Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Hybridisation of free radicals and carbonium ions

What hybridisation do the following carbonium ions and free radicals exist in: $\ce{CH#C+}$ $\ce{CH2=CH+}$ $\ce{CH#C^\circ}$ $\ce{CH₂=CH^\circ}$ According to me all are $\mathrm {sp}$ hybridised. ...
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Why doesn't the $5s$ orbital involve in $sp^{3}d^{2}$ hybridization?

Consider a co-ordinate complex like $[CoF_{6}]^{-3}$ for example. Here the hybridization is $sp^{3}d^{2}$ by the Valence Bond Theory, as illustrated also in this solution to a question on the same: I ...
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Reactivity of unsaturated organolithium compounds

I'm particularly looking in the context of alkyl lithiums compared to vinyl-lithiums and alkynyl-lithiums. Why is it that shifting from sp3 to sp2, and even further to sp carbanions, reduces the ...
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What do these signs mean? [duplicate]

Why are there different types of bond lines in the compounds? Do they mean coplanar bonds or non-coplanar bonds? I googled it but missed the keywords so couldn't get a satisfactory answer. I have ...
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Why can't hybridized orbitals form pi bonds(VBT)? [closed]

My friend asked me this question and even though I have an average knowledge, I couldn't answer him. Can someone help me?
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Why is it that nitrogen hybridizes in ammonia, yet in F2, fluorine does not

It seems rather arbitrary to me that we have decided that nitrogen sp3 hybridizes in ammonia to stay consistent with VSEPR, yet that fluorine uses its 2p orbital to bond with another fluorine in F2 (I....
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Which d orbitals are involved in dsp2, dsp3 and d2sp3 hybridization and how are they determined? [closed]

I know which d orbitals are involved in the hybridization mentioned above but my exact question is how do we know why these particular orbitals are involved ? Is it because the best possible overlap ...
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is there a stead fast rule to predict hybridization or is it just an ad hoc concept

Before I start of this question, Ι want to make it clear that I know that hybridization, like pretty much all of chemical bonding, are just made up to qualitatively rationalize observations. I know ...
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How are compounds like NO, NO2, and NO3 formed?

Why do Nitrogen and Oxygen make compounds other than N2O3? For example: NO, NO2, or NO3?
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Why there is no sp2s hybridization in hydrocarbons? [closed]

If carbon's $\mathrm{sp^2}$ orbital is overlapped with hydrogen's $\mathrm{s},$ then why it is $\mathrm{sp^2}$ and why not $\mathrm{sp^2s}?$
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Why is oxygen sp2 hybridised in acetate ion [closed]

The oxygen atom with the negative charge on the acetate ion is said to be sp2 hybridised but I can seem to figure out how I feel I may not have out much effort into this question so even a link to a ...
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The covalent bond in HCl and the Lewis model

Can the formation of the covalent bond in HCl be explained through the hybridization model? We know for sure that it can be explained by the theory of molecular orbitals. In this way, it would be ...
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Describe the formation of the [PbCl4]2- complex ion

The $\ce{[PbCl4]^{2-}}$ complex ion is formed when $\ce{PbCl2}$ is exposed to excess $Cl^-$ ions in solution as explained here and here through the following reversible reaction: $$\ce{PbCl2(s) + 2Cl^-...
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Electron configuration of non-hybridized carbon

I'm currently learning about orbital hybridization in carbon. I see that carbon has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p2. However, there are actually three p-orbitals in the second shell, namely ...
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Does Hybridization change the shape of molecules after bonding to other molecules?

If you have two molecules bonding to each other such as NH and CH2 you have a change in hybridization for both N and C. NH with its two lone pairs is sp2 hybridized and CH2 is also sp2 hybridized. As ...
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Bond stability of C-C in ethane, ethene, and ethyne

Which one of the three compounds has the highest $\ce{C-C}$ bond stability? Ethane has $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation so less $\mathrm{s}$-character and lesser electronegativity compared to ethyne. ...
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Hybridization of orbitals and forming of bonds in the nitrogen dioxide molecule [closed]

I considered the nitrogen atom hybridizing its orbitals and then ending up having 3 $\mathrm{sp^2}$ orbitals and the oxygen with 2 $\mathrm{sp}$ orbitals. The thing which bothers me is when people ...
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Maximum number of coplanar atoms in difluorotrimethylphosphorane

