Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Aspirin Hydrolysis at pH 2

Conducting an experiment, I found that very little salicylic acid was evolved performing hydrolysis at pH 2 and at 45 degrees C. In fact, far more salicylic acid was evolved at pH 7. This comes as a ...
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Hydrogen Sulphate v/s Sulphate Salt as Product

For example, when the compound $\ce{NaOH}$ reacts with $\ce{H2SO4}$, it undergoes the following reaction: $$\ce{NaOH + H2SO4 ->Na2SO4}$$ Why is the product $\ce{Na2SO4}$ (sulphate salt) formed and ...
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database for catalytic reaction mechanism

I am looking for a database containing detailed reaction mechanisms for (homogenous) catalytic reactions. Regular organic textbooks or papers generally draw some broad picture of how the mechanism may ...
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Relationship between molecularity and the reaction order

Should the molecularity be equal or less than the reaction order? Consider the reaction: $$\ce{H2(g) + I2(g) → 2 HI(g)}$$ If we consider the mechanism of this multi-step reaction, the molecularity is ...
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Reaction of SeCl4 with alkene and possible consecutive reaction?

there is a reaction that confused me a bit: According to my research on SeCl$_4$, it can be used as a dichlorinating agent for alkenes. However, I am totally confused about the mechanism. I've read ...
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if not the catalyst, can the rate of reaction be infinitely high when I increase the temperature [closed]

for example, I did an experiment before, I used enzyme and hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction will stop increasing since the enzyme will denature under an overly high temperature, I want to see ...
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Describe the formation of the [PbCl4]2- complex ion

The $\ce{[PbCl4]^{2-}}$ complex ion is formed when $\ce{PbCl2}$ is exposed to excess $Cl^-$ ions in solution as explained here and here through the following reversible reaction: $$\ce{PbCl2(s) + 2Cl^-...
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Write the structure of the major organic product of the reaction of 1-bromo-2-methylpropane with NaOCH2CH3 in CH3CH2OH

The solution to this question was an E2 product. However I assumed the reaction would be SN2 since 1-bromo-2-methylpropane had a primary substrate. Why is the product E2? Process of thinking: (OF why ...
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Why is H2O a weaker acid than acetylacetone? Shouldn't a hydrogen connected to an oxygen be more acidic than a hydrogen connected to a carbon atom? [closed]

I recently started studying chemistry after a long pause in my education so pardon me if it is a simple question. In the organic chemistry course I am taking, the professor told us that the first ...
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Can rate constant have units as 1/time?

On paper, we get the unit of rate constant as 1/time for a First Order Reaction. I wanted to know how is this practically possible? This unit implies that '1' changes per unit of time. But '1' of what ...
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Hell-Volhard-Zelinski Reaction [closed]

What is the role of red phosphorus in hvz reaction? Initially I think that red phosphurus is nothing but a catalyst. But it is not a catalyst.
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Can cycloalkanes undergo electrophilic addition? If so, what is their mechanism?

Cycloalkanes have the same general formula as alkenes. Doesn't this mean that cycloalkanes can be saturated by turning into alkanes the same way alkenes use? If so, what is the reaction mechanism? In ...
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Reaction mechanism of tin(II) chloride to reduce nitrobenzene to aniline [duplicate]

Does anyone know the reaction mechanism for $\ce{SnCl2}$ to reduce nitrobenzene to aniline? I can only find $\ce{Sn/HCl}$ reaction mechanism but can't seem to find any information on $\ce{SnCl2}.$ ...
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Epoxide opening mechanism [duplicate]

Consider the following reaction: Our interest is the second step. Notice that after protonation of oxygen, the water molecule attacks in an S$_{\text{N}}2$ fashion. My question is, why does this ...
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Equilibrium with an E2 step

E2 mechanisms are known to be irreversible in general, because the forward step takes 2 species and produces three species, and a trimolecular reverse step is unlikely, purely on entropic grounds. (As ...
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Stereochemistry + isomer check

