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Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Hybridization in CH2 diradical

What is the hybridization of C in :CH2 diradical? Also, how do you identify if a molecule is a diradical?
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Restriction of back bonding in tris(dimethylamino)borane

J.D. Lee Concise Inorganic Chemistry [3, p. 78] mentions that The bond length order of the B-N bond in the following compounds is $\ce{B(NR2)3}$ > $\ce{HB(NR2)2}$ > $\ce{H2B(NR2)}$ and the ...
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Confusion in comparing contribution of resonance structures in Hydrazoic acid

Given below is the resonance hybrid of $\ce{HN3}$(Hydrazoic acid) And these are the resonance structures below: If the second resonance structure had contributed more, then the two bond lengths ...
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Effect of Vacant d-orbital of Phosphorous in Pyramidal Structure of Trisilylphosphine [duplicate]

J.D. Lee Concise Inorganic Chemistry [3, p. 77] specifically mentions that In case of $\ce{P(SiH3)3}$, the inter-nuclear distance is large and P atom has its own vacant d orbital. Hence the tendency ...
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Why is Piperidine more basic than Pyridine? [duplicate]

Piperidine, which has sp3 carbons attached to it, experiences an increase in electron density on the nitrogen atom, making it more basic. However, when we look at the resonating structures of pyridine,...
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Are CF2H radical and CH2F radical non planar? [duplicate]

I read that ch2f and cf2h radicals are non planar but shouldn't they follow the same hybridization as that of ch3 radical which would make it planar. I understand my that in cf3 free radical there is ...
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Why should higher energy empty orbitals be chosen over lower energy empty orbitals during hybridisation?

Organic chemistry by jonathan clayden states during his explanation of hybridisation using trigonal boron structure (sp2) and tetrahedral boron structure (sp3): You want to populate the lowest energy ...
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Question Involving Bonding (VSEPR AND VBT)

So basically any chemistry book will tell you about the extent of overlapping in different orbitals. For formation of sigma bonds, head on overlapping happens. Chemistry textbooks always state that $p-...
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Why is Sulfur Trioxide has SP² hybridization? [duplicate]

When I google what is the type of hybridization in SO₃ it gives me "SP² hybridization". The problem I have is why does it has the above hybridization when it has 3 double bonds with the ...
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Do PH3F2 and XeS2 exist (in the light of hybridization and Valence Bond Theory)?

Do $\ce{PH3F2}$ and $\ce{XeS2}$ exist, in accordance with Valence Bond Theory? According to Drago's Rule, if the central atom of a compound is an element of the third period, and the attached atom has ...
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Why can s and p orbitals of one atom form hybrid orbitals but the overlaping of s & p orbitals of two different atoms don't form a molecular orbital?

So my question is in the title : Why can s and p orbitals of one atom form hybrid orbitals but the overlapping of one s orbital and one p orbital (perpendicular to the bond axis) of two different ...
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Understanding Hybridisation in Cyclic Compounds

I had a doubt while solving this problem. At first glance of these compounds, I felt that all of them have sp3 hybridisation (for nitrogen), since all of them had 3 bonded pairs and 1 lone pair around ...
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Do diatomic molecules undergo hybridization

For the steric number to be 1,the molecule must be diatomic or linear in geometry and shape. First of all, do they undergo hybridization? Secondly, Just like the hybridization for steric number 2 is ...
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Why is it okay for the central carbon to lose a bond when forming a resonance structure for acetone?

As the title reads, I'm confused as to why it's okay for the central carbon in acetone to have a +1 formal charge when we push the electrons from one of the bonds with oxygen to form a lone pair and ...
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What kind of hybridisation is there around the central carbon atoms?

I am currently working on an assignment and I am confused about what kind of hybridisation exists for the first condensed structure CH3CN. Does the CH3 have sp2 hybridisation? I suspect its that ...
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Why is pyramidal structure observed in trisilylphosphine?

