Questions tagged [hybridization]

Hybridisation is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties.

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Hybridisation of XeF4

Is hybridisation of orbitals of Xe in XeF4 sp3d2 or dsp2? Are the lone pairs present in hybrid orbitals? How to prove whether they are hybridised or not in the square planar geometry?
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Why d and s orbitals overlap even when there is considerable difference in their energies?

In my grade 11 chemistry NCERT textbook, its written that hybridization happens when orbitals of almost same energy overlaps. But S orbital and D orbital have significant difference in their energies. ...
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What does it mean for a hybridized orbital to be non operative?

What is the meaning of $\mathrm{2s–2p}$ orbital is not operative? $\ce{B2}$ is generally paramagnetic but if $\mathrm{2s–2p}$ orbital is not operative then $\ce{B2}$ become diamagnetic. Can you ...
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Why is the bond angle of sulphur difluoride greater than that of hydrogen sulphide?

Why is the bond angle of $\ce{SF_2 (98.05^\circ) > SH_2 (92.11^\circ)}$? Isn't this contradicting Bent's rule or otherwise electron repulsion rule ? Fluorine is more electronegative and hence it ...
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How can orbitals of Hydrogen and Chlorine atom combine to form molecular orbitals of Hydrogen Chloride? [closed]

Linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) states that orbitals can only combine if the energies and shape of the orbitals are same. $3p$ orbital of Chlorine and $1s$ orbital of Hydrogen are the ...
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Where would the lone pairs be placed in a sp3d3 hybrid structure? [duplicate]

$sp3d3$ has a pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. Lets say the structure is of the form that it contains $6$ equivalent bonds and $1$ lone pair. In case of $sp3d$ according to bent's rule the lone pairs ...
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About the hybridization of isocyanides

I have a question regarding the hybridization of the carbon in isocyanides. The image shows the resonant structures attributed to isocyanides. The ionic structure on the left shows that the C atom is ...
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Why does a larger bond angle correspond to greater s-character?

In trialkylamines $\ce{NR3}$, the $\ce{R}$ alkyl group attached to nitrogen increases the electronegativity of the nitrogen atom. I also found in this question that this happens due to the repulsion ...
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What is θ in Bent's rule equation (%s - character)?

I was learning about Bent's Rule. I came across a formula $$\cos\theta = \frac{s}{s-1}$$ I am quite confused about $\theta$. I know that it represents bond angle. But for a compound like $\ce{PCl5}$, ...
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Why doesn't an sp3s hybridisation exist?

Trying to prove that nitrogen doesn't split its lone pair to form 5 bonds, I thought of a situation that I couldn't rule out; the paired electron being excited to the 3s orbital, so that five bonds ...
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Relation between the number of hybridised orbitals and the number of sigma bonds

March's Advanced Organic Chemistry (8th Ed.), has in its first chapter several tantalizing statements of the following variety; Boron has only three valence electrons available to form bonds, hence ...
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A contradiction in the nucleophilic attack of hydride ion based on charge densities

On page 130 of Organic Chemistry by Clayden, it is stated that Nucleophilic attack by the hydride ion, $\ce{H-}$, is an almost unknown reaction. This species, which is present in the salt sodium ...
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Hybrid lobes of sp3d2 and sp3d3 [closed]

It's known that $\ce{sp^3d}$ hybridization has 5 lobes; 3 equatorial with $\ce{sp^2}$ lobes and 2 axial with $\ce{dp}$ lobes. Do we have such splitting in $\ce{sp^3d^2}$ and $\ce{sp^3d^3}$ ...
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Which d orbitals are involved in “d3s hybridisation”?

I was reading about hybridisation and came across a point saying that $\mathrm{d^3s}$ hybridisation involves only $\mathrm d_{xy}$, $\mathrm d_{yz}$, and $\mathrm d_{zx}$ orbitals and not $\mathrm d_{...
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Reactivity of unsaturated organolithium compounds

I'm particularly looking in the context of alkyl lithiums compared to vinyl-lithiums and alkynyl-lithiums. Why is it that shifting from sp3 to sp2, and even further to sp carbanions, reduces the ...
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Why is it that nitrogen hybridizes in ammonia, yet in F2, fluorine does not [closed]

It seems rather arbitrary to me that we have decided that nitrogen sp3 hybridizes in ammonia to stay consistent with VSEPR, yet that fluorine uses its 2p orbital to bond with another fluorine in F2 (I....
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is there a stead fast rule to predict hybridization or is it just an ad hoc concept

