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Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Why sp3 hybridisation in NH3 but bonding with pure p orbitals in case of other hydrides of group 15

According to my book, the following line was given relating to the bond angle in Group 15 elements The bond angle in PH3, AsH3 and SbH3 is close to 92° which suggests that the orbitals used for ...
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Overlapping of orbitals in hybridisation [on hold]

In molecular bonding, orbital with different symmetry would have a net overlap of 0 (Ex: 2s and 2px/2py). However, in hybridisation, 2s and 2px/2py orbitals of the same orbital can be mixed together ...
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Hybridization of carbon atoms present in the smallest ester?

I found this question in the Resonance DLPD Organic Chemistry book on Page 55: What is the hybridization of carbon atoms present in the smallest ester? The smallest ester as far as I know is ...
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Perpendicular orbitals in aryl and vinyl carbocations? [duplicate]

This point (iv) has been given under reasons for extremely low reactivity of aryl and vinyl halides. I cannot understand it. First of all, isn't the positive carbon atom in phenyl as well as vinyl ...
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Chemical bonding based on hybridisation model

A snippet from a textbook: Therefore, the hybridization model predicts that an $\mathrm{sp}$-hybridized carbon atom is more electronegative than an $\mathrm{sp}^3$-hybridized carbon atom. Evidence ...
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Comparing bond lengths of C-O bonds in methanamide, methanal, methanoic acid and fluoromethanal

Why is methanamide having the longest C-O bond length ? Is there any explanation using hybridization or Bent's rule? I think C-O bond in fluoromethanal is having maximum p character(applying Bent's ...
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Why does NH3 hybridize at all?

So in Chemistry class I've been taught that hybridization is a way we can explain things such as how $\ce{CH4}$, for example, forms four, equally strong bonds. However at the same time I'm told that ...
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Stability of Arsenic Pentafluoride [closed]

How is the above mentioned compound stable enough to occur naturally? Also, I've read that it's a covalent compound with a Trigonal Bipyramidal Structure. The Arsenic atom is $sp^3d$ hybridized. ...
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How do we recognise a Hybridised Sp3 orbital? [closed]

As far as i know the sp3 orbital is a combination of orbitals. But how do we know if we have a hybridised orbital or not?
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Is fluorine sp3 hybridized in BF3

Since BF3 has the shape of tetrahedral, and in the provided solution, Boron is sp2, why is Fluorine sp3 hybridized?
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Dichlorine monoxide molecular geometry

I need to predict the geometry of Dichlorine monoxide, using the main link theory: Lewis model, VSEPR and hybridization of molecular orbitals. First, the Lewis structure is a graphical representation ...
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Molecular geometry of acetylene

I need to determine the molecular geometry of acetylene, for this I have performed the following procedure: First, we represent the correct Lewis structure. Remember that the Lewis structure is a ...
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1answer
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Do all sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds? [closed]

Many textbooks refer that sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds . But each individual bond ( between different atoms) have different bond energy. So how we know for sure that every possible sigma ...
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Comparing basicity of pyrrolidine and piperidine [duplicate]

How do we compare the basicity of pyrrolidine and piperidine? I think that ring strain is the only factor that can possibly affect it. The nitrogen being sp3 hybridised wants to have a bond angle of ...
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Hybridization in ethene [closed]

I recently learned that there is such thing as a hybridization in chemistry, but I don't really get it. For example, in $\ce{C2H2}$ (Ethene), they say the there are 3 electrons in three ${sp^2}$ and ...
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What is the difference between carbon in an excited state and with sp³ hybridization?

What is the difference between the carbon in the excited state, $\ce{[(1s)^2] (2s)^1 (2p)^3}$, and $\pu{sp^3}$ hybridization?
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How many equal Xe–O bond length are present in (XeO_6)-3? [closed]

I tried to solve this problem by drawing a structure but the structure did not give me any answer and I was not able to draw the proper structure please help me out.
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Hybridization and excitation of electrons, how is it possible?

