Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Why does ring contraction take place in Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement?

An example of Wagner–Meerwein rearrangement given in my textbook is substitution by $\ce{AgNO2}$ in iodocyclohexane. One of the product, cyclopentylnitromethane is through ring contraction. I don't ...
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Mechanism for the following conversion [closed]

What can be a reasonable mechanism for the following reaction? I'm stuck on this one question. I don't know how a bicyclic ketone is formed! compound A is also given a bicyclic ketone
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The increasing order of reactivity of substituted benz0yl chlorides towards nucleophilic substitution

Arrange the following compounds in the order of their increasing reactivity towards nucleophilic substitution: The answer to this question is $[3<2<1<4]$. We have to compare the positive ...
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20 mg solid PbO2 is stirred at room temperature in 2 ml water for 10 minutes and filtered. Then KI is added [duplicate]

20 mg solid PbO2 is stirred at room temperature in 2 ml water for 10 minutes and filtered. What will happen if you treat the filtrate with aqueous KI solution? Mention the colour, state of the mixture ...
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Can someone clarify this rationale for using polar, protic solvents in an Sn1?

In the textbook I am reading, it states that an Sn1 mechanism prefers a (polar) protic solvent because the protic solvent helps stabilize the carbocation and solvate the kleavin group, facilitating ...
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How can I know if a reaction results in the release of nitrogen gas (N2)? [closed]

How can I know if a reaction results in the release of nitrogen gas (N2) when heat is applied to make the reaction proceed, especially in the following examples? 1) NaN3 (s) → Δ 2) NH3 (g) → Δ 3) ...
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Reaction mechanism of 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine as a nucleophile

My understanding tells me that 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine can be deprotonated quite easily because the conjugated base is stabilized be resonance and act as nucleophile attacking aldehyde carbon. ...
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On mechanism behind Marcus theory

Regarding the mechanism behind Marcus theory, I was wondering if reaction occurs through tunneling when it does not have sufficient activation energy? Wouldn't expecting reactions to occur this way be ...
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Is a glutathione conjugation a condensation reaction? [closed]

Glutathione conjugation is a reaction type used in detoxification of a lot of drugs.. I just wondered if it was a type of condensation reaction. Also, does a smal molecule have to be made in a ...
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How does a cyclization occur with a carboxylic acid and (CF3CO)2O?

The product of the reaction below is unsaturated, bicyclic ketone, but I'm confused as to how (CF3CO)2O reacts with it to cause the cyclization. There is no base involved so I don't know how the ...
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Please Explain:: If in a reaction A + B --> C then WHY gram equivalent of A == gram equivalent. of B == gram equivalent. of C? [closed]

For example : 2 H2 + 1 O2 --> 2 H2O THEN WHY ; gram equivalent of H2 == gram equivalent. of O2 == gram equivalent. of H2O
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How we can get product with more retention and less inversion of configuration? [closed]

Explain how you can get product with MORE RETENTION and less inversion of configuration, quote examples of both. Usually SN1 shows more inversion than retention.
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Can Ethanol be used to carry out SN1 reaction?

My book says that the reaction of $$\ce{Cl-CH2-O-CH2-CH3}$$ with ethanol to form $$\ce{CH3-CH2-O-CH2-O-CH2-CH3}$$ occurs through $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism, but shouldn't it actually be $\mathrm{S_N2}$...
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What actually happens in strong acid- weak base reactions?

I'm going back through my notes from a chemistry class, which I did well in despite not having a very good conceptual understanding, in order to hopefully develop that understanding, but there's ...
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Electrophilic addition to benzene [closed]

A question deals with electrophilic addition to the following compound; Apparently, the benzylic carbon gets a positive charge during electromerism, invoking resonance stabilization. Benzene is an ...
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Acidic cleavage of an ether

In the following question; Apparently, an SN2 reaction ensues, where the iodine atom's supposed to cleave off with the less sterically hindered alkyl branch from both the oxygens. This is the ...
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How does the reduction of phosphoric acid take place at the molecular level? [closed]

Phosphoric acid has been reported to undergo reduction when reacted with carbon at 850 °C. We can expect the products of the reaction to be H2, CO, and P2, but how would this reaction take place at ...
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Why is a benzylic cation more stable than a homobenzylic cation? [closed]

