Questions tagged [entropy]

For questions about the thermodynamical state function entropy, commonly understood as a measure of disorder.

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Gibbs free energy for an ideal gas

You know that for a generic system which during a process exchanges heat with a reservoir at a constant temperature $T_{a}$ it holds: $$\Delta G=\Delta H-T_{a}\Delta S$$ Where: $\star)$$\Delta G$ is ...
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44 views

Why is the entropy of a NaOH solution negative? [closed]

Why is the change of entropy of the solution of $\ce{NaOH}$ in water negative while that of $\ce{KOH}$ is positive? It makes sense that entropy of $\ce{KOH}$ should be positive as degree of randomness ...
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2answers
65 views

What is wrong in this argument that dG must always be zero?

Under constant temperature and pressure, the change of the Gibbs free energy can be written as $$\mathrm dG_\textrm{sys} = \mathrm dH_\mathrm{sys} - T\,\mathrm dS_\mathrm{sys}$$ And in the textbook ...
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47 views

Troubles with Gibbs free energy

The book I'm reading writes that for a system at constant pressure and temperature it holds: $$dG=-TdS_{tot}$$ where $dG=dH-TdS$. So if you want to see if a certain process is spontaneus, you just ...
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2answers
63 views

Entropy as an intrinsic property of matter

I would like to ask how we can see entropy as an intrinsic property of molecules, namely as something depending also on their geometry (and not only as gross disorder). Is this what is called the "...
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32 views

Thermochemical data for thiocyanatoiron(III) ion

I am currently writing a lab report about the formation constant of $\ce{FeSCN^2+}.$ All I could find online was a formation constant at $\pu{25 °C}$ $(890),$ which was 70% higher than the ...
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21 views

Estimation of Molar Entropies

There are plenty of compounds out there with unknown standard molar entropies. I know that molar entropy has a strong dependance on the physical phase, molecular weight, and number of atoms. So is it ...
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1answer
41 views

Irreversible Adiabatic Process [closed]

While studying about the entropy change of surroundings in irreversible adiabatic process, I came across a sentence. For infinite reservoir, all processes are considered reversible And suddenly ...
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2answers
38 views

Spontaneity of an exothermic chemical reaction

When the process is exothermic (ΔHsystem​<0), and the entropy of the system increases (ΔSsystem​>0), the sign of ΔGsystem​ is negative at all temperatures. Thus, the process is always spontaneous. ...
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1answer
109 views

Entropy changes during transfer of heat between two bodies

Consider two metal blocks, one at 500K and another at 300K, they are bought to contact with each other until they reach a common temperature. Find the entropy change of each object and the total ...
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163 views

Infinite Increase in Entropy when Energy added to Absolute Zero

My textbook states the following: If a system were at absolute zero, an additional small amount of heat energy would lead to an infinite increase in entropy. Such a state is impossible. Absolute ...
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116 views

Entropy in organic chemistry

Why do we not talk about entropy when deciding feasibility of an organic reaction?...We always seem to only be interested in stability of product and intermediate(essentially delta H)and draw their ...
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31 views

What makes determining entropy changes theoretically so hard compared to enthalpy?

It is really hard to determine the entropy change of a reaction accurately because of subtle solvent effects and a lack of standard entropies. On the other hand, enthalpy is relatively easy and ...
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29 views

Calculate change in entropy when both temperature and volume change

Calculate the change in entropy when $\pu{23.5 g}$ of oxygen gas is heated from $\pu{240 K}$ to $\pu{360 K}$ in such a way that its pressure increases from $\pu{2.00 kPa}$ to $\pu{8.00 kPa}.$ Assume ...
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1answer
211 views

Entropy change in non-ideal solutions

We know that some solutions show positive deviations and some show negative deviation from Raoult's law.The former is endothermic and the latter is exothermic. And again, the volume change show ...
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538 views

Relation between equilibrium constant and entropy change

Like the Van't Hoff equation, which relates change in enthalpy to equilibrium constant, is there a similar equation for the relation between change in entropy and equilibrium constant? Consider the ...
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85 views

Why is the entropy of solidifying solution higher than that of a pure solvent?

According to a source, Solutions have a greater entropy than pure liquids as the particles in a solution are more separated and solvent molecules separate the solute particles. If the number of ...
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2answers
44 views

Can entropy in a closed system remain constant when you heat a liquid?

