verified) ...
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In an open system, can water vapor escape into the atmosphere before reaching the boiling point? [duplicate]

In a closed system, water vapor would have nowhere to go and atmospheric pressure would not be a factor. It would reach dynamic equilibrium with only water vapor. But in an open system, I think that ...
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