Questions tagged [nomenclature]

This tag should be used for questions about the naming of compounds and elements, usually using systematic names according to IUPAC recommendations, but also using retained traditional names.

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Are substituents placed alphabetically in the name of a cycloalkane?

I named this molecule 1,5-diethyl-2-methyl-4-propylcyclohexane. Is this correct? Or should we somehow use the size of the substituents?
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Why do we say "octadiene" and at the same time name another compound "octanediol"?

Why do we say "octadiene" and at the same time name another compound "octanediol"? We also say for instance "pentanedione", but on the other hand we say "butadiyne&...
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Does the ace- or acet- prefix denote simplest forms of functional groups? [duplicate]

For example Acetone has the shortest carbon chain in which a ketone functional group can be added. Other examples include Acetaldehyde, Acetylene. Was this some sort of older naming system in which ...
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What is the overall oxidation number of polyatomic ions?

In a polyatomic ion, the sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms is equal to the overall charge on the ion. However, does this polyatomic ion have an overall oxidation number? We also know that the ...
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IUPAC Names for trihalomethanes

The drinking water section of the Massachusetts DEP mandates the electronic submission of analytical results. The compound Chlorodibromomethane must be entered when reporting just trihalomethanes and ...
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Is the 'i' prefix for "iso-" italicised?

I want to abbreviate pseudoisocytosine. Should it be "ΨiC" or "ΨiC"? I would usually write "sec-butyl", "tert-butyl", etc, and using "t-BuOH" for &...
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Priority of Alphabetic order vs Lowest locant

I am confused about usage priority of lowest locant and alphabetical order rule(s) For example : 3-ethyl 4,4 - dimethyl hexane 4-ethyl 3,3- dimethyl hexane Which is considered correct (or preferred) ...
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Why is active sec-pentyl group called so?

My teacher as well as Wikipedia — Pentyl group use the following names for the “pentyl” groups: Group name Structure with attachment point 1 active sec-pentyl 2 sec-pentyl 3 active pentyl If a ...
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With respect to nomenclature, when is parent chain length a bigger priority than having functional groups before double bonds?

I came across this problem in Organic Chemistry as a Second Language. In the book, it is taught that one must prioritize functional groups over double bonds, while also trying to keep both as low in ...
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Manganate and Permanganate

In my chemistry course, the addition of the “per” prefix generally means that the oxoanion of relevance will have one more oxygen than the “base” ion. e.g. chlorate = $\ce{ClO3-}$, perchlorate = $\ce{...
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Purpose of "1H" in naming of substituted heterocyclic compouns [duplicate]

I had a curious thought about the following molecule's name: For such a simple molecule it seemed awfully complicated. From what I gathered, the "[c][1,2]oxaborinin-1-ol" stems from the ...
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IUPAC name for dicarboxylic acid with aldehyde and amine groups

The IUPAC name of the structure is: (A) 3-amino-2-formyl butane-1, 4-dioic. Acid (B) 3-amino-2, 3-dicarboxy propanal (C) 2-amino-3-formyl butane-1, 4-dioic acid. (D) 1-amino-2-formyl succinic acid ...
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Is there an equivalent term for favourable and non-favourable entropy?

For Gibbs energy, we have 'exergonic' or 'endergonic' For Enthalpy, we have 'exothermic' or 'endothermic' It seems logical there should be an equivalent pair of terms for entropy, but I can't seem to ...
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Which is correct - molybdate or molybdenate?

Most websites (including Wikipedia) say that the anion MoO42- is called a molybdate ion, although some websites use molybdenate instead. Which one is correct, and if one of them is correct, is the ...
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Does methyl or aldehyde group have higher priority when choosing the main chain of carbonyl compound?

As far as I know, both following names seem to be correct for the compound below. Please explain which IUPAC name is correct by which IUPAC rules: 4-formylpentanoic acid (methyl group counted in the ...
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How do you write fractional hydrates in words?

Apart from sequihydrate and hemihydrate (1.5 and 0.5 respectively), I can't find a way to write any other fractional hydrates. Wikipedia states: The notation "hydrated compound⋅nH2O", where ...
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How to name this organic compound?