This is in regards to an exam question that I did not understand and got wrong. The question was: When you heat acetone from 200 K to 400 K, what happens to the entropy? Answers: Increases, ...
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1answer
52 views

Entropy and total differential

In an exercise, I have derived that $$\mathrm dS_\mathrm{m} = \frac{3R}{2T}\mathrm dT + \frac{R}{V}\mathrm dV$$ using the 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics (1 mol ideal gas). Now, I want to write $\...
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154 views

Heat and work of glucose combustion

$$\ce{C6H12O6(s) + 6 O2(g) -> 6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g)}$$ When looking at glucose combustion I found that the change in Gibbs free energy is greater than the change in enthalpy. If we assume the process ...
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1answer
99 views

Temperature dependency of enthalpy H and entropy S [closed]

In textbooks, I often read that the temperature dependency of the enthalpy of reaction $\Delta_\mathrm{r}H$ and the entropy of reaction $\Delta_\mathrm{r}S$ can be neglected (in a limited $T$-range). ...
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2answers
187 views

Relationship between the ideal gas constant and entropy

So it dawned on me the other day that the ideal gas constant $$R = \pu{8.31 J mol-1 K-1}$$ has the same units as molar entropy. Is there some deeper meaning behind this or is it just a coincidence ...
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93 views

Whether the entropy change of the system is positive or negative

$$\ce{N2(g) + O2(g) → 2NO(g)}$$ My thinking: since gases are combined together, so there randomness or disorder gets decreased. Hence the sign of entropy change of the system should be negative. ...
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136 views

Feasibility and Entropy

Suppose you've got some reaction that has a positive $\Delta H$, and also has positive $\Delta S_\mathrm{sys}$. Due to the equation $$\Delta S_\mathrm{tot} = \Delta S_\mathrm{sys} - \frac{\Delta H}{T}$...
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89 views

How does refrigerator actually work?

In refrigerator, heat energy got extracted from cold sink and dumped into hot source. This is not spontaneous so work must be done. I came across the following while reading a textbook: For ...
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1answer
401 views

Effect of temperature on equilibrium constant in terms of entropy change

This question was asked in the JEE examination of 2017 : [A] option is incorrect since the system is losing heat and hence $$ \Delta S = -ve$$ [B] Lets assume we have an endothermic reaction $$\...
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173 views

Estimating the absolute entropy of water at room temperature

I thought it would be fun to get an idea of how enormously large $W$ in $S = k\ln W$ is. I'd specifically like to estimate this for a mole of water at $\pu{1 atm}$ and $\pu{298 K}$. To do this, I ...
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2k views

Entropy change of isothermal irreversible expansion of ideal gas [duplicate]

Two mole of an ideal gas is subjected to isothermal expansion from $\pu{2 atm}$ to $\pu{1 atm}$ at $\pu{300 K}$. Calculate entropy change of the system, surrounding and total, if the process is ...
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1answer
50 views

When a piston cylinder system that evolves isothermally and quasistatically is irreversible?

Suppose we have two states: $\ce{A}$ and $\ce{B}$. Considering a quasi-static isothermal process of an ideal gas, (and another condition, that is $T = T_\mathrm{surr}$) that join those states. Then ...
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2answers
260 views

Hydrogen vs neon in terms of entropy

I know that both molecular size and complexity increase overall entropy, but between the two I'm not sure which increases it more. Would 1 mole of hydrogen have the greater entropy because it is two ...
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2answers
114 views

dSsur, dS and dStotal relation

By definition, dS=dqrev/T. Based on my understanding, the subscript rev means that the dq is heat exchanged in a reversible pathway from a state i to another state f, regardless of the actual ...
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1answer
69 views

How is “the surrounding” and its temperature defined to calculate entropy change during a reaction?

Lets say supercooled liquid water at $263\ \mathrm K$ isobarically changes to solid ice at the same temperature. I wish to calculate the change in entropy of the surroundings and I happen to know the $...
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34 views

Deriving the entropy as a function of concentration

In a physical chemistry class, the professor derived entropy $S$ as a function of concentration starting from $S=k\ln(W)$. Somehow he made a mistake and ended up with the wrong sign. This remains ...
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In dS≥dQ/T, material equilibrium means that there is not material changes at all or that a material change can be reversible and at equilibrium?