Why does trisilylphosphine $\ce{P(SiH3)3}$ (ICSD Entry: 72676, [1]) have a pyramidal structure while trisilylamine $\ce{N(SiH3)3}$ (ICSD Entry: 201428, [2]) is planar? I think since silicon has a ...
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Formation of tetrafluoroborate using VBT and hybridisation

How can the formation of $\ce{BF_4^-}$(Boron is $\ce{sp^3}$ hybridized) be explained using VBT and Hybridization? So far, I understood that one electron from s orbital gets excited and jumps into a p ...
Mathlover12345's user avatar
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Molecular orbital picture in conjugated molecules - double bonds

I am a not a chemistry student but a physics student. Nevertheless, I am quite familiar with molecular orbital theory and similar quantum chemistry concepts. However, I have problems understanding the ...
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If Ethyne has the lowest C-H bond length (highest C-H bond energy) compared to Ethane and Ethene, why is it the most acidic? [duplicate]

I am not an expert in chemistry, but these are the few facts I know from Standard XII chemistry books (these facts could be wrong or incomplete or modified by now). Facts I know - Ethane has 'sp$^3$' ...
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In which orbital is the positive charge of central nitrogen present in diazomethane? [closed]

Where is the positive charge of central nitrogen located? It cannot be in the pure p orbital because in that case there will only s-orbital left for hybridization which is not possible. If it's ...
Ashish 038 Kharb's user avatar
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How do I determine the hybridization of terminal atoms? [duplicate]

I've read that terminal atoms do not undergo hybridization because there is no need to. For example, CF4, C undergo sp hybridization, but fluorine do not hybridize. How about CO2? Why is oxygen sp2 ...
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Is there a molecular orbital equivalent of rehybridization?

I generally have seen the pyramidal inversion of NH3 explained in terms of rehybridization. The sp3 hybridized NH3 changes to sp2, with the lone pair in the p orbital, and then reverts to sp3 in the ...
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What is the logic behind the steric number formula?

My teacher taught us two methods two calculate steric number for determining hybridisation. The first method was to count the total number of sigma bonds and add the lone pairs of the central atom. I ...
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Why is the bond angle of SO2 less than 120 degrees? [duplicate]

I've learnt about VSEPR theory and have a general idea of how lone electron pairs affect the molecular geometry by repulsions. But my teacher told me that when the angle between bond pairs or lone ...
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Bonding in hypervalent molecules

I don't know where they go the electrons of the extended-valence in molecules like $\ce{SF6}$ or $\ce{PCl5}$ for instance because my teacher said that the d orbitals can't interact with s and p (or ...
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What does "shape of hybrid orbitals" mean?

My teacher and textbook distinguish between the $sp$,$sp^2$ and $sp^3$ hybrid orbitals' shapes by saying that the first has linear shape, the second has trigonal shape, and the third has tetrahedral ...
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Why are there FOUR $sp^3$ hybridized orbitals in methane?

(This may be a stupid question, but I've only learnt about hybridization yesterday.) I will take the example of methane. The valence shell electron configuration of ground state of carbon is $2s^2 2p^...
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Is it possible to have different isomers of compounds with SP2 hybridized carbons based on the orientation of the Pi bond?

I was building molecular models with my son who is in high school to teach him about molecular geometries and he asked me a question I had never considered before. We built Acetone, using plastic ...
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What is the hybridization of oxygen atoms in boric acid?

I was making the $\ce{H3BO3}$ structure and tried to think of hybridization of oxygen atoms and got confused between $\mathrm{sp^2}$ and $\mathrm{sp^3}$. Boron has empty orbitals, so the lone pairs of ...
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Why is hybridization different in a ring? [duplicate]

Why is nitrogen $sp^3$ hybridized in a compound such as NH3 but $sp^2$ hybridized in something like pyrrole, which has a ring structure? In both cases there are three bonds and one lone pair.
wheelix's user avatar
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Why do sp³ orbitals have tetrahedral symmetry when they are linear combinations of orbitals with octahedral symmetry?

I'm trying to understand how orbitals hybridize. What I understand—or at least think I understand—is the following: The "standard" $\mathrm{s}, \mathrm{p}, \mathrm{d}, …$ orbitals are ...
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Is the shortness of boron trifluoride's bonds better understood and explained now than it was "way back" in the 20th century?