In $\ce{PF2(CH3)3},$ what is the maximum number of atoms lying in one plane? $\ce{P}$ is the central atom with the hybridization $\mathrm{sp^3d}.$ Two $\ce{F}$ atoms will form axial bonds with it, ...
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Comparing stability of 2-propenyl cation and 1-propyl cation

Compare the stability of 2-propenyl cation and 1-propyl cation: $$\underset{\text{2-propenyl cation}}{\ce{CH2=CH-CH2+}}\qquad \underset{\text{1-propyl cation}}{\ce{CH3-CH2-CH2+}}$$ In 2-propenyl ...
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Is there s-character in the HOMO of dinitrogen?

State true or false: The highest occupied molecular orbital in nitrogen molecule has no s-character. The answer given is that this false. Why is it so? The highest occupied molecular orbital in $\ce{...
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Possible structure if a compound like AB4 is polar?

I was asked the following question in JEE Mains (2nd September, Shift 1) 2020, If a compound AB4 is polar (having non-zero dipole moment), then it's structure could be (A) Square planar (B) ...
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Does hybridization change atomic size?

I have come to know that nitrogen can undergo both $\mathrm{sp}^3$ and $\mathrm{sp}^2$ hybridization. Does a different hybridization lead to a different atomic radius?
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Hybridization state of oxygen in carbonyl sulfide (COS) [duplicate]

I've been scratching my head on this one for awhile here. In a carbonyl sulfide (COS) molecule, what is the hybridization state of oxygen? Carbonyl sulfide is composed of a single carbon atom double ...
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Hybridisation of similar energy orbitals

Hybridisation is the mixing of orbitals of similar energies, so when we perform hybridisation, why don't we prefer $4\mathrm s$ in place of the $3\mathrm d$ orbital for hybridisation, even though $4\...
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Backbonding in phosphorous pentoxide

I read this today in a book that $\ce{P=O}$ in $\ce{P4O10}$ consists of a coordinate bond and pπ-dπ backbonding, but why does this happen? Can't phosphorus share its lone pair with one of the lone ...
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Is hybridization of the cyclopropyl anion sp5?

I have read some answers about the $\mathrm{sp^5}$ hybridisation of carbon atoms in the $\ce{C-C}$ bond in cyclopropane as well as the $\sigma$-bond resonance in methylcyclopropyl cation. Overall, the ...
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What is the hybridisation of the bridging oxygen atoms in the borax anion?

Below is a neat looking borax anion. While exploring the molecule in a computer simulation (Gaussian 16, level of theory: HF/3-21G), I found that the oxygen atoms in the 8-membered outer ring had sp2 ...
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Mechanism of R-OH to R-X using SOCl2 [duplicate]

https://youtu.be/ANlXQdpv6cc?t=1006 In this lecture, I am learning on the reaction of alcohol to alkyl halide using SOCl2 and pyridine. However, there are 2 different approaches on the first step. ...
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What is the hybridisation in HCN molecule?

According to VSEPR theory hybridisation of the central atom should be sp. However, my teacher says that there exists a near-100% s-character in the carbon orbital that bonds with hydrogen due to some ...
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What is the exact statement of Drago's rule? [duplicate]

While studying the topic of chemical bonding, I came across a statement given by my teacher: Elements of the third period and above do not show hybridisation. An example, in the case of $\ce{PH_3}$, $...
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Comparing bond angles in carbonyl dichloride and carbonyl dibromide

Background I was studying VSEPR and hybridization theory and one of the popular questions in many textbooks was comparison of bond angle of $\ce{NH3}$, $\ce{NF3}$ and $\ce{NCl3}$. $\ce{NF3}$ had ...
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sp2 hybridisation of alkyl radicals causing formation of racemic mixture

What I know about $\ce{^{.}CR3}$ radical is that it has both $\ce{sp^2}$ and $\ce{sp^3}$ character but the $\ce{sp^2}$ character dominates and so the radical is $\ce{sp^2}$ in nature. So, suppose we ...
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What is the derivation of the formula for finding number of pure and hybrid orbital?