Below is a chemical reaction with $\ce{HBr}$. When this happening there are two out comes: One is $\ce{C6H5 - CH+ - CH(CH3) - CH3}$ and other one is $\ce{C6H5 - CH2 - C+(CH3) - CH3}$ when $\ce{C6H5 -...
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Second order reaction with different reactants

In a laser photolysis reaction $\ce{C6H5NH2}$ $(C_0 = \pu{60 µM})$ is oxidized to its radical cation. The disappearance of the cation can follow three pathways: (1) Dimerzing of the cation, (2) ...
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Is the effect of hydroperoxyl radicals significant in the oxidation of organic compounds in the Fenton reaction? Why or why not?

In the Fenton reaction, a ferrous catalyst and hydrogen peroxide are used to generate hydroxyl radicals which in turn oxidise organic compounds. The reaction is commonly seen in the treatment of ...
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Aluminium, Carbon, Aluminium Sulphate battery. What's the reaction?

I made galvanic cells from the following items (while trying to do something else), and they give between 0.6 V and 1 V per cell. Aluminium foil – negative terminal Carbon (these work: charcoal ...
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SN2 reactions and inversion of configuration in compounds with more than one chiral centre

Suppose I have a compound with 2 chiral centres which are at (S,S). Now, suppose I have an iodine atom attached to the back carbon, and I wish to carry out an $\mathrm{S_N2}$ type substitution in a ...
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1answer
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Retrosynthesis of spirocyclic compounds?

I have been trying to complete this retrosynthesis problem for a few days but can’t figure out how to get from Ester starting compound to a spirocyclic compound. I have tried removing the Ester but ...
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What is the “‡” symbol meaning in a reaction mechanism?

I was studying hydroboration from Clayden's Organic Chemistry [1, p. 1281] and the transition state had “‡” symbol in the upper right corner of the activated complex: We know that this is not the ...
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Can PDMS silicone be produced with dichloromethane?

I was taking a simulated admission test for a Technology Institute (Brazilian ITA) and one of the questions asked for the production of PDMS silicone via these described steps: Reaction of $\ce{SiO2}$...
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Electrophilic attack of X+ on double bond

Is it the double bond attacking the $\ce{X+}$ ion or the other way around? Also, does it form a cyclic transition state if it isn't bromine or chlorine? Eg. cyclohexene $+ \,\ce{Cl+ ->}$ cyclic ...
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Use of Me2SOI/NaOH

In V triazole ($\ce{N^1}$) will substitute -Cl group. However from V to W, I don't get what $\ce{Me2SO+I-}$ in presence of base will do. Any hint? I also wish to know how to guess the reactions, in ...
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What is the mechanism for the reaction of alkenes with diborane and chloramine?

$$\ce{CH3-CH=CH2 ->[B2H6/THF][NH2Cl/H2O, Δ] Product (P)}$$ What is $\ce{Product (P)}?$ First of all, in this reaction I performed hydroboration to form an alkylborane. But I don't have any ...
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Benzene to phenol in a single step

My teacher told me we can convert benzene to phenol within a single step using $\ce{V2O5}$/ $\ce{O2}$ at 300 ⁰C (not 500 ⁰C). Later I searched for that reaction but I couldn't find it in all over ...
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Addition of HBr on alkene

In 1-chloroprop-1-ene(E), if we add HBr, where will the proton add to, C1 or C2? I am asking this because I can't decide whether mesomeric as well as negative inductive effect of Cl will dominate or ...
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Possibility of SET mechanism of Wurtz reaction

I was studying the Wurtz reaction, and I wanted to figure out the mechanism. When I searched the web, I came across the single electron transfer (SET) mechanism explanation. How can the alkyl group ...
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Reaction most dominant product for a low concentration nucleophile

If i got this reaction, and I determine that it will react in a Sn1 mechanism, will the dominant product will be in the results of the EtOH/H2O or CN-? I think, the main product will be with the CN- ...
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How to convert benzene to N,N-dimethylbenzamide?