How would you name this compound if ethoxy ethane is disubstituted with hydroxy group on both alpha carbons? The formula of the compound is: $\ce{H3C-CH(OH)-O-CH(OH)-CH3}$ Is this compound stable at ...
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Why are neodymium magnets called neodymium magnets?

Neodymium magnets have a formula of Nd2Fe14B, but why are they called neodymium magnets? There are more iron atoms, and iron makes up over half of the mass of a neodymium magnet. Why isn't it called ...
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Amino Acid Derivative Naming Conventions

Is there a trivial name for compounds based on glutamic acid, or other amino acids, where it is not the α-amino acid group that is functionalised? (I.e. that shown on the right) Glutamylsulfonic acid, ...
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Which atom carries charge in polyatomic ions?

I have a basic confusion regarding polyatomic ions: Is it meaningful to say "which atom" in a polyatomic ion is charged? Consider for instance hydroxide OH$^-$: The oxygen has greater ...
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Which would be the undefined article in singular for Ag0/AgCl reference electrodes?

The Google exact match searches for "an Ag0/AgCl reference electrode" and "a Ag0/AgCl reference electrode" yields the same few results. Which usage would be more appropriate, for ...
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Why is Formanilide not named N-benzamide in IUPAC Nomenclature

The preferred IUPAC name for formanilide is N-phenylformamide. However, it is very similar to benzamide, except for the atom to which phenyl is attached How does the bonding arrangement, in this ...
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Nomenclature of tertiary amine derivative

I’m experiencing difficulties putting together a full name of the tertiary amine. One substituent is propyltrimethoxysilane $\ce{(OEt)3Si-CH2-CH2-CH2\bond{-}}$, and the two others are ...
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What does $n$ represent in "hydrated compound⋅nH2O"? [closed]

On Wikipedia it is written that in "hydrated compound⋅nH2O" $n$ is the number of water molecules per formula unit of the salt. I don't understand what that means and this is indicated in ...
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Numbering order in IUPAC name of a trisubstituted alkatriene

During E/Z-nomenclature class, I found this molecule. Using MarvinSketch 21.15.0 version I have (3E,5E)-6-bromo-3,4-dimethylhexa-1,3,5-triene for it. Why the name couldn't be (1E,3E)-1-bromo-3,4-...
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Systematic IUPAC name of buckminsterfullerane

Many of you have heard of buckminsterfullerEne, which is C60, also called the "buckyball". Well, there's also buckminsterfullerAne, which is C60H60. This is a buckyball that's fully ...
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Systematic and preferred names of acetamide

My book says to use carboxamide when it is a carboxylic acid derivative (acyl). Ethanamide $\ce{CH3CONH2}$ is a carboxylic acid derivative, so shouldn’t it be named ethan-1-carboxamide rather than ...
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How do you find oxidation state of the metals of a complex with two coordination spheres?

For example suppose we have $\ce{[Pt(NH3)4][PtCl4]}.$ For the naming of this complex I need to know the oxidation number of the metals; let the oxidation number of first and second $\ce{Pt}$ be $x, y$...
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How do I understand the IUPAC naming of 9-methyl-3-[(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-carbazol-4-one? [closed]

I'm having trouble understanding the IUPAC naming convention of 9-methyl-3-[(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-carbazol-4-one. It would be great if you can help to breakdown the naming ...
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Why is methane not called carbon tetrahydride?

If aluminium hydride, $\ce{AlH3}$, is called "hydride" because it contains elemental hydrogen and sodium chloride, $\ce{NaCl}$, is called "chloride", and calcium carbide $\ce{CaC2}$...
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Difference between DSF (disulfiram) and DSF-Cu

I though tetrathiomolybdate (TM) and disulfiram (DSF) were forms of copper chelators, so I don’t understand the difference between TM/TM-Cu and DSF/DSF-Cu in the below graph. Are they chemically ...
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Definition of amino acid side chain

Is the α-carbon considered a part of amino acid side chain? Is the nitrogen atom on the backbone is considered a part of the side chain of the proline?
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Chloro functional group is given number 4 in phenol but number 1 in nitrobenzene

In the IUPAC name 4-chlorophenol, we see that, the C atom where OH group is attached, is given number 1. But in the IUPAC name 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene, we see that, the C atom where $NO_2$ group is ...
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E and Z nomeclature when we have a ring instead of double bond

