Podcast #128: We chat with Kent C Dodds about why he loves React and discuss what life was like in the dark days before Git. Listen now.

Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
-3
votes
0answers
11 views

How many sp2 and sp hybridised c atoms r there [on hold]

What’s is the answer of the given question!!! Answer given in the book is 6,0
-1
votes
0answers
11 views

Bond Length Comparison in $\ce{PF4Cl}$ and $\ce{PF3Cl2}$ [duplicate]

What would be the comparison between $\ce{P-F}$ and $\ce{P-Cl}$ bond length in phosphorus tetrafluoride chloride $\ce{PF4Cl}$ and phosphorus trifluoride dichloride $\ce{PF3Cl2}$ in the equitorial ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Hybridization of oxygen with three lone pairs

I know that an oxygen with a double bond and two lone pairs has a $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridization, but how is the oxygen in acetonitrile N-oxide also $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridization? $$\large\ce{Me-C#\...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

Bond length comparison in substituted phosphorus pentahalide

What would be the comparison between $\ce{P-F}$ and $\ce{P-Cl}$ bond length in phosphorus tetrafluoride chloride $\ce{PF4Cl}$ and phosphorus trifluoride dichloride $\ce{PF3Cl2}$ in the equitorial ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Confusion about hybridization terminology

I was just introduced to the concept of orbital hybridization. I believe I understand the idea behind it, but there is some accompanying terminology that prevents me from achieving a greater ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Bent's rule: electronegativity and s character

I'm very much confused about Bent's rule. What I perceive from it is that more electronegative element occupies a position which has less s character. What I can infer from here is that s character ...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Magnetic nature of tetraamminedichlorocobalt(III) chloride

I know how to predict magnetic nature when the compound contains only strong field or only weak field ligands. But in $\ce{[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl},$ $\ce{NH3}$ is a strong ligand whereas $\ce{Cl-}$ is a weak ...
0
votes
1answer
260 views

What is the hybridization of chromium in chromate and dichromate ions?

I was recently reading about the transition metals and some important compounds of them. I came across a rather interesting diagram in my book... a tetrahedral structure for the chromate ion. The only ...
2
votes
1answer
169 views

Is Br sp³-hybridised in HBr?

$\ce{HBr}$ formation can be explained by simple orbital overlap as well as by $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation of $\ce{Br}.$ Can't we use dipole moment to find if the lone pairs on $\ce{Br}$ are mutually ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

Why is a alkyne anion more stable than a benzene anion?

I would think the benzene anion (A) is more stable b/c the compound aromatic. Yes I understand that sp hybridized carbons are more stable than sp2 for negative charges, however I thought that ...
2
votes
0answers
119 views

Which substitutent should be placed on axial position in SCl2(OCH3)2?

According to Bent's rule, in $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ more electronegative element is placed on the axial position, so between $\ce{Cl}$ and $\ce{OCH3}$ in $\ce{SCl2(OCH3)2}$ which should be placed on axial ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Why do the d orbitals contract when pairing of electrons start, because the size should increase due to increase in energy

The energy of an orbital is proportional to its mean radial distance, and since the 3d orbital is much larger it is much higher in energy than the 3s and 3p orbitals All references from JD Lee ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Why does hybridization produce a more stable structure? [duplicate]

I am aware of the fact that hybridization does not ALWAYS produce a stable structure (example: PH3) However, my question is, what makes hybrid orbitals so effective in forming stable bonds? Although ...
-1
votes
1answer
75 views

Is fluorine also hybridised in carbon tetrafluoride?

I had read that when an atom forms multiple bonds, it hybridises it's orbitals to minimise the repulsion and decrease the overall energy. But do the terminal atoms also exist in hybridised form? E.g. ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Reason behind hybridisation [duplicate]

I have been taught that orbitals can overlap only when all of them are in the same energy state. That is the reason why the orbitals hybridise in a kind of 'mixing up' and give rise to orbitals having ...
0
votes
0answers
94 views

Why are d(xy),d(yz) and d(xz) orbitals involved in d³s hybridisation?

Shouldn't d(x²-y²) dxy and dz² orbitals participate? Since this corressponds to the best case overlap? What factors decide the participating orbitals in hybridisation? P.S I am well versed with the ...
0
votes
0answers
110 views

What is the electronic structure of Mn in KMnO4 and K2MnO4?