Before I start of this question, Ι want to make it clear that I know that hybridization, like pretty much all of chemical bonding, are just made up to qualitatively rationalize observations. I know ...
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Why there is no sp2s hybridization in hydrocarbons? [closed]

If carbon's $\mathrm{sp^2}$ orbital is overlapped with hydrogen's $\mathrm{s},$ then why it is $\mathrm{sp^2}$ and why not $\mathrm{sp^2s}?$
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Why is oxygen sp2 hybridised in acetate ion [closed]

The oxygen atom with the negative charge on the acetate ion is said to be sp2 hybridised but I can seem to figure out how I feel I may not have out much effort into this question so even a link to a ...
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The covalent bond in HCl and the Lewis model

Can the formation of the covalent bond in HCl be explained through the hybridization model? We know for sure that it can be explained by the theory of molecular orbitals. In this way, it would be ...
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Describe the formation of the [PbCl4]2- complex ion

The $\ce{[PbCl4]^{2-}}$ complex ion is formed when $\ce{PbCl2}$ is exposed to excess $Cl^-$ ions in solution as explained here and here through the following reversible reaction: $$\ce{PbCl2(s) + 2Cl^-...
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Electron configuration of non-hybridized carbon

I'm currently learning about orbital hybridization in carbon. I see that carbon has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p2. However, there are actually three p-orbitals in the second shell, namely ...
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Does Hybridization change the shape of molecules after bonding to other molecules?

If you have two molecules bonding to each other such as NH and CH2 you have a change in hybridization for both N and C. NH with its two lone pairs is sp2 hybridized and CH2 is also sp2 hybridized. As ...
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Bond stability of C-C in ethane, ethene, and ethyne

Which one of the three compounds has the highest $\ce{C-C}$ bond stability? Ethane has $\mathrm{sp^3}$ hybridisation so less $\mathrm{s}$-character and lesser electronegativity compared to ethyne. ...
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Hybridization of orbitals and forming of bonds in the nitrogen dioxide molecule [closed]

I considered the nitrogen atom hybridizing its orbitals and then ending up having 3 $\mathrm{sp^2}$ orbitals and the oxygen with 2 $\mathrm{sp}$ orbitals. The thing which bothers me is when people ...
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Maximum number of coplanar atoms in difluorotrimethylphosphorane

In $\ce{PF2(CH3)3},$ what is the maximum number of atoms lying in one plane? $\ce{P}$ is the central atom with the hybridization $\mathrm{sp^3d}.$ Two $\ce{F}$ atoms will form axial bonds with it, ...
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Comparing stability of 2-propenyl cation and 1-propyl cation

Compare the stability of 2-propenyl cation and 1-propyl cation: $$\underset{\text{2-propenyl cation}}{\ce{CH2=CH-CH2+}}\qquad \underset{\text{1-propyl cation}}{\ce{CH3-CH2-CH2+}}$$ In 2-propenyl ...
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Is there s-character in the HOMO of dinitrogen?

State true or false: The highest occupied molecular orbital in nitrogen molecule has no s-character. The answer given is that this false. Why is it so? The highest occupied molecular orbital in $\ce{...
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Possible structure if a compound like AB4 is polar?

I was asked the following question in JEE Mains (2nd September, Shift 1) 2020, If a compound AB4 is polar (having non-zero dipole moment), then it's structure could be (A) Square planar (B) ...
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Does hybridization change atomic size?

I have come to know that nitrogen can undergo both $\mathrm{sp}^3$ and $\mathrm{sp}^2$ hybridization. Does a different hybridization lead to a different atomic radius?
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Hybridization state of oxygen in carbonyl sulfide (COS) [duplicate]

I've been scratching my head on this one for awhile here. In a carbonyl sulfide (COS) molecule, what is the hybridization state of oxygen? Carbonyl sulfide is composed of a single carbon atom double ...
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Hybridisation of similar energy orbitals

Hybridisation is the mixing of orbitals of similar energies, so when we perform hybridisation, why don't we prefer $4\mathrm s$ in place of the $3\mathrm d$ orbital for hybridisation, even though $4\...
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Backbonding in phosphorous pentoxide

I read this today in a book that $\ce{P=O}$ in $\ce{P4O10}$ consists of a coordinate bond and pπ-dπ backbonding, but why does this happen? Can't phosphorus share its lone pair with one of the lone ...
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Is hybridization of the cyclopropyl anion sp5?

