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Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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What are IsoStructural species? How to predict IsoStructural species using Hybridisation? [on hold]

I know Isostructural species are those molecules which same geometry of electronic arrangement.My question is using hybridisation theory how one can predict Isostructural species.
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Hybridization of coordination compounds [closed]

What is the hybridization of [Ni(NH3)2Cl2] ? Is it square planar or tetrahedral ? Also what is the hybridization of [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] ?
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2answers
35 views

Hybridization in ethene [closed]

I recently learned that there is such thing as a hybridization in chemistry, but I don't really get it. For example, in $\ce{C2H2}$ (Ethene), they say the there are 3 electrons in three ${sp^2}$ and ...
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25 views

Hybridisation in (CrO4)-2? [closed]

In one of the questions I was solving related to hybridization I found the answer for hybridization of(CrO4)-2 to be d^3s . How is this hybridization achieved can anyone please explain to me along ...
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1answer
41 views

What is the difference between carbon in an excited state and with sp³ hybridization?

What is the difference between the carbon in the excited state, $\ce{[(1s)^2] (2s)^1 (2p)^3}$, and $\pu{sp^3}$ hybridization?
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37 views

What is the structure of SiH3NCO and what is the hybridization of the carbon and nitrogen in this compound?

Then i came across a question which stated this Statement as Incorrect "In SiH3NCO, Nitrogen is sp2 hybridized and carbon is sp hybridized" This is the root cause of confusion in the structure . Can ...
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178 views

Why is the perchlorate anion non-polar?

I just want to confirm that my approach is right. I found that since the hybridisation of this molecule is sp3, the structure is tetrahedral and since all the $\ce{O-Cl}$ bonds are of the same ...
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1answer
71 views

How many equal Xe–O bond length are present in (XeO_6)-3? [closed]

I tried to solve this problem by drawing a structure but the structure did not give me any answer and I was not able to draw the proper structure please help me out.
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1answer
44 views

Hybridization and excitation of electrons, how is it possible?

When studying the structures of molecules by hybridization why we take into consideration of excitation of electron if the excited electron only stays in the upper shell by absorbing for only 10^-8 ...
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0answers
77 views

How to explain the bonding in boron trifluoride with hybridisation?

We know that in the ground state, the configuration of boron is $\ce{1s^2 2s^2 2p^1}$, and in the excited state it is $\ce{1s^2 2s^1 2p^2}$, and it undergoes $\ce{sp^2}$ hybridisation. Why is the ...
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1answer
58 views

Hybridization and bonding in ethenone H2C=C=O?

My book says ethenone is a planar molecule, so I was trying to understand its hybridization,I feel that like allenes ethenone too will not be planar. Supposing oxygen and the carbon near it to be in ...
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0answers
26 views

Formation of double bonds [duplicate]

I know that in $\ce{SO2Cl2}$ the S atom undergoes $sp^3$ hybridization. How, then, are the double bonds of the oxygen atoms formed?
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2answers
1k views

Hybridisation of ClO2

Find the hybridization as well identify the pπ-pπ as well as pπ-dπ bonds in $\ce{ClO2}$. $\ce{ClO2}$ has 2 $\sigma$ bonds, 1 lone pair, 2π bonds and 1 odd electron. Hybridisation is equal to number ...
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0answers
105 views

Electron promotion in hybridisation: A misconception

Recently, I read through a short article on Nature Chemistry, written by Michelle Francl, titled "Talking to Pauling's ghost". The article talks about how electron promotion was never something that ...
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1answer
50 views

Hybridization molecule

Why is SO32- sp3 hybridized even though it forms a double bond with the oxygen (in resonance)? I thought double bonds needed a p orbital so I would think it would be sp2d so it can still have an ...
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0answers
26 views

Do atoms exist in hybrid form in nature, or do they form hybrid orbitals during molecule formation? [duplicate]

Do atoms exist in hybrid form in nature, or do they form hybrid orbitals during molecule formation? Take methane for example. Does carbon atom exist with $\ce{sp^3}$ hybrid orbitals in nature and ...
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1answer
99 views

Does tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8) have a nonzero dipole moment?

I've looked at and drawn the structure, and I originally felt that it would be nonpolar - as I believe all the dipoles would cancel out, but I'm not 100% sure. I might be too dependent on the fact ...
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2answers
442 views

Are sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridisation only relevant to the carbon atom?