When studying the structures of molecules by hybridization why we take into consideration of excitation of electron if the excited electron only stays in the upper shell by absorbing for only 10^-8 ...
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1answer
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Hybridization and bonding in ethenone H2C=C=O?

My book says ethenone is a planar molecule, so I was trying to understand its hybridization,I feel that like allenes ethenone too will not be planar. Supposing oxygen and the carbon near it to be in ...
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Formation of double bonds [duplicate]

I know that in $\ce{SO2Cl2}$ the S atom undergoes $sp^3$ hybridization. How, then, are the double bonds of the oxygen atoms formed?
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Hybridisation of ClO2

Find the hybridization as well identify the pπ-pπ as well as pπ-dπ bonds in $\ce{ClO2}$. $\ce{ClO2}$ has 2 $\sigma$ bonds, 1 lone pair, 2π bonds and 1 odd electron. Hybridisation is equal to number ...
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Electron promotion in hybridisation: A misconception

Recently, I read through a short article on Nature Chemistry, written by Michelle Francl, titled "Talking to Pauling's ghost". The article talks about how electron promotion was never something that ...
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Hybridization molecule

Why is SO32- sp3 hybridized even though it forms a double bond with the oxygen (in resonance)? I thought double bonds needed a p orbital so I would think it would be sp2d so it can still have an ...
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Do atoms exist in hybrid form in nature, or do they form hybrid orbitals during molecule formation? [duplicate]

Do atoms exist in hybrid form in nature, or do they form hybrid orbitals during molecule formation? Take methane for example. Does carbon atom exist with $\ce{sp^3}$ hybrid orbitals in nature and ...
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Does tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8) have a nonzero dipole moment?

I've looked at and drawn the structure, and I originally felt that it would be nonpolar - as I believe all the dipoles would cancel out, but I'm not 100% sure. I might be too dependent on the fact ...
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Are sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridisation only relevant to the carbon atom?

When we are talking about $\mathrm{sp, sp^2}$ and $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation, is it only relevant to the carbon atom only? For the following molecules: Acetone (propanone), Acetic acid (ethanoic ...
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Is planarity really necessary for conjugation?

If we look at the $\ce{ClO4-}$ anion, the chlorine atom in it is sp3 hybridised. Hence, it has a tetrahedral structure in which conjugation shouldn't be possible, but while explaining the acidic ...
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Resemblance of molecular orbital formed by mixing of s and p orbitals to hybridised sp orbital

See the following two images. I think that the two orbitals should not resemble each other because s and p orbitals overlap in different fashions in the two cases. In the case of sp hybrid orbital, ...
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1answer
339 views

Why Bond Angle is different? [duplicate]

H2O has two lone pair electron and H2S also have two lone pair electron but Bond Angle in H2O is 104.5° but H2S has 92.12°bond Angle . Both H2O and H2S has same hybridization ,which is sp3 and i know ...
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Why do transition metals make colored compounds despite the remaining d orbitals being hybridized? [closed]

I know that transition metals make colored compounds when they forms a bond with a ligand, as the ligand increases the energy level of $\ce{d_{x^2-y^2}}$ and $\ce{d_{z^2}}$ orbital by repelling these ...
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1answer
353 views

Structure of phosphate ion [duplicate]

I understand that the hybridization in the phosphate ion is $\mathrm{sp^3}$ since phosphorous forms $4$ sigma bonds with $4$ of the oxygens and there are no lone pairs on the phosphorous atom. The ...
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Question regarding orbitals in tetrafluoroethylene

So the question is as stated: What atomic or hybrid orbitals make up the sigma bond between $\ce{C1}$ and $\ce{C2}$ in tetrafluoroethylene, $\ce{C2F4}$? and that What is the approximate $\ce{F-...
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Why does NCl3 use sp³ hybrid orbitals?

I have a question regarding the hybridization of $\ce{NCl3}$. From what I've understood, hybridization occurs when electrons belonging to different orbitals mix. For example an electron belonging to ...
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What is the hybridization of [Cu(H2O)4]2+

Hoping somebody could explain something to me. I need to find out what is the hybridization of $\ce{[Cu(H2O)4]^2+}$ I can't seem to figure out how to place the electrons on the orbitals. I know i ...
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278 views

How to compare energy levels in hybridized sp orbitals?

