Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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How does coenzyme A produce proton from pyruvate ions?

Coenzyme A (CoA) is a complex molecule consisting of mercaptamine, β-alanine, pantoic acid, diphosphate, pentose, phosphate and adenine moieties: Which part of it actually plays role in the formation ...
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How does the second hydrolysis of phthalimide work (hydrolysis of amide)?

In the hydrolysis of Phthalimides we can see two successive hydrolysis of "amides" see ChemLibre for a nice mechanism This is interesting because normally (also according to ChemLibre) ...
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How do I find conversions for a reaction with phosphoric acid? [closed]

I have a solid ash mix containing oxides(ZnO, NiO, MgO, Cr2O3, etc.) and salts (Na2SO4, K2SO4, apatite, etc.). My teacher asked me to write all of the reactions with phosphoric acid (should be between ...
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Propylene glycol smells like alcohol [closed]

I got a batch of propylene glycol and suddenly the smell became like acetone or alcohol is there away to get rid of the smell without affecting the pg Sorry my English is not good
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General conditions for aryl migration of 2-bromo-1,1-diphenylethylene with sodium amide [duplicate]

In this reaction, I am quite unsure whether a phenyl shift would be involved or not because I was managed to solve the phenyl shift mechanism before in pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement. What are the ...
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Is H2 gas produced when a mercury electrode is used as cathode in the electrolysis of Brine?

If platinum electrodes are used as electrodes, H2 gas and Cl2 gas are produced at the anode and cathode respectively. However, if a mercury electrode is used as the cathode, an exception is seen. ...
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What will happen if the electrolysis of Brine takes place for a long time?

This is the reaction: $$\ce{2NaCl(aq) + 2H2O(l) -> 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) + Cl2(g)}$$ If the above reaction goes on for long enough, we will eventually run out of Cl- ions. There will only remain an ...
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1 vote
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Reduction of unsymmetrical ketones using BINAL-H (Enantioselectivity)

I am struggling with a problem regarding the enantioselectivity of BINAL-H for quite some time now. The reaction scheme shows the reaction with (S)-BINAL-H as it is observed plus the transition state ...
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Which is chemical reaction has the highest energy density? [duplicate]

Lets say X and Y react to form XY, and release E Joules of energy in total, not per mole. If molar weight of X is 1 g and Y is 2 g So the energy density is 1000E/3 J/Kg. Which chemical reaction has ...
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Tmax of parallel reactions/Steady state reactions

Below are four reactions, to this experiment inhibitor is added so that k$_3$ = $0$ (but the other reactions are unaffected) calculate [D] when the reaction is over. The initial concentration of A is $...
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Is LCP working well in real experiments? or is it more of an oversimplified principle?

I have a question for people who have applied Le Chatelier's principle (LCP) to their experiment or have knowledge about people who have done that to increase the yield. Essentially, I am curious &...
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Gold cyanidation process

My chemistry book says the following: In the metallurgy of silver and gold , the respective metal is leached with a dilute solution of $\ce{NaCN}$ in presence of $\ce{O2}$ as a result of which the ...
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Acid hydrolysis of Birch-reduced Anisole

The following is a question from Advanced problems in organic chemistry by MS Chouhan: Product $A$ is rather straightforward: and on acidic hydrolysis, the following reaction takes place: Here the ...
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Does the halogenation of an alkane also produce haloalkanes of a longer chain length?

Take a typical halogenation of an alkane reaction (the bromination of methane). $$\ce{Br_2->Br· + Br· (in the presence of UV light)} $$ $$\ce{Br· + CH4->·CH3 + HBr} $$ One of the possible ...
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Spontaneous reaction between chlorine and a hypothetical atom

Suppose, my hypothetical element is $\ce X$, whose first ionization energy is $\pu{200kJ/mol}$. An atom of this element will react with an atom of chlorine (assume that I've already dissociated a ...
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Is collision theory applicable only for molecules?

$$\ce{Na (s) + Cl_2 (g)->NaCl(s)}$$ Is collision theory applicable for the above reaction, or is collision theory applicable only for molecules? In other words, do chlorine atoms collide with ...
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How do mechanisms of acidic cleavage of ethers differ for anhydrous, concentrated, and aqueous HI?