We start with compound M: [Please imagine green bonds as dotted bonds going into the plane] From compound M, we are told that the 3 membered ring is opened u using sodium azide yielding a mix of ...
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1answer
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Reaction between barium peroxide and hypochlorous acid

When $\ce{BaO2}$ reacts with $\ce{HClO},$ the question tells us that that oxygen, barium chloride and one other product is formed. The equation I came up with is $$\ce{BaO2 + 2 HClO -> BaCl2 + 2 O2 ...
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Write the detailed, stepwise mechanism of this reaction: [closed]

I couldn’t figure out how to turn the five membered ring into 6 membered ring. Pls help
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What is the mechanism of the following rearrangement? [closed]

but-1-ene with a positive charge on the fourth carbon being converted into 1-methyl cyclopropane with a positive charge on the methyl substituent. I know that the reason for this conversion is due to ...
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Reaction of cyclohexene oxide with LDA

The question given above appeared in the 2016 Indian National Chemistry Olympiad (INChO). What I think is that the epoxide ring is being opened by a base-catalysed mechanism ($\mathrm{S_N2}$). I ...
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Anti Markovnikov Product with Oxymercuration - Demercuration [duplicate]

Consider the Oxymercuration - Demercuration of the following compound with $\ce{Hg(OAc)2}$ followed by treatment with $\ce{NaBH4}$ in basic medium: Here, if we go according to Markovnikov addition of ...
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Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol?

Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol? I was reading an article by Rentsch and Kalesse [1] and I came across this reaction, but could not figure out how the final compound is formed: Reference Rentsch, A.; ...
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Stability and Rate of Formation of Carbocations

Consider the dehydration reaction of the following compounds with $\ce{H2SO4}$: (a) Tert-butyl alcohol (b) 3-Methylbut-2-en-1-ol Consider the protonation of the $\ce{OH}$ group followed by the ...
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Introducing n-propyl group to benzene using cyclopropane

I am studying Friedel–Crafts alkylation reactions and my textbook states the following proposition [1, p. 1090]: Another very good means of introducing $n$-propyl group is to use cyclopropane as the ...
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Need reactants for a rocket [closed]

I am doing a project in chemistry at the moment to build a rocket out of materials that can be easily bought and that react strongly to create thrust. I was wondering if anyone knew a good chemical ...
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When Iron reacts with any other species, how will we know that the reaction will be of Fe(II) or Fe(III) i.e. of ferrous or ferric? [closed]

Like when iron reacts with water there forms iron oxide and hydrogen but how'll we come to know which of three equation will be right equation for reaction? $$\ce{Fe + H2O → FeO + H2}$$ $$\ce{2Fe + ...
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What is the geometry of a tri-substituted methyl free radical?

My teacher explained that free radicals could have a geometry that is planar or pyramidal(tending to tetrahedral) based on whether or not it is substituted by lone-pair containing atoms. For example, $...
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Mechanism for Lucas Test [duplicate]

In the mechanism for Lucas' Test for Alcohols, I am reading two different types. One says the first step is the abstraction of a proton from HCl, but on other references, I also see that the first ...
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Retro Diels–Alder reaction in synthesis of corallopyronin A

I was looking at the synthesis of corallopyronin A in the following paper by Rentsch and Kalesse: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51 (45), 11381–11384. There is one reaction which is described as ...
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Aluminum Battery with PAC setup : Rapid voltage drop problem after a charge

I am a retired man and seek for activity. I dont have background in chemistry but I want to learn an aluminum battery..the known problem is my aluminum metal get eaten and also corrosion even if using ...
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1answer
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SN2 reaction with alkyl bromide and pentanenitrile? [closed]

Is it possible to do a Friedel-Crafts alkylation on a plain alkane such as the one I've attached below, or is it only reserved for EArS mechanisms? Also, I was wondering what would happen if I tried ...
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Why use Stork enamine alkylation?

I recently learned about the Stork enamine alkylation method of adding electrophiles to the beta carboxyl position on a molecule. But I can't seem to find out why a direct synthesis is not possible (...
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Why does equilibrium for the addition of the Claisen enolate to an ester not favor the product?

