Questions tagged [electrochemistry]

The branch of chemistry that deals with the study of redox reactions and how they can be applied to generate electricity (in electrochemical cells) and to carry out non-spontaneous reactions using electricity (electrolysis).

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16 views

Why does iron oxide form hydrous iron oxide while chromium oxide does not?

Both Cr2O3 and Fe2O3 share a similar structure, and both can form some sort of passivating layer, but only one of them hydrates, thus turning into rust and providing a pathway for more water and O2 to ...
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Help calculating log P

What is the correct way to calculate log P of a drug? Two 3ml samples of 1%w/v solution of ibuprofen in octanol were prepared, a pH 2 buffer is added also. 0.5ml of the octanol layer is taken and ...
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Will changing the salt in the salt bridge change the voltage produced in a galvanic cell?

I have used zinc sulfate and copper sulfate as the solutions, and used zinc and copper electrodes. For salt bridge I took lithium, potassium, calcium, sodium and zinc nitrates. The results are as ...
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What is the anodic reaction of aluminum in water

Standard electrode potentials are reported for materials that are not usable as actual electrodes in water because they react spontaneously and rapidly. https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/electrode-...
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Do the cathodes of all batteries increase in mass as the battery is used?

I understand the mechanism behind the cathode's increasing mass in many batteries. As the cathode receives electrons, ions are reduced to form atoms. In short, more electrons equals more mass in the ...
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Standard cell potential- why do solutions contain ions of the same element as the electrode?

All of the examples I have encountered so far in calculating the standard cell potential include solutions containing ions of the material making up the electrode such as Zn2+ and Zn electrode. What ...
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2answers
32 views

Does increasing one of the electrolytes in a galvanic cell increase the voltage?

I would like to know how you could increase the voltage in zinc and copper galvanic cell: $$\ce{Zn(s) + Cu^2+ → Zn^2+ + Cu(s)}$$ I know that temperature and surface area is a factor that affects the ...
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Could you help me solve this problem? [closed]

In the following cell Pt,H2 p=?|HClO4(aq) 1.5 x 10-4 M || Cr3+(aq) 1 M, Cr2+(aq) 0.05 M |Pt, knowing that E0 Cr3+/Cr2+ = -0.401 V, calculate the partial pressure of hydrogen for which the ...
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Out of KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl, which causes the greatest corrosion rate of iron and why?

I know that salts act as an electrolyte in a redox process and rusting of iron, where iron loses electrons and oxidizes, and oxygen gains electrons and reduces. I did an experiment with KCl, NaCl, ...
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Electrolysis of water affected by electrolytes

Is conductivity and concentration the only factor because when I did an experiment wherein I measured the current for the electrolytes $\ce{Mg(NO3)2}$, $\ce{Ca(NO3)2}$ and $\ce{Sr(NO3)2}$? Despite the ...
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Variation of battery potential with current density

It is found experimentally that the potential of an electrochemical cell with applied current density varies as follows: To produce the passage of current through a cell it is necessary to apply a ...
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Is there an accurate displacement reaction series including every element? [closed]

I have had the hardest time finding this information out. I would like to know the displacement order of every conductive element on the periodic table but I haven't found a single source of data that ...
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45 views

Using PV = nRT to solve an electrolysis problem

Question: Two electrolytic cells are connected in series (the same current passes through each cell). One cell for the electrolysis of water produces $\pu{100 cm^3}$ of oxygen, measured at $\pu{273 K}$...
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can I measure free chlorine content in treated water using ORP sensor? if yes guide me how?

In my project, I need to measure ph, turbidity, and free chlorine content in treated water from wastewater, I found sensors for ph and turbidity but when I search for chlorine sensor, I found it but ...
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Effect of electrolyte on electrolysis of water

Why would concentration of the electrolyte and not the type of electrolyte used affect current density in an electrolytic cell because I believe the mobility of the ion does have an effect on current ...
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35 views

Decline in current during electrolysis

I observed a sharp decrease in the current when I carried out the electrolysis of water. Just to set the context, I used a voltage of $\pu{12V}$ and the concentration of my electrolytes were $\pu{0.15 ...
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phenolsulphonic acid

Phenolsulfonic Acid( PSA) is produced after sulphonation of Phenol at around 100 degrees. They use this product in tinplating. Once a stable PSA is formed after sufficient reaction , unreacted ...
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36 views

Electrochemistry - reduction potentials - an IB Chemistry Question [closed]

I have re-read the Electrochemistry chapter from my textbook just now to remind my self of the exact formulae. I still don't understand how to approach this question, however - how can we work it out? ...
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How does precipitate affect cell potential?