I have seen the usage of anhydrous, concentrated, and aqueous HI for the acidic cleavage of ethers. What is the difference in the mechanisms and which will follow either of SN1/SN2 mechanism? Once the ...
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Reverse Engineering of Cooling Wallet [closed]

I am looking to reverse engineer the Cooling wallet scenario. For e.g. FRIO has created technology where their inner pouch soaked in water and it cools down and keeps it there for 45h (as per their ...
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Example of reactions series A → B followed by A + B → 2 C

I'm currently writing about geometric numerical integration and I need an example of the following series of chemical reactions: \begin{align} \ce{A &->[$k_1$] B} \tag{R1} \\ \ce{A + B &...
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-2 votes
2 answers
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Reaction between NaCl and NaHCO3 [closed]

Does NaHCO3 (aq) react with NaCl(aq)? I don't think they should undergo any reaction but in the online database it is showing that they react to form Na2CO3 and HCl. Is it correct?
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-1 votes
1 answer
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What would be the major product of isobutyl alcohol + BF3 with benzene? [closed]

I'm having trouble understanding the mechanism for isobutyl alcohol + BF3 with benzene. I cant figure out the major product
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4 votes
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Why does aromatic sulfonation of 3-aminobiphenyl occur at the para position of the adjacent ring?

I know that the amino group $\ce{-NH2}$ is a strong activator, so the sulfonate group $\ce{-SO3H}$ should be directed at the ortho or para position. However, the sulfonation occurs at para position on ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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(Beginner Question) Reaction Word Problems [closed]

I am having trouble understanding how to create equations which can then be balanced. For example, if I am told that a freshly scraped piece of aluminum reacts with oxygen from the air to form a ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Definition of Molecularity of a reaction? [closed]

If nucleophilic attack occurs simultaneously at two seperate electrophilic sites of the molecule following SN2 at each site, will the moleculularity still be 2? Does molecularity depend on the total ...
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2 votes
3 answers
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Under what conditions does manganese dioxide lose its catalytic property?

We know that under standard conditions (room temperature and 760 mmHg air pressure) we have this reaction: $$\ce{2H2O2(l) ->[MnO2] 2H2O(l) + O2(g)}$$ Here, manganese dioxide is behaving as a ...
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3 votes
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Can AMBER as low-layer be used to model reaction mechanisms using ONIOM? If yes, do you need to parameterize the intermediates and Transition states?

I'm debating moving from (M06-2X:PM7:UFF) to (M06-2X:PM7:AMBER) for modelling a reaction mechanism in an enzyme. I've already examined the errors introduced by my partitioning and whether they cancel ...
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What is the major product in the following reaction?

Reaction: My thought-process: According to me, this reaction is like the bromination of alkene but here instead of $\ce{CCl4}$ solvent, we have $\ce{H2O}$ as a solvent. For the first step a $3$-...
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What is the resulting solution after leaching hardwood ash with water?

After doing online research, I've noticed there are differing interpretations on what happens when ash is mixed with water, so I've come here seeking clarification on what indeed happens, and also ...
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1 answer
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Mechanism of terpene alcohol rearrangement [closed]

I thought about all kinds of hydride shifts that could be possible here, but I still could not figure out how the mechanism would work.
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What is the mechanism of the reaction between 1(3H)-Isobenzofuranone and benzaldehyde?

I have been trying to deduce a reaction mechanism for the reaction between the two compounds to give the compound labeled 2 in the diagram but I do not think I have a satisfactory answer. My thinking ...
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Lobry de Bruyn-Van Ekenstein reaction

I've recently read about this reaction called Lobry de Bruyn-Van Ekenstein reaction, where simple glucose is converted to fructose and mannose by adding a base or acid, as I've read this is supposedly ...
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Addition of HOCl to ethyne [duplicate]

What is the product formed in addition of HOCl to ethyne? Is it dichloroacetaldehyde, or perhaps the enol form of dichloroacetaldehyde could react further with HOCl to form chloral hydrate / chloral?
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Mechanism for the synthesis of benzimidazole

I have thought up a mechanism for the synthesis of benzimidazole from o-phenylenediamine and formic acid. I would like to know if it's correct. I have attached it below. My rationale for the ...
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Does hot potassium permanganate break benzene rings?

Benzene rings are broken during ozonolysis, and alkenes treated with hot $\ce{KMnO4}$ undergo oxidative ozonolysis. So does that mean that the double bonds of benzene also are broken by hot $\ce{...
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Ligand-receptor kinetics with two ligands - is this a correct formula?