I know that is is d3s hybrid. But in my book it is unclear which orbitals participate in pi bond with O. I think it should be both p and d orbitals of Mn that do.
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Confusion Regarding Nitrogen Inversion

In nitrogen inversion, the lone pair changes its direction continuously. Does this in any way delocalize the charge density on the nitrogen making it less nucleophilic and less basic than another ...
-1
votes
2answers
204 views

T-shaped and Seesaw geometry hybridization

Why are the filled orbitals s and px (in the T-shaped case) also part of the hybrid orbitals of the central atom in sp3d hybridization? In other words, why should the hybrid orbital not be a p3d, for ...
7
votes
0answers
189 views

What is the hybridization state of the carbon atoms in [10]annulene?

I know that one of the more stable structures of [10]annulene or cyclodecapentaene is planar boat-shaped. But that means the hybridization state of the carbons must have changed to suit the geometry. ...
7
votes
2answers
127 views

Are the triply-bonded carbons in pyridyne (and benzyne) sp-hybridised?

I was given this molecule (3,4-pyridyne) in a test: I had to find out if it had any atoms which had a hybridization state other than sp2. The solution said that it doesn't have any. But aren't the ...
0
votes
0answers
73 views

How to Choose Orbitals for Hybridization

Recently, I was reviewing my textbook regarding orbital hybridization, and one of the problems was to determine the hybridization of each of the atoms in $\text{CO}_2$. I understand why the ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

Why does the orbital occupying more space around the central atom have higher s character?

Originally I had thought that Bents Rule stated that more electronegative atoms prefer to stay in the axial position. But later I came to know that this works only for Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry. ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

Are the dsp3 hybrid orbitals degenerate? [duplicate]

I learned in general chemistry that hybridization of n orbitals produces n hybrid orbitals with the same energy (degenerate). However, in Housecroft and Sharpe inorganic chemistry, I read the ...
2
votes
1answer
291 views

Why does sp hybridised orbital have more directional character than p orbital?

It states so in my textbook. But since s orbital is non directional, shouldn't sp hybridized orbital be less directional in character than p orbital?
2
votes
0answers
60 views

Organic chemistry, hybridization concept [closed]

Hybridization of phenyl cation and venyl[sic] vinyl cation and acetylene cation ,I am totally confused , I think that the hybridization of both phenyl and the venyl cation is SP , I think that in both ...
3
votes
2answers
492 views

Why sp3 hybridisation in NH3 but bonding with pure p orbitals in case of other hydrides of group 15 [duplicate]

According to my book, the following line was given relating to the bond angle in Group 15 elements The bond angle in PH3, AsH3 and SbH3 is close to 92° which suggests that the orbitals used for ...
0
votes
1answer
245 views

Hybridization of carbon atoms present in the smallest ester?

I found this question in the Resonance DLPD Organic Chemistry book on Page 55: What is the hybridization of carbon atoms present in the smallest ester? The smallest ester as far as I know is ...
-1
votes
2answers
87 views

Perpendicular orbitals in aryl and vinyl carbocations? [duplicate]

This point (iv) has been given under reasons for extremely low reactivity of aryl and vinyl halides. I cannot understand it. First of all, isn't the positive carbon atom in phenyl as well as vinyl ...
3
votes
1answer
71 views

Chemical bonding based on hybridisation model

A snippet from a textbook: Therefore, the hybridization model predicts that an $\mathrm{sp}$-hybridized carbon atom is more electronegative than an $\mathrm{sp}^3$-hybridized carbon atom. Evidence ...
-2
votes
1answer
507 views

Why does NH3 hybridize at all?

