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Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Reconciling electron configuration and valence electron distribution over separate energy levels in energy band theory [duplicate]

The electron configuration of a Silicon atom in its ground state is $\ce{1s^2 2s^2 2p^2 3s^2 3p^2}$, or equivalently, $\ce{[Ne] 3s^2 3p^2}$. When looking at the energy-level scheme of a silicon atom, ...
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Acidity order checking

Why is Methanol more acidic than Ethanol eventhough the conjugate base of Ethanol is stabilised by hyperconjugation?
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How much electron hybridization and bonding occurs in liquid helium?

Helium is the only element which does not freeze at atmospheric pressure, and only forms a liquid at around 4 Kelvin due to weak van der Waals forces. I'm interested in knowing roughly how much ...
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Why does SiH4 have unusually large bond angles?

The bond angles of $n > 2$ hydrides are usually around $90^\circ$, such as $\ce{PH3, H2S},$ $\ce{H2Se},$ $\ce{H2Te}.$ I understand that this is from increased $\mathrm{p}$ character in the bonding ...
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Why is the overlapping/bond energy greater in sigma bonds constituting of hybridized orbitals?

In this site, it is mentioned and I quote, "The hybridization of orbitals is also greatly favored because hybridized orbitals are lower in energy compared to their separated, unhybridized counterparts....
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Electronegativity of elements on pauling scale

When we say the electronegativity of Nitrogen is 3.04 ( on pauling scale ) what is the hybridisation of Nitrogen? Similarly for other elements?
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Why does a substance such as methane have 4 sp3 orbitals rather than 3 orbitals [closed]

I have been learning about SP3 hybridisation and slightly confused why it it results in 4 sp3 orbitals. My understanding is this... The S orbital is spherical and uniform whilst the p orbitals are ...
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Hybridization of oxygen with three lone pairs

I know that an oxygen with a double bond and two lone pairs has a $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridization, but how is the oxygen in acetonitrile N-oxide also $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridization? $$\large\ce{Me-C#\...
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Bond length comparison in substituted phosphorus pentahalide

What would be the comparison between $\ce{P-F}$ and $\ce{P-Cl}$ bond length in phosphorus tetrafluoride chloride $\ce{PF4Cl}$ and phosphorus trifluoride dichloride $\ce{PF3Cl2}$ in the equitorial ...
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Confusion about hybridization terminology

I was just introduced to the concept of orbital hybridization. I believe I understand the idea behind it, but there is some accompanying terminology that prevents me from achieving a greater ...
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Bent's rule: electronegativity and s character

I'm very much confused about Bent's rule. What I perceive from it is that more electronegative element occupies a position which has less s character. What I can infer from here is that s character ...
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222 views

Magnetic nature of tetraamminedichlorocobalt(III) chloride

I know how to predict magnetic nature when the compound contains only strong field or only weak field ligands. But in $\ce{[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl},$ $\ce{NH3}$ is a strong ligand whereas $\ce{Cl-}$ is a weak ...
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What is the hybridization of chromium in chromate and dichromate ions?

I was recently reading about the transition metals and some important compounds of them. I came across a rather interesting diagram in my book... a tetrahedral structure for the chromate ion. The only ...
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281 views

Is Br sp³-hybridised in HBr?

$\ce{HBr}$ formation can be explained by simple orbital overlap as well as by $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation of $\ce{Br}.$ Can't we use dipole moment to find if the lone pairs on $\ce{Br}$ are mutually ...
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179 views

Why is a alkyne anion more stable than a benzene anion?

I would think the benzene anion (A) is more stable b/c the compound aromatic. Yes I understand that sp hybridized carbons are more stable than sp2 for negative charges, however I thought that ...
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Which substitutent should be placed on axial position in SCl2(OCH3)2?