I'm not a chemist nor a pharmacologist but a psychiatrist, so forgive me for my shallow understanding of the topic. My interest is primarily educational and for my own benefit in order to gain deeper ...
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Oxidation of amino acids with N-bromosuccinimide

I've recently come across the reaction where an amino acid is oxidised to form an imine by using N-bromosuccinimide as reagent and then in hydrolysis it formed an aldehyde moiety. The second step is ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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How salt concentration can effect the rate of corrosion and how redox reaction plays a role in that [closed]

sub-questions: What role do oxidation and reduction play in corrosion? Is this a complicated process? Also, why does increase in salt concentration make it easier to rust?
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Sodium dithionite reduction of nitro group to amine

I've recently come across the synthesis of 3-aminopthalhydrazine from 3-nitropthalhydrazine where the reducing agent used was sodium dithionite ($\ce{Na2S2O4}$). I wanted to know what the mechanism of ...
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Help with mechanism: Isomerization of eugenol

I'm confused about the mechanism for the isomerization of the external alkene eugenol to the internal alkene isoeugenol. I've added an image below of their structures. The reaction is usually carried ...
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Why adding sodium bicarbonate quenches a reductive amination using sodium triacetoxyborohydride?

I'm planning to do a reductive amination reaction between methyl pyruvate and benzylamine using sodium triacetoxyborohydride, $\ce{NaBH(OAc)3}.$ Acetic acid is used as a catalyst for protonating the ...
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Mechanism of alkyl benzene reaction with KMnO4/KOH to form carboxylic acids

I came across this reaction regarding formation of carboxylic acid by treating alkylbenzenes with KMnO4/KOH. I know that alpha-(C-H) bond in this compound is easily broken down into radicals. Then it ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Do we need sulfuric acid to make TNT?

Do we actually need sulfuric acid to make trinitrotoluene? TNT's formula is $\ce{C7H5N3O6}$ so we just need toluene($\ce{C7H8}$) and nitric acid($\ce{HNO3}$). If we mix them we get TNT, and water($\ce{...
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2 votes
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Titanium reaction with Sodium Percarbonate solution

I've been reading about a process for darkening Titanium using Sodium Percarbonate that consists of the following steps: Prepare Sodium Percarbonate solution 1:5 with boiling water Soak titanium ...
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What is the mechanism of aldol condensation between two diketo-compounds with sodium bicarbonate?

In particular, what is the mechanism of aldol condensation of dimethyl-1,3-acetonedicarboxylate and 2,3-butanedione with sodium bicarbonate? I'm trying to work out the mechanism of this aldol ...
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Reaction of Grignard reagent with hydrogen cyanide

Grignard acts as a base with compounds containing acidic hydrogen: $$\ce{RMgX + R'-OH -> R-H + R'-O-Mg-X}$$ and it acts as a nucleophile with others with an electrophilic site: $$\ce{RMgX + R'-CHO -...
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What is the mechanism for the reaction of (Ph)2CO and succinic acid with NaH and quenching with acid?

I'm guessing the C=O will be attacked first on the PhCOPh, but how do you get rid of the O? Just out of interest, how else could you convert C=O to C=C?
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1 vote
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When does the Mukaiyama-Addition follow which transition state and how does it affect the stereochemistry?

in the course on enantioselective organocatalysis, we discussed the route to hexoses via organocatalytic aldol addition and subsequent Mukaiyama addition. The use of either TiCl4 or MgBr2 leads to ...
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How to promote oxidation of copper(I) chloride to copper(II) chloride with oxygen in solution?

I recently discovered that copper(I) chloride in hydrochloric acid can react at about 80 °C with bubbled-in oxygen gas and oxidize into copper(II) chloride. I found almost no documentation on the web, ...
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Hoffmann elimination of an amine [duplicate]

The Hoffmann elimination is a reaction that allows an alkene to be obtained from an amine. Mechanistically, it is a three-step reaction. In the first stage, the compound undergoes exhaustive ...
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What is the reaction mechanism for formation of alkene from vicinal dihalide in presence of zinc and alcohol?

I have proposed the mechanism that zinc gives its two valence electrons to the halogen so it leaves the electrons of carbon which get shifted to form π-bond and the other halogen is pushed out. Then ...
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