I am reading Levine's Physical Chemistry, I know how to arrive to that equation, but I have questions. First, $\mathrm{d}S=\mathrm{d}Q/T$ for material equilibrium, but if there is a heat flow I ...
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514 views

Why are catabolic reactions exergonic and anabolic reactions endergonic?

Catabolism breaks apart large molecules and anabolism creates large molecules. Catabolism is supposed to be exergonic, while anabolism is supposed to be energonic. Id on't really understand this. By ...
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How does the concentration of a gas affect the entropy of a system in a chemical equilibrium?

The question asks about factors that increase the entropy of the system. The mark-scheme states that "decreasing the concentration of a gas without changing the volume of the container" is the answer. ...
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1answer
239 views

Thermodynamic stability and Inertness [duplicate]

The following is from my teacher's notes: The reaction (where the reaction mixture is thermodynamically unstable but kinetically inert) tends to go as indicated by a positive total entropy change, ...
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1answer
42 views

In chemistry what do they mean by disorder when in the context of entropy?

Entropy is often the amount of disorder is present in a system, but when they refer it to the degree of disorder in a system what do they mean. It just seems the term is quite vague and not very ...
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395 views

Why does ATP has a lower entropy than ADP

I was confused about why ATP has a lower entropy than ADP when ATP has 1 more phosphate group. According to https://chem.libretexts.org/Textbook_Maps/Biological_Chemistry/Metabolism/ATP%2F%2FADP#...
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1answer
45 views

An equal amount of hydrogen gas is dissolved in a 1L vessel and a 2L vessel, both filled with water. Which vessel has higher entropy? [closed]

This question came up in our chemistry class and we could not determine which would have the higher entropy. Clearly, Vessel 2 has a larger volume, but Vessel 1 has a higher concentration of $H_2$. ...
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281 views

Molar entropy of vaporization

If a substance has a molar heat of vaporization of $\pu{3.05\times10^4J/mol}$ and a normal boiling temperature of $\pu{80.0^\circ C}$, what is the value of its molar entropy of vaporization $\Delta S_\...
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50 views

Why don't these Entropy equations contradict each other?

My textbook says that $\delta S_{rev}= \frac{q_{rev}}{T}$. It also says that $\delta S_{surr}= \frac{-q_{rev}}{T}$. Logically, this should mean that the change in entropy in both the surroundings and ...
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278 views

How can residual entropies be reconciled with the Third Law?

The third law of thermodynamics states that the absolute entropy of a pure crystalline substance is $0$ at $0\,\mathrm{K}$. In the analysis of chemical reactions this absolute scale is sued to ...
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1answer
33 views

Reaction direction change based on phase of reactants and products

I am curious specifically how the entropy of a reaction will change if the phases of the reactants and products at different conditions change. For instance, a reaction $$\ce{O2(g) + C(s) -> CO2(...
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1answer
189 views

Where can I find the standard molar entropy for ammonium bicarbonate?

I'd like to know the standard molar entropy S0solid for ammonium bicarbonate to use in an example in class, to calculate ΔS0 for the reaction, NH4HCO3(s) → NH3(g) + H2O(g) + CO2(g). Already checked: ...
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121 views

Entropy change of evaporating NaCl [closed]

What is $\Delta S$ for this process? $$\ce{NaCl(s) -> NaCl(g)}$$ (A reference that I could quote would be ideal.)
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126 views

What exactly is entropy? [closed]

I have looked at other questions, videos and articles but I kept reading disorganization, messiness or energy distribution (probability) or a thermodynamical equilibrium and stuff. What do we mean by ...
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1answer
174 views

Energy at constant Entropy and Volume

The system of constant entropy and constant volume will attain the equilibrium in a state of minimum energy. Why? I know that: $\Delta G= \Delta H-T\Delta S$ And at constant volume and entropy: $\...
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156 views

How to compare standard entropy of diatomic gases?

Say, for example, I wanted to compare the standard entropies of $\ce{Cl2(g)}$ and $\ce{F2(g)}$. They both are equimolar. I understand that entropy is a measure of how many states a particle can ...
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1answer
476 views

The confusion of entropy change

The entropy is defined as randomness of a substance or a system. The randomness increases as we go from solids to liquids to gases. Similarly from hard diamond to soft graphite. Since graphite is soft ...