According to Bent's rule, in $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ more electronegative element is placed on the axial position, so between $\ce{Cl}$ and $\ce{OCH3}$ in $\ce{SCl2(OCH3)2}$ which should be placed on axial ...
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Why do the d orbitals contract when pairing of electrons start, because the size should increase due to increase in energy

The energy of an orbital is proportional to its mean radial distance, and since the 3d orbital is much larger it is much higher in energy than the 3s and 3p orbitals All references from JD Lee ...
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Why does hybridization produce a more stable structure? [duplicate]

I am aware of the fact that hybridization does not ALWAYS produce a stable structure (example: PH3) However, my question is, what makes hybrid orbitals so effective in forming stable bonds? Although ...
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Is fluorine also hybridised in carbon tetrafluoride?

I had read that when an atom forms multiple bonds, it hybridises it's orbitals to minimise the repulsion and decrease the overall energy. But do the terminal atoms also exist in hybridised form? E.g. ...
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Reason behind hybridisation [duplicate]

I have been taught that orbitals can overlap only when all of them are in the same energy state. That is the reason why the orbitals hybridise in a kind of 'mixing up' and give rise to orbitals having ...
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Why are d(xy),d(yz) and d(xz) orbitals involved in d³s hybridisation?

Shouldn't d(x²-y²) dxy and dz² orbitals participate? Since this corressponds to the best case overlap? What factors decide the participating orbitals in hybridisation? P.S I am well versed with the ...
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What is the electronic structure of Mn in KMnO4 and K2MnO4?

I know that is is d3s hybrid. But in my book it is unclear which orbitals participate in pi bond with O. I think it should be both p and d orbitals of Mn that do.
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Confusion Regarding Nitrogen Inversion

In nitrogen inversion, the lone pair changes its direction continuously. Does this in any way delocalize the charge density on the nitrogen making it less nucleophilic and less basic than another ...
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290 views

T-shaped and Seesaw geometry hybridization

Why are the filled orbitals s and px (in the T-shaped case) also part of the hybrid orbitals of the central atom in sp3d hybridization? In other words, why should the hybrid orbital not be a p3d, for ...
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What is the hybridization state of the carbon atoms in [10]annulene?

I know that one of the more stable structures of [10]annulene or cyclodecapentaene is planar boat-shaped. But that means the hybridization state of the carbons must have changed to suit the geometry. ...
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Are the triply-bonded carbons in pyridyne (and benzyne) sp-hybridised?

I was given this molecule (3,4-pyridyne) in a test: I had to find out if it had any atoms which had a hybridization state other than sp2. The solution said that it doesn't have any. But aren't the ...
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How to Choose Orbitals for Hybridization

Recently, I was reviewing my textbook regarding orbital hybridization, and one of the problems was to determine the hybridization of each of the atoms in $\text{CO}_2$. I understand why the ...
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Why does the orbital occupying more space around the central atom have higher s character?

Originally I had thought that Bents Rule stated that more electronegative atoms prefer to stay in the axial position. But later I came to know that this works only for Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry. ...
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Are the dsp3 hybrid orbitals degenerate? [duplicate]

I learned in general chemistry that hybridization of n orbitals produces n hybrid orbitals with the same energy (degenerate). However, in Housecroft and Sharpe inorganic chemistry, I read the ...
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365 views

Why does sp hybridised orbital have more directional character than p orbital?

It states so in my textbook. But since s orbital is non directional, shouldn't sp hybridized orbital be less directional in character than p orbital?
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Organic chemistry, hybridization concept [closed]

Hybridization of phenyl cation and venyl[sic] vinyl cation and acetylene cation ,I am totally confused , I think that the hybridization of both phenyl and the venyl cation is SP , I think that in both ...
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Why sp3 hybridisation in NH3 but bonding with pure p orbitals in case of other hydrides of group 15 [duplicate]

According to my book, the following line was given relating to the bond angle in Group 15 elements The bond angle in PH3, AsH3 and SbH3 is close to 92° which suggests that the orbitals used for ...
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328 views

Hybridization of carbon atoms present in the smallest ester?