I have read some answers about the $\mathrm{sp^5}$ hybridisation of carbon atoms in the $\ce{C-C}$ bond in cyclopropane as well as the $\sigma$-bond resonance in methylcyclopropyl cation. Overall, the ...
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What is the hybridisation of the bridging oxygen atoms in the borax anion?

Below is a neat looking borax anion. While exploring the molecule in a computer simulation (Gaussian 16, level of theory: HF/3-21G), I found that the oxygen atoms in the 8-membered outer ring had sp2 ...
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Mechanism of R-OH to R-X using SOCl2 [duplicate]

https://youtu.be/ANlXQdpv6cc?t=1006 In this lecture, I am learning on the reaction of alcohol to alkyl halide using SOCl2 and pyridine. However, there are 2 different approaches on the first step. ...
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What is the hybridisation in HCN molecule?

According to VSEPR theory hybridisation of the central atom should be sp. However, my teacher says that there exists a near-100% s-character in the carbon orbital that bonds with hydrogen due to some ...
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What is the exact statement of Drago's rule? [duplicate]

While studying the topic of chemical bonding, I came across a statement given by my teacher: Elements of the third period and above do not show hybridisation. An example, in the case of $\ce{PH_3}$, $...
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Comparing bond angles in carbonyl dichloride and carbonyl dibromide

Background I was studying VSEPR and hybridization theory and one of the popular questions in many textbooks was comparison of bond angle of $\ce{NH3}$, $\ce{NF3}$ and $\ce{NCl3}$. $\ce{NF3}$ had ...
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sp2 hybridisation of alkyl radicals causing formation of racemic mixture

What I know about $\ce{^{.}CR3}$ radical is that it has both $\ce{sp^2}$ and $\ce{sp^3}$ character but the $\ce{sp^2}$ character dominates and so the radical is $\ce{sp^2}$ in nature. So, suppose we ...
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What is the derivation of the formula for finding number of pure and hybrid orbital?

I am studying Organic Chemistry. Recently I came up with the formula for finding number of pure and hybrid orbital that can be present in a organic compound. That is: Number of Hybrid Orbital = ...
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Why is biphenyl not planar? [closed]

I've seen in a lot of books that biphenyl is not planar. I don't know why that is because both the carbon are $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridized so it should be planar. Can someone explain it to me?
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Comparing axial and equatorial bond lengths in square pyramidal structures

I found this image on wikipedia: It got me wondering why the axial bond angles were shorter than the equatorial ones. I found this extract elsewhere on the internet - Extract: (ww.nrcresearchpress....
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What is the maximum number of hybrid orbitals an atom can have? [closed]

What is the maximum number of hybrid orbitals and atom can have? It is usually seen that an atom does not have more than 6 hybrid orbitals. Why is it so?
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Hybridization theory (orbitals used in different hybridizations)

Why is $d_{x²-y²}$ orbital used in $sp^3d$ (square pyramidal geometry) while $d_{z^2}$ orbital in $sp^3d$ (trigonal bipyramidal geometry)? I came across this information while reading J.D.Lee Concise ...
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Does the hybridization of sp3d2 type exist?

Is the hybridization of $\ce{XeOF4}$ $\mathrm{sp^2}$ rather than $\mathrm{sp^3d^2}$, because the latter type of hybridization does not exist? Every answer in the Quora thread "How can we find the ...
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If all bond angles in AX₃ are the same, then which of the following are correct conclusions about AX₃?

Question If all bond angles in $\ce{AX3}$ are the same, then which of the following are correct conclusions about $\ce{AX3}?$ (A) $\ce{AX3}$ must be polar. (B) $\ce{AX3}$ must be planar. (C) $\ce{AX3}...
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Multiple bonds solely with sp3 hybridised orbitals? [duplicate]

I have fond that similar question has been asked already (why don't carbons use sp3 instead of sp2 orbitals to make double bonds?), but I don't think it was formulated in a manner that was ...
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From where energy for electron promotion comes during hybridisation [closed]

I know that the short answer is that "from bond formation" but as I think electron promotion occurs before formation of bonds between atom. So it seems like a paradox.
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Reconciling electron configuration and valence electron distribution over separate energy levels in energy band theory [duplicate]

The electron configuration of a Silicon atom in its ground state is $\ce{1s^2 2s^2 2p^2 3s^2 3p^2}$, or equivalently, $\ce{[Ne] 3s^2 3p^2}$. When looking at the energy-level scheme of a silicon atom, ...

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