How to compare energy levels in $\ce{sp, sp^2, sp^3}$ orbitals? Since a higher energy level implies lower stability, an $\ce{sp-sp}$ bond must have the lowest energy level, since it is formed by the ...
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Deciding if a molecule is polar and non-polar in cyclic carbon compounds

While discussing about dipole moment of the compounds, our chemistry teacher told that the dipole moment will be 0 for 1,4-Dichlorobenzen, and for those compounds where same atoms or group of atoms ...
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Molecule where an sp3 chalcogen is connected to an sp2 atom

I am looking for a small molecule where an $\mathrm{sp^3}$ atom from Group 16 (O, S, Se,...) is connected to an $\mathrm{sp^2}$ or resonant atom of another column? Background: The universal force ...
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Why does the size of hybrid orbitals vary as sp³>sp²>sp?

In my text book it said that Size of hybrid orbitals vary as sp³>sp²>sp Does this size variation in hybid orbitals means that S orbitals are smaller than P orbitals? But we know that larger the ...
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Why is the electronegativity of an sp³ nitrogen less than that of an sp carbon? [duplicate]

Why is the electronegativity of an sp3 nitrogen less than that of an sp carbon. Now in a question I came to know that sp3 nitrogen's electronegativity is less than that of an sp carbon. We know that ...
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Meaning of carbon hybridization [closed]

What do we mean when we talk about carbon hybridization? I'm trying to understand how it works, what is the difference between non-hybridized and hybridized carbon?
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Electronic strucure of cyclopropene radical cation

Suppose I have a cyclopropene molecule with a + charge on the singly bonded carbon.I think the singly bonded carbon is $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridised, isn't it? To obtain this species from cyclopropene, ...
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How many lone pairs are there in a molecule, if it has 5 electrons (unbonded) in the valence shell?

While learning the vsepr theory, I myself thought of a random compound ClF2.(I don't know if it exists). Now I know how to arrange the valence electrons in the equitorial position and all but I got a ...
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Why is triplet carbene sp2-hybridised?

Triplet carbene has a carbon with 6 electrons, of which 2 are unpaired. I would expect the carbon to be $\ce{sp}$ or $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridised and the two singly occupied orbitals to be degenerate. ...
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Resonance in Organic Compound

Is the pi bond of a $\ce{sp}$ hybridised carbon in conjugation with another π-bond capable of resonance? Examples: $\ce{={C}=C-C=}$ $\ce{#{C}-C=}$ Is resonance possible?
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Question about hybridization

So, I was wondering that how can a methane molecule form 4 sp3 hybrid orbitals, with each hybrid orbital containing one s and three p orbitals. In four of such sp3 hybrid orbitals, it makes a total of ...
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Chemical structure of xenon heptafluoride anion

When $\ce{XeF6}$ acts as a fluoride acceptor, $\ce{XeF7-}$ is formed. What is the hybridisation, geometry, and shape of $\ce{XeF7-}$?
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How to calculate steric number of methyl free radical?

According to the definition, steric number = number of atoms it is attached + lone pair. In that way, I get 4 for methyl free radical which means sp3 hybridization . But that's wrong ! Why is this ...
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Hybridisation in phosphorus allotropes

The white phosphorus has a tetrahedral structure, like this: [Image source: Wikipedia] The red phosphorus, on the other hand, has a polymeric structure: [Image source: google images] Then what ...
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Why is this PH3 considered to be an unhybridized molecule? [duplicate]

Also, don't hybrid orbitals appear in all molecules? The answer by "ron" says "the molecule can be viewed as being unhybridized": How does lone pair of a central atom affect the dipole moment?
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Bonding in PCl3 [duplicate]

Why is there a need to produce 4 equivalent sp3 hybrids? Wouldn't the 3s2 orbital be just fine on its own since it's spherical? Wouldn't it be easier to just be closer to the nucleus and not get ...