This is my solution to convert benzene to N,N-dimethylbenzamide. If you think is the right way, even just saying the equations are correct would help me! Thanks in advance.
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Migratory aptitude in E1 mechanism vs Pinacol-Pinacolone rearrangement [duplicate]

I wanted to know if the migratory aptitudes in chemistry are similar for all the reactions involving carbocation intermediates. For example, the dehydration of alcohols via E1 mechanism, what is the ...
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Is there an adhesive that is not dissolved by acetone?

I am trying to glue glass sheets together to make a sealed 13" x 13" x 13" box. Inside this box there would be acetone gas used to melt 3D printed parts to make them more durable. Acetone will remove ...
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Why is hofmann product prefered here?

In the following reaction, Hofmann elimination is preferred. This reaction takes place by E1 mechanism. I thought the Zaitsev product would be major due to 1 extra hyperconjugating structure. In the ...
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How is carbon-halogen bond broken during Finkelstein reaction?

Finkelstein reaction is a halogen exchange reaction between haloalkane and a salt of a different halogenide: $$\ce{R−CH2−Cl + KI -> R−CH2−I + KCl}$$ From an answer of a previous question: As ...
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1answer
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Order of reactivity of substrates towards Wurtz reaction

In a book I refer, it is said that: Both Ionic [carbanion] mechanism as well as free radical mechanism are widely accepted for Wurtz reaction. When I read this statement, I was thinking, which of ...
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Are SN1 reactions pseudo unimolecular first order reactions?

I believe the the Solvent (present in excess) helps in ionisation of R-X to carbocation in Rate Determining step so shouldn't the Rate Determining step be a pseudo-unimolecular reaction as 2 molecules ...
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What are the organic reactions that are taking place in this reaction?

I know that A is the product of a Knoevenagel condensation between the aldehyde and the diethyl malonate, due to the acidic protons of the latter, but I don't know what the reaction between that ...
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Synthesis of Schiff Bases in Aqueous Media

The paper https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2013/909217/ describes a possibility to synthesize salicylaldehyde-based Schiff Bases using water as a solvent. Yields shown for the microwave-assisted ...
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Reaction between Copper nitrate and ascorbic acid

I am confused on the products of reaction between copper nitrate and ascorbic acid. When I searched this online, one of the reactions I got was: $$\ce{2Cu(NO3)2 + C6H8O6 <=> 2CuO + 4H2O + CO2}$$ ...
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Seeing a case where both + and - mesomeric effect is shown

I came up with that -N=O group shows both +M and -M and I understand that. In my textbook it was written that " -N=O group attached to benzene shows both + m and -m depending on the nature of other ...
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Reverse of E1cB reaction

As we know that the first step of E1cB step is second of E1 and vice versa. So can we say that by reversing E1cB reaction we will get E1 reaction. In this the main problem which I am getting is in ...
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Formation of Acetal from Hemiacetal?

In the reaction mechanism of formation of Acetal from Hemiacetal, why doesn't H+ attack the Oxygen of OR Group instead of the OH? Since O in OR group has +I effect from two alkyl groups, shouldn't it ...
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Does the nitrogen atom move with in the molecule in an ammonia maser, or does the molecule flip?

This intriguing answer to Can reactions produce microwave or radio wave radiation? says (in part): An ammonia maser qualifies as an inorganic RF-emitting reaction. As the nitrogen changes position ...
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551 views

Can reactions produce microwave or radio wave radiation?

I know that many reactions produce visible light, heat and sound, but is there a reaction (preferably one example for an inorganic and organic one) that could produce electromagnetic waves in the ...
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1answer
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How does methyl vinyl ketone dimerise with heating?

(A) to (B) is simply reduction, tosylation followed by intramolecular reaction and removal of tosylate. However, I am not able to guess how dimerization will take place, seems similar to Rauhut–...
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Production rate of parallel reactions

The degradation of hydrogen peroxide in water $\ce{(2 H2O2 (aq) → 2 H2O +O2 (g))}$ can be catalyzed by $\ce{Br-}$ and $\ce{H3O+}$. Derive an expression for the production rate for the following ...
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Reason behind markovnikov's rule in hydration of alkenes via mercury catalysis

Recently I came across an interesting reaction regarding the hydration of alkynes using mercury catalysis (HgSO4) in the presence of sulphuric acid. I've read that after the mercury complex acts like ...

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