I am studying Organic Chemistry. Recently I came up with the formula for finding number of pure and hybrid orbital that can be present in a organic compound. That is: Number of Hybrid Orbital = ...
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Why is biphenyl not planar? [closed]

I've seen in a lot of books that biphenyl is not planar. I don't know why that is because both the carbon are $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridized so it should be planar. Can someone explain it to me?
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Comparing axial and equatorial bond lengths in square pyramidal structures

I found this image on wikipedia: It got me wondering why the axial bond angles were shorter than the equatorial ones. I found this extract elsewhere on the internet - Extract: (ww.nrcresearchpress....
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What is the maximum number of hybrid orbitals an atom can have? [closed]

What is the maximum number of hybrid orbitals and atom can have? It is usually seen that an atom does not have more than 6 hybrid orbitals. Why is it so?
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Hybridization theory (orbitals used in different hybridizations)

Why is $d_{x²-y²}$ orbital used in $sp^3d$ (square pyramidal geometry) while $d_{z^2}$ orbital in $sp^3d$ (trigonal bipyramidal geometry)? I came across this information while reading J.D.Lee Concise ...
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Does the hybridization of sp3d2 type exist?

Is the hybridization of $\ce{XeOF4}$ $\mathrm{sp^2}$ rather than $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$, because the latter type of hybridization does not exist? Every answer in the Quora thread "How can we find the ...
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If all bond angles in AX₃ are the same, then which of the following are correct conclusions about AX₃?

Question If all bond angles in $\ce{AX3}$ are the same, then which of the following are correct conclusions about $\ce{AX3}?$ (A) $\ce{AX3}$ must be polar. (B) $\ce{AX3}$ must be planar. (C) $\ce{AX3}...
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Multiple bonds solely with sp3 hybridised orbitals? [duplicate]

I have fond that similar question has been asked already (why don't carbons use sp3 instead of sp2 orbitals to make double bonds?), but I don't think it was formulated in a manner that was ...
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From where energy for electron promotion comes during hybridisation [closed]

I know that the short answer is that "from bond formation" but as I think electron promotion occurs before formation of bonds between atom. So it seems like a paradox.
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Reconciling electron configuration and valence electron distribution over separate energy levels in energy band theory [duplicate]

The electron configuration of a Silicon atom in its ground state is $\ce{1s^2 2s^2 2p^2 3s^2 3p^2}$, or equivalently, $\ce{[Ne] 3s^2 3p^2}$. When looking at the energy-level scheme of a silicon atom, ...
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Acidity order checking

Why is Methanol more acidic than Ethanol eventhough the conjugate base of Ethanol is stabilised by hyperconjugation?
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How much electron hybridization and bonding occurs in liquid helium?

Helium is the only element which does not freeze at atmospheric pressure, and only forms a liquid at around 4 Kelvin due to weak van der Waals forces. I'm interested in knowing roughly how much ...
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Why does SiH4 have unusually large bond angles?

The bond angles of $n > 2$ hydrides are usually around $90^\circ$, such as $\ce{PH3, H2S},$ $\ce{H2Se},$ $\ce{H2Te}.$ I understand that this is from increased $\mathrm{p}$ character in the bonding ...
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Electronegativity of elements on pauling scale

When we say the electronegativity of Nitrogen is 3.04 ( on pauling scale ) what is the hybridisation of Nitrogen? Similarly for other elements?
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Why does a substance such as methane have 4 sp3 orbitals rather than 3 orbitals [closed]

I have been learning about SP3 hybridisation and slightly confused why it it results in 4 sp3 orbitals. My understanding is this... The S orbital is spherical and uniform whilst the p orbitals are ...
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Can buta-1,3-diyne show conjugation in both the unhybridised p orbitals?

As 2nd carbon and 3rd carbon of butadiyne are sp hybridized so there are two unhybridised p orbital mutually perpendicular to each other in each of carbon atom also these two orbitals are separated ...
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Bond length comparison in substituted phosphorus pentahalide

What would be the comparison between $\ce{P-F}$ and $\ce{P-Cl}$ bond length in phosphorus tetrafluoride chloride $\ce{PF4Cl}$ and phosphorus trifluoride dichloride $\ce{PF3Cl2}$ in the equitorial ...
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Confusion about hybridization terminology

I was just introduced to the concept of orbital hybridization. I believe I understand the idea behind it, but there is some accompanying terminology that prevents me from achieving a greater ...

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