I am confused as to whether the E/Z nomenclature can be extended to compounds of general structure like in the image. Clearly they are some sort of cis and trans but I cannot see a non-aromatic double ...
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Alkylbenzenes or Phenylalkanes (Nomenclature)

I've seen this rule cited in several websites: If the substituent contains no more than six carbon atoms, the compound's parent name is benzene Could someone update me with the latest rule in naming ...
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nomenclature of propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid [duplicate]

The iupac name of this compound is given book as "Propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid" My doubt is, why the carbon of the first carboxylic acid is not included in the main parent chain while ...
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Should the principal carbon chain contain maximum number of functional groups or just the principal functional group?

My answer was the 6 carbon chain, i.e. the name would be 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylhexanoic acid. But the given answer is the 4 carbon chain, i.e. the name would be 4-hydroxy-2-(2-methylbutyl)...
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Does the same name represents all resonance and hybrid structure of a molecule?

The name chlorobenzene represents the following molecule. But the molecule shows resonance and its resonating structures are So does the same name represents all the resonance structures? Does it ...
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Why 1-methylethanol is not preferred IUPAC name for isopropyl alcohol?

For the compound $\ce{CH3-CH(OH)-CH3}$ I propose two names: propan-2-ol and 1-methylethanol. Which is the correct name as per the IUPAC guidelines? According to Organic Chemistry by Morrison and Boyd, ...
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IUPAC Nomenclature Confusion [duplicate]

Compound In the given compound I am confused between two possible names : 1,3-dichloro-2-(chloromethyl) Propane 2-(chloromethyl)-1,3-dichloro Propane Fundamentally, I have the following two doubts : ...
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Does it matter, and if so, how should "dAMP" (meaning "deoxyadenosine monophosphate") be pronounced?

When an expert says "dAMP" (meaning "deoxyadenosine monophosphate") is it pronounced "dee ay em pee", "lowercase dee ay em pee", "damp", "dee amp&...
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Why is deoxyadenosine monophosphate called "dAMP" and not "DAMP"?

Why is deoxyadenosine monophosphate called "dAMP" and not "DAMP"? After all, deoxyribonucleic acid is called "DNA", and not "dNA" (nor "dRNA", thanks ...
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Degree of polymerization with structure-based polymer naming

Polymers may be named using either a structure-based or a source-based nomenclature, as detailed in the IUPAC Purple Book.[1] Therefore, the polymer descibed by $\require{enclose}\ce{\enclose{...
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IUPAC nomenclature of extremely long alkanes

What would be the name of a linear alkane containing 10000 carbon atoms, i.e. $\ce{C10000H20002}$? I have searched for it, but the longest alkane I could find had 9000 carbon atoms (and was apparently ...
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Are there separate quantity symbols for the pKa of a substance and the pKa of its conjugate acid?

For polyprotic acids, we distinguish the different deprotonation equilibria and their equilibrium constants by indices, e.g. phosphoric acid dissociation is described by $K_1$, $K_2$, and $K_3$. ...
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Naming of an organic compound containing nitrogen and fluoride

I'm don't have a background in chemistry but I've been doing a project on computer aided molecular design and one of the resulting molecules was: I'm having trouble naming this molecule let alone ...
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IUPAC name of benzoyl chloride

I came up with two possible names: benzoyl chloride and benzene carbonyl chloride. I believe both names are correct. Wikipedia says that the preferred IUPAC name is benzoyl chloride: Can someone ...
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Multibranched fluorinated thiol IUPAC name

I've been reading some papers about using self-assembled monolayers as hydrophobic coatings and came across this molecule: Throughout the entire article its simply referred to as "multibranched ...
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Why is 1,3-dimethyl-cyclohexane a meso compound?

So i was trying to find the plane of symmetry in 1,3-dimethyl-cyclohexane in chair conformation, but then i realised the plane is present only at a particular orientation [see figure]. So why do we ...
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IUPAC naming of purines and pyrimidines

From Wikipedia, the IUPAC name for guanine is 2-amino-1,9-dihydro-6H-purin-6-one besides 2-amino-6-hydroxypurine and 2-aminohypoxanthine. I have some difficulty understanding the 6H part in its name ...
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