So in Chemistry class I've been taught that hybridization is a way we can explain things such as how $\ce{CH4}$, for example, forms four, equally strong bonds. However at the same time I'm told that ...
-1
votes
1answer
107 views

Stability of Arsenic Pentafluoride [closed]

How is the above mentioned compound stable enough to occur naturally? Also, I've read that it's a covalent compound with a Trigonal Bipyramidal Structure. The Arsenic atom is $sp^3d$ hybridized. ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

How do we recognise a Hybridised Sp3 orbital? [closed]

As far as i know the sp3 orbital is a combination of orbitals. But how do we know if we have a hybridised orbital or not?
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Is fluorine sp3 hybridized in BF3

Since BF3 has the shape of tetrahedral, and in the provided solution, Boron is sp2, why is Fluorine sp3 hybridized?
1
vote
0answers
124 views

Dichlorine monoxide molecular geometry

I need to predict the geometry of Dichlorine monoxide, using the main link theory: Lewis model, VSEPR and hybridization of molecular orbitals. First, the Lewis structure is a graphical representation ...
-1
votes
1answer
633 views

Molecular geometry of acetylene

I need to determine the molecular geometry of acetylene, for this I have performed the following procedure: First, we represent the correct Lewis structure. Remember that the Lewis structure is a ...
1
vote
1answer
215 views

Do all sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds? [closed]

Many textbooks refer that sigma bonds are stronger than pi bonds . But each individual bond ( between different atoms) have different bond energy. So how we know for sure that every possible sigma ...
0
votes
2answers
285 views

Hybridization in ethene [closed]

I recently learned that there is such thing as a hybridization in chemistry, but I don't really get it. For example, in $\ce{C2H2}$ (Ethene), they say the there are 3 electrons in three ${sp^2}$ and ...
-1
votes
1answer
134 views

What is the difference between carbon in an excited state and with sp³ hybridization?

What is the difference between the carbon in the excited state, $\ce{[(1s)^2] (2s)^1 (2p)^3}$, and $\pu{sp^3}$ hybridization?
-1
votes
1answer
153 views

How many equal Xe–O bond length are present in (XeO_6)-3? [closed]

I tried to solve this problem by drawing a structure but the structure did not give me any answer and I was not able to draw the proper structure please help me out.
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Hybridization and excitation of electrons, how is it possible?

When studying the structures of molecules by hybridization why we take into consideration of excitation of electron if the excited electron only stays in the upper shell by absorbing for only 10^-8 ...
2
votes
1answer
536 views

Hybridization and bonding in ethenone H2C=C=O?

My book says ethenone is a planar molecule, so I was trying to understand its hybridization,I feel that like allenes ethenone too will not be planar. Supposing oxygen and the carbon near it to be in ...
7
votes
2answers
9k views

Hybridisation of ClO2

Find the hybridization as well identify the pπ-pπ as well as pπ-dπ bonds in $\ce{ClO2}$. $\ce{ClO2}$ has 2 $\sigma$ bonds, 1 lone pair, 2π bonds and 1 odd electron. Hybridisation is equal to number ...
7
votes
0answers
247 views

Electron promotion in hybridisation: A misconception

Recently, I read through a short article on Nature Chemistry, written by Michelle Francl, titled "Talking to Pauling's ghost". The article talks about how electron promotion was never something that ...
1
vote
1answer
127 views

Hybridization molecule

Why is SO32- sp3 hybridized even though it forms a double bond with the oxygen (in resonance)? I thought double bonds needed a p orbital so I would think it would be sp2d so it can still have an ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Do atoms exist in hybrid form in nature, or do they form hybrid orbitals during molecule formation? [duplicate]

Do atoms exist in hybrid form in nature, or do they form hybrid orbitals during molecule formation? Take methane for example. Does carbon atom exist with $\ce{sp^3}$ hybrid orbitals in nature and ...
8
votes
1answer
185 views

Does tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8) have a nonzero dipole moment?

I've looked at and drawn the structure, and I originally felt that it would be nonpolar - as I believe all the dipoles would cancel out, but I'm not 100% sure. I might be too dependent on the fact ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Are sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridisation only relevant to the carbon atom?

When we are talking about $\mathrm{sp, sp^2}$ and $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation, is it only relevant to the carbon atom only? For the following molecules: Acetone (propanone), Acetic acid (ethanoic ...
5
votes
1answer
222 views

Is planarity really necessary for conjugation?

If we look at the $\ce{ClO4-}$ anion, the chlorine atom in it is sp3 hybridised. Hence, it has a tetrahedral structure in which conjugation shouldn't be possible, but while explaining the acidic ...
0
votes
2answers
392 views

Resemblance of molecular orbital formed by mixing of s and p orbitals to hybridised sp orbital

See the following two images. I think that the two orbitals should not resemble each other because s and p orbitals overlap in different fashions in the two cases. In the case of sp hybrid orbital, ...