A cell is set up with copper and lead electrodes in contact with $\ce{CuSO4(aq)}$ and $\ce{Pb(NO3)2(aq)},$ respectively, at $\pu{25 °C}.$ The standard reduction potentials are: $$ \begin{align} \ce{Pb^...
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What happens when solution containing two or more cations are electrolysed at an excess potential?

$\pu{250 mL}$ of a waste solution obtained from the workshop of a goldsmith contains $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{AgNO3}$ and $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{AuCl}$. The solution was electrolyzed at $\pu{2 V}$ by passing a ...
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Why does the specific conductivity against concentration curve for NaCl curve more than KCl?

I understand why KCl has a higher specific conductivity than NaCl.. but I dont understand why the curvature is more significant for NaCl (KCl is a straight line). Ive provided a picture of this here, ...
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Could Carbon Monoxide be reduced by oxidising a more reactive metal?

After studying displacement at school, I wondered if it is possible to reduce the toxic gas of carbon monoxide to less harmful and more useful substances, like so: Carbon monoxide + metal -> Carbon ...
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calculate cell potential for the voltaic cell where its involving the two cobalt species with Copper

Calculate the cell potential for the voltaic cell that results when the following two half-cells are connected at $\pu{25 ^\circ C}$: (1) A platinum electrode inserted into a solution of $\pu{0.10 M}$ ...
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53 views

Schrodinger's Equation and Wave Function

So I understand that there exists the shrodinger's equation, which on solving,gives the wave function of an electron. The wave function as I understand, gives all possible information about an ...
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63 views

NaCl electrolysis with copper electrodes

Considering the aqueous $\ce{NaCl}$ is already concentrated. If we were to use copper electrodes instead of inert graphite electrodes: Would copper react with the evolved chlorine gas to give $\ce{...
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120 views

Origin of electrode potential and its connection with electric double layer

Recently, I was learning about electrode processes and I came across the topic of "electrode potentials". I understood that at equilibrium, a potential difference was generated at the ...
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Butler Volmer Electrochemistry question? [closed]

In Butler-Volmer during discharge (spontaneous reaction) we know the reaction rate (I/nF) is exponentially related to the Temperature just like in the Arrhenius equation with an increase in ...
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1answer
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Do I have to systematically show the protons in my reaction equation to find the Pourbaix diagram's line equations?

I was trying to get the line equation for the Pourbaix diagram for the couple $\ce{Ni(OH)2}/\ce{Ni}.$ I can write two chemical equations for basic and acidic conditions, respectively: $$ \begin{align} ...
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In electrolysis, why does each atom wait to turn into gas until they reach a particular electrode?

More specifically why don't bubbles of both oxygen and hydrogen appear everywhere? If the electricity just breaks apart bonds wouldn’t the hydrogen and oxygen just immediately turn into gas and bubble ...
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Why does contaminated brake fluid conduct electricity? Using a voltmeter to test for water contamination in brake fluid

Contaminated brake fluid conducts electricity. In the automotive repair world, brake fluid is considered contaminated by two ways: Brake fluid is hygroscopic. Higher water content in brake fluid ...
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Writing reaction from cell notation

$$\ce{Ag}|\ce{AgBr (s) ,KBr}||\ce{AgCl (s) ,KCl}|\ce{Ag}$$ I know that from the above cell notation, we can write the reactions as $$\ce{Ag}\rightarrow \ce{Ag+} +\ce{e-} \hspace{30pt} \text{(anode ...
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EMF - Intensive or Extensive Property