When we are talking about $\mathrm{sp, sp^2}$ and $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation, is it only relevant to the carbon atom only? For the following molecules: Acetone (propanone), Acetic acid (ethanoic ...
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1answer
123 views

Is planarity really necessary for conjugation?

If we look at the $\ce{ClO4-}$ anion, the chlorine atom in it is sp3 hybridised. Hence, it has a tetrahedral structure in which conjugation shouldn't be possible, but while explaining the acidic ...
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0answers
78 views

Resemblance of molecular orbital formed by mixing of s and p orbitals to hybridised sp orbital

See the following two images. I think that the two orbitals should not resemble each other because s and p orbitals overlap in different fashions in the two cases. In the case of sp hybrid orbital, ...
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1answer
218 views

Why Bond Angle is different? [duplicate]

H2O has two lone pair electron and H2S also have two lone pair electron but Bond Angle in H2O is 104.5° but H2S has 92.12°bond Angle . Both H2O and H2S has same hybridization ,which is sp3 and i know ...
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233 views

Why do transition metals make colored compounds despite the remaining d orbitals being hybridized? [closed]

I know that transition metals make colored compounds when they forms a bond with a ligand, as the ligand increases the energy level of $\ce{d_{x^2-y^2}}$ and $\ce{d_{z^2}}$ orbital by repelling these ...
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1answer
182 views

Structure of phosphate ion [duplicate]

I understand that the hybridization in the phosphate ion is $\mathrm{sp^3}$ since phosphorous forms $4$ sigma bonds with $4$ of the oxygens and there are no lone pairs on the phosphorous atom. The ...
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0answers
185 views

Question regarding orbitals in tetrafluoroethylene

So the question is as stated: What atomic or hybrid orbitals make up the sigma bond between $\ce{C1}$ and $\ce{C2}$ in tetrafluoroethylene, $\ce{C2F4}$? and that What is the approximate $\ce{F-...
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1answer
1k views

Why does NCl3 use sp³ hybrid orbitals?

I have a question regarding the hybridization of $\ce{NCl3}$. From what I've understood, hybridization occurs when electrons belonging to different orbitals mix. For example an electron belonging to ...
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0answers
348 views

What is the hybridization of [Cu(H2O)4]2+

Hoping somebody could explain something to me. I need to find out what is the hybridization of $\ce{[Cu(H2O)4]^2+}$ I can't seem to figure out how to place the electrons on the orbitals. I know i ...
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1answer
136 views

How to compare energy levels in hybridized sp orbitals?

How to compare energy levels in $\ce{sp, sp^2, sp^3}$ orbitals? Since a higher energy level implies lower stability, an $\ce{sp-sp}$ bond must have the lowest energy level, since it is formed by the ...
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0answers
217 views

Deciding if a molecule is polar and non-polar in cyclic carbon compounds

While discussing about dipole moment of the compounds, our chemistry teacher told that the dipole moment will be 0 for 1,4-Dichlorobenzen, and for those compounds where same atoms or group of atoms ...
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1answer
70 views

Molecule where an sp3 chalcogen is connected to an sp2 atom

I am looking for a small molecule where an $\mathrm{sp^3}$ atom from Group 16 (O, S, Se,...) is connected to an $\mathrm{sp^2}$ or resonant atom of another column? Background: The universal force ...
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2answers
393 views

Why does the size of hybrid orbitals vary as sp³>sp²>sp?

In my text book it said that Size of hybrid orbitals vary as sp³>sp²>sp Does this size variation in hybid orbitals means that S orbitals are smaller than P orbitals? But we know that larger the ...
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255 views

Why is the electronegativity of an sp³ nitrogen less than that of an sp carbon? [duplicate]

Why is the electronegativity of an sp3 nitrogen less than that of an sp carbon. Now in a question I came to know that sp3 nitrogen's electronegativity is less than that of an sp carbon. We know that ...
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1answer
44 views

Meaning of carbon hybridization [closed]

What do we mean when we talk about carbon hybridization? I'm trying to understand how it works, what is the difference between non-hybridized and hybridized carbon?
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1answer
65 views

Electronic strucure of cyclopropene radical cation

Suppose I have a cyclopropene molecule with a + charge on the singly bonded carbon.I think the singly bonded carbon is $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridised, isn't it? To obtain this species from cyclopropene, ...
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0answers
95 views

How many lone pairs are there in a molecule, if it has 5 electrons (unbonded) in the valence shell?