I found this question in the Resonance DLPD Organic Chemistry book on Page 55: What is the hybridization of carbon atoms present in the smallest ester? The smallest ester as far as I know is ...
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Perpendicular orbitals in aryl and vinyl carbocations? [duplicate]

This point (iv) has been given under reasons for extremely low reactivity of aryl and vinyl halides. I cannot understand it. First of all, isn't the positive carbon atom in phenyl as well as vinyl ...
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Chemical bonding based on hybridisation model

A snippet from a textbook: Therefore, the hybridization model predicts that an $\mathrm{sp}$-hybridized carbon atom is more electronegative than an $\mathrm{sp}^3$-hybridized carbon atom. Evidence ...
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682 views

Why does NH3 hybridize at all?

So in Chemistry class I've been taught that hybridization is a way we can explain things such as how $\ce{CH4}$, for example, forms four, equally strong bonds. However at the same time I'm told that ...
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Stability of Arsenic Pentafluoride [closed]

How is the above mentioned compound stable enough to occur naturally? Also, I've read that it's a covalent compound with a Trigonal Bipyramidal Structure. The Arsenic atom is $sp^3d$ hybridized. ...
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How do we recognise a Hybridised Sp3 orbital? [closed]

As far as i know the sp3 orbital is a combination of orbitals. But how do we know if we have a hybridised orbital or not?
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Is fluorine sp3 hybridized in BF3

Since BF3 has the shape of tetrahedral, and in the provided solution, Boron is sp2, why is Fluorine sp3 hybridized?
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Dichlorine monoxide molecular geometry

I need to predict the geometry of Dichlorine monoxide, using the main link theory: Lewis model, VSEPR and hybridization of molecular orbitals. First, the Lewis structure is a graphical representation ...
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1answer
767 views

Molecular geometry of acetylene

I need to determine the molecular geometry of acetylene, for this I have performed the following procedure: First, we represent the correct Lewis structure. Remember that the Lewis structure is a ...
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1answer
267 views

Do all sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds? [closed]

Many textbooks refer that sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds . But each individual bond ( between different atoms) have different bond energy. So how we know for sure that every possible sigma ...
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Hybridization in ethene [closed]

I recently learned that there is such thing as a hybridization in chemistry, but I don't really get it. For example, in $\ce{C2H2}$ (Ethene), they say the there are 3 electrons in three ${sp^2}$ and ...
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What is the difference between carbon in an excited state and with sp³ hybridization?

What is the difference between the carbon in the excited state, $\ce{[(1s)^2] (2s)^1 (2p)^3}$, and $\pu{sp^3}$ hybridization?
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How many equal Xe–O bond length are present in (XeO_6)-3? [closed]

I tried to solve this problem by drawing a structure but the structure did not give me any answer and I was not able to draw the proper structure please help me out.
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Hybridization and excitation of electrons, how is it possible?

When studying the structures of molecules by hybridization why we take into consideration of excitation of electron if the excited electron only stays in the upper shell by absorbing for only 10^-8 ...
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Hybridization and bonding in ethenone H2C=C=O?

My book says ethenone is a planar molecule, so I was trying to understand its hybridization,I feel that like allenes ethenone too will not be planar. Supposing oxygen and the carbon near it to be in ...
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Hybridisation of ClO2

Find the hybridization as well identify the pπ-pπ as well as pπ-dπ bonds in $\ce{ClO2}$. $\ce{ClO2}$ has 2 $\sigma$ bonds, 1 lone pair, 2π bonds and 1 odd electron. Hybridisation is equal to number ...
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Electron promotion in hybridisation: A misconception

Recently, I read through a short article on Nature Chemistry, written by Michelle Francl, titled "Talking to Pauling's ghost". The article talks about how electron promotion was never something that ...
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Hybridization molecule

Why is SO32- sp3 hybridized even though it forms a double bond with the oxygen (in resonance)? I thought double bonds needed a p orbital so I would think it would be sp2d so it can still have an ...