In electrochemistry, I know that standard emf of a cell (also called standard electrode potential (E°)) is an intensive property. But, I wanted to know whether non-standard emf will also be intensive ...
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72 views

Electrolysis of brine solution gives sodium hydroxide , chlorine and hydrogen gas but catner kellener cell it forms amalgam [closed]

Sodium hydroxide is generally prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride in Castner-Kellner cell. A brine solution is electrolyzed using a mercury cathode and a carbon anode. Sodium ...
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How to estimate gas yield from polarization curve of the electrolyser

A good characterization of electrical properties of the alkaline water electrolysis of the water is its polarization curve. Is there a reasonable way to estimate gas yield for each point of the ...
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1answer
50 views

Electrochemistry -gold recovery

I was wondering how to answer a question I got from my students about the possible recovery of gold from solution. We just finished the reaction between silver ions and copper metal and they wondered ...
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1answer
68 views

How does strong acids conduct electricity in water?

How do strong acids conduct electricity in water? I have just studied ionization of water and I'm confused about some points. First: I know that water ionizes in a very small amount ($10^{-14}$) so ...
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Corrosion rate of aluminium

In which conditions the corrosion rate of aluminium is faster? a) acidic conditions b) neutral c) alkaline conditions I know that corrosion can be in a and c cases but I dont know when it'll be faster....
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How do oxide formations affect voltaic cells?

I asked a question previously on here but still have some confusion. To briefly summarize, I made a voltaic cell for a school project with 0.1 M copper nitrate and varying concentrations of aluminum, ...
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55 views

What starts the reaction in a voltaic cell?

In a zinc-copper voltaic cell, What causes the initial electron movement from the zinc to the copper? I understand that copper would pull the electrons more strongly than zinc, but only if it is ...
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1answer
26 views

Why does lower concentration cause the metal atoms to dissipate more?

In a concentration cell, one can measure a voltage because in one of the half cells (the one with lower concentration electrolyte), the atoms tend to dissipate more into the electrolyte as ions, ...
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Weight Percent Standard State

I am having one doubt in weight percent standard state...Please see the quote(Taken from the legendary thermodynamics book by David Gaskell): If deviations from Henry's law occur below 1 wt %,then ...
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1answer
63 views

Can you separate CO2 into carbon and oxygen using pyrolysis? [duplicate]

I recently read about a pyrolysis process that separates methane into Carbon and Hydrogen. The basic technology/process is you have a vertical column of super-heated liquid metal and you inject ...
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1answer
67 views

What does the salt actually do during electrolysis?

Pure water does not conduct electricity. When you dissolve a salt like $\ce{Na2SO4}$ in water the solution becomes a better conductor. If electrolysis is done on this solution, oxygen and hydrogen ...
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654 views

Why isn't my electrochemical cell producing its potential voltage

For a school project, I am testing how concentration affects the voltage output of three metals. So I am building voltaic cells with 0.1 M copper nitrate and 0.1 M, 0.01 M, and 0.001 M of zinc, ...
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30 views

Surfactant micelles from glassware

FYI to start- I'm not a chemist by training, so assume I'm missing some basic knowledge of the field. I've been trying to do some electrodeposition with an iridium tetrachloride-based solution, and my ...
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1answer
66 views

Determination of Cell constant

I read that cell constant is measured indirectly using a solution with known conductivity(like KCl). But then how was the conductivity of that solution measured? (Is it by some theoretical ...
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2answers
63 views

Linking an electrochemical cell to an electrolytic cell

Electrolysis occurs when a non-spontaneous redox reaction occurs when electrical energy is put into it. An electrochemical cell functions by using two redox reactions to facilitate movement of ...
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Question about reversible chemistries in anode and cathodes

I've been reading a lot about cathode and anode chemistries recently involving Li-ion cells and solid state chemistries. What makes a decent anode seems to make sense as it is a lower potential area ...
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61 views

How do you connect a battery to a galvanic cell in order to reverse the flow of electrons?

Assume you have a galvanic (voltaic) cell with E = +2V. If you wanted to reverse the current by inserting a 9V battery, which end of the battery should connect to the cathode of the galvanic cell? The ...

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