While learning the vsepr theory, I myself thought of a random compound ClF2.(I don't know if it exists). Now I know how to arrange the valence electrons in the equitorial position and all but I got a ...
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1answer
435 views

Why is triplet carbene sp2-hybridised?

Triplet carbene has a carbon with 6 electrons, of which 2 are unpaired. I would expect the carbon to be $\ce{sp}$ or $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridised and the two singly occupied orbitals to be degenerate. ...
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1answer
274 views

Resonance in Organic Compound

Is the pi bond of a $\ce{sp}$ hybridised carbon in conjugation with another π-bond capable of resonance? Examples: $\ce{={C}=C-C=}$ $\ce{#{C}-C=}$ Is resonance possible?
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1answer
278 views

Question about hybridization

So, I was wondering that how can a methane molecule form 4 sp3 hybrid orbitals, with each hybrid orbital containing one s and three p orbitals. In four of such sp3 hybrid orbitals, it makes a total of ...
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1answer
227 views

Chemical structure of xenon heptafluoride anion

When $\ce{XeF6}$ acts as a fluoride acceptor, $\ce{XeF7-}$ is formed. What is the hybridisation, geometry, and shape of $\ce{XeF7-}$?
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271 views

How to calculate steric number of methyl free radical?

According to the definition, steric number = number of atoms it is attached + lone pair. In that way, I get 4 for methyl free radical which means sp3 hybridization . But that's wrong ! Why is this ...
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0answers
867 views

Hybridisation in phosphorus allotropes

The white phosphorus has a tetrahedral structure, like this: [Image source: Wikipedia] The red phosphorus, on the other hand, has a polymeric structure: [Image source: google images] Then what ...
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2answers
2k views

Why is this PH3 considered to be an unhybridized molecule? [duplicate]

Also, don't hybrid orbitals appear in all molecules? The answer by "ron" says "the molecule can be viewed as being unhybridized": How does lone pair of a central atom affect the dipole moment?
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0answers
30 views

Bonding in PCl3 [duplicate]

Why is there a need to produce 4 equivalent sp3 hybrids? Wouldn't the 3s2 orbital be just fine on its own since it's spherical? Wouldn't it be easier to just be closer to the nucleus and not get ...
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1answer
288 views

Identifying a Positive or Neutral Ligand Inside Coordination Sphere?

There are some coordination compounds like $\ce{Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]}$, where ligands like $\ce{NO}$ are used which exist as both $\ce{NO+}$ (nitrosonium ion) and $\ce{NO^.}$ (neutral nitrosyl). How to ...
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0answers
224 views

Coordination Numbers and Hybridization schemes of anions

Draw the molecular structures of (a) the borax anion, $\ce{[B4O5(OH)4]^2-}$ (b) the peroxoborate anion, $\ce{[B2(O2)2(OH)4]^2-}$ ...
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435 views

Why are d orbitals used in the hybridisation of PCl5 and similar compounds? [duplicate]

Phosphorus uses its $\ce{3s}$, three $\ce{3p}$ and one $\ce{3d}$ orbitals for its hybridization in $\ce{PCl5}$ and similar compounds. However, shouldn't it use its $\ce{4s}$ rather than $\ce{3d}$ ...
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0answers
85 views

How does the phosphate ion look like? [duplicate]

I am trying to understand how a phosphate ion looks like using the VSEPR theory. The phosphorus element has an atomic number of 15, and therefore it has a electron configuration as follow by the ...
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1answer
2k views

VSEPR theory and hybridization in determining the shape of a molecule

Our chemistry teacher told us that both VSEPR theory (which says that the electron pairs in the valence shell of an atom arrange themselves in such a way that repulsions among them are minimized and ...
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1answer
8k views

Hybridisation of coordination compounds

Lets say I have to find hybridisation of $\ce{[Ni(CO)_4]}$ and $\ce{[Ni(CN)_4]^{2-}}$. The metal atom/ion in these compounds are $\rm Ni$ and $\rm Ni^{2+}$ respectively. So the outer shell ...
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127 views

The affect of effective nuclear charge on energy gap between subshells

A few days ago my teacher taught me about $\mathrm{d}$ orbital contraction. He said that in $\ce{SF6}$ the hybridization of sulphur is $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$. He said that although the $\mathrm{d}$ ...
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115 views

Planarity and sp2-hybridized bridgehead atom

Why it is difficult to attain planarity at a bridgehead position if the bridgehead atom is $\mathrm{sp^2}$-hybridized?