Wikipedia's Boron trifluoride; Structure and bonding says: In the boron trihalides, BX3, the length of the B–X bonds (1.30 Å) is shorter than would be expected for single bonds,7 and this shortness ...
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%s character distribution of phosphorus hybrid orbitals

The following question was asked in the Indian Olympiad Qualifier Chemistry Part I (IOQC) today: For the given compound, %s character of phosphorus hybrid orbitals which contribute to various bonds ...
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Lone Pairs Hybridization

Why are lone pairs considered when determining the hybridization orbitals of an atom? If the lone pairs will lead towards a filled orbital and won't perform any bonding, why can't they be left ...
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How do we find hybridization when molecule has resonance?

Consider the following image which shows the resonance structures of $\ce{CO_3^{2-}}$ ion. What is the hybridization of $\ce{O}$? How do we proceed in such cases? In one resonance structure, the top ...
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Hybridisation of the O atom in the hydroxyl group of ethanoic acid

Currently studying high school organic reaction mechanisms and encountered a question. It goes like this: The C=O bond and the C–O bond of an ethanoate ion is equal at 127 pm, while the C=O bond of ...
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Why d(z^2-x^2) and d(y^2-z^2) join to form dz^2 orbital? [closed]

The possible combinations are xy,yz,zx ,d(x^2-y^2) , d(y^2-z^2),d(z^2-x^2) 7 total for d , but i heard that from Scrodinger equation one concludes that only 5 are possible but i dont see how ...
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what's the importance of "s" character in hybrid orbitals?

I am a high school student and I am learning about hybridization, my teacher told me that it is due to the "s" character in the hybrid orbital that they can arrange themselves so that the ...
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3 votes
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Justification for using valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory together?

Elementary gen chem books will make the careful distinction between the two theories and then proceed to claim that chemists can use both to complement each other to explain the behavior of certain ...
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What is the best way to visualize hybridization [closed]

I had learnt hybridization in various complex definitions some of them as "complex overlapping of orbitals (in quantum mechanical model) which leads in changing of shape of orbitals itself. But ...
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Why is C-S-C bond angle in thiirane so small at 48.5 degrees?

Why is the C-S-C bond angle in thiirane (48.5 degrees) so much smaller than C-O-C bond angle in oxirane/epoxide (60 degrees). Source: https://coek.info/pdf-three-membered-ring-heterocycles-.html
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Basic question about hybridization [closed]

I just started a basic course on chemistry and we are going really fast (at least for me). During the last lesson our teacher left us with a question: "What is hybridization and how it relates to ...
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Do strong field ligands always give d2sp3 hybridisation and weak field ligands give sp3d2 for coordiantion number 6 [closed]

i am actually doing coordination compounds but get confused when it comes to hybridization so wanted to create a short of mine for the exam
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What is the hybridization of copper in blue vitriol?

My book says that the structure of blue vitriol is the following: From the structure, I figured that since there are 4 water molecules coordinated to the cuprate ion, the hybridization should be $sp^...
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How does a molecule (for example, ClF₅) have a steric number of more than 4 if SP³ hybridisation is the maximum? [duplicate]

"The sum of the number of atoms bonded to a central atom and the number of lone pairs formed by its nonbonding valence electrons is known as the central atom's steric number." Wikipedia's ...
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Hybridisation of Azide ion

In azide ion, $\ce{N3-}$, the hybridisation is $\mathrm{sp}$ because number of hybrid orbitals = steric number, the central atom $(\ce{N})$ has 6 bonds with other $\ce{N}$ atom, 2 of which are sigma ...
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Role of 'p' Orbitals in Graphite Carbons

In the graphite arrangement of carbons, if we model them according to hybridization theory, the carbons in graphite are sp2 hybridized. This would mean that one s and two p orbitals hybridize, making ...
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What's the "Charge" in Steric Number Formula

I was reading about the Steric Number Formula here. There, I came to know that the Steric Number $N=\frac{V+M \pm I}{2}$ where $V = n(\ce{e-})$, the number of valence electrons of central atom, which ...
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Comparing intensity of colour in coordination compounds

I had given an examination recently in which the question asked was: Write the decreasing order for the intensity of color in $\ce{[CoCl4]^{2-}}$, $\ce{[Co(CN)4]^2-}$, $\ce{[Co(H2O)6]^2+}$ What my ...
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Selection of p-orbital(s) when considering sp or sp2 hybridisation

I am considering $z$-axis as the internuclear axis in all cases. When we consider overlap of s and p orbital to form a $\sigma$-bond, the chosen orbital must be p$_z$ orbital for a proper overlap. ...
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