I am currently reading chapter 26 of Clayden's Organic Chemistry, and a diagram for the elementary steps of the Claisen condensation with ethyl acetate in ethoxide is provided. It is obvious why the ...
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Finkelstein reaction of vicinal dihalides

I recently came across the following in my OChem class: Ethylene dichloride on reaction with NaI in acetone reacts via E2 mechanism to give ethene. I have three questions: Since it is an E2 ...
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Reaction analogous to burning that causes cooling rather than releasing heat [closed]

Is it physically and chemically possible to design both a gas and a solid substance, such that there would be a technologically feasible initiation of a chain reaction analogous to the spark that ...
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Red Compound from Glycine and Glycerol?

I got an unexpected reaction which I'm trying to explain to myself: I mixed 10 parts glycerol with 1 part glycine at ~90C and to my great surprise the mixture turned from transparent to a tint of red. ...
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PLP-Dependent Cyclization and Decarboxylation

I am looking at Compound A (see below) and am trying to figure out a decarboxylation mechanism that results in Compound B (see below). I have come up with an internal mechanism that might work that I ...
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1answer
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Exergonic vs Endergonic Reactions

Problem Problem 3, concept check 8.2 from Campbell Biology [1, p. 150]: Some partygoers wear glow-in-the-dark necklaces that start glowing once they are “activated” by snapping the necklace. This ...
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Why are α-haloaldehydes unstable?

I'm currently reading through Clayden's Organic Chemistry, and in chapter 30 an assertion is made that Halo aldehydes are unstable and should be avoided. I should be clear that the context of this ...
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Mechanism for the Formation of DMC

I have recently reviewed the synthesis of the dehydrating agent DMC (7), but I could find no reported mechanisms for its formation. I have proposed the mechanism drawn below, but I am unsure about a ...
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What will be the product of Wolff–Kishner reduction in presence of hydrogen peroxide?

My textbook exercise gives this reaction. What I observe is only the alkene part at the bottom changes to alkane. I know the procedure of ordinary Wolff–Kishner reaction (shown in img given below), ...
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How do I synthesise this tertiary amide from these 5 compounds?

So basically I'm at a loss as to how to proceed. I started with the idea of converting the primary alcohol into an aldehyde and that is where I stoped. I understand that each substituent of the ...
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What are the consequences of mixing Ferric Chloride Solution, distilled vinegar, baking soda and water? [closed]

I was attempting to etch and blade with a ferric chloride solution. I did not have enough so I filled a glass with vinegar and water (3 parts vinegar to 1 part water) then added 2 oz. of ferric ...
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Can Anyone Explain the Mechanism of the Birnbaum-Simonini reaction?

When silver acetate reacts with iodine and $\ce{CCl4}$, it gives esters and 2 moles of $\ce{AgI}$ but when it reacts with iodine and lead acetate, why it gives alkyl halide, $\ce{AgI}$ and $\ce{CO2}$....
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Is a Methoxy group meta directing in this problem?

The following question was given in chemistry today , August 2020 edition , page 47 , problem 9. The answer to this problem is (a). My Attempt In the third step , the carbon electrophile can attack ...
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Parallel reactions for one product

For me it is clear how I could solved the kinetic of a parallel reaction like this But, how can I solve if this would be the case: Thanks in advance!
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Acyl chlorides addition-elimination reactions bond forming and bond breaking

I've recently read up on Acyl chlorides and the addition-elimination reactions that they can react with. However many questions popped up in my head from reading up on this. During the elimination ...
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CuO + HCl -> CuCl2 + H2O

I read that chlorine is more reactive than oxygen (despite being less electronegative). Then, How is this displacement reaction occurring? $$\ce{CuO(s) + 2 HCl(aq) -> CuCl2(aq) + H2O(l)}$$ Video ...
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How can one determine if all reagents will react in the reaction? [closed]

Is it correct that all the reagents above the arrow will participate to form an intermediate product, to which the reagents below the arrow are then added, and they react to form the final product? ...
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1,5-Pentanediol MS

I'm having troubles assigning the signals m/z = 41 and 56 of the compound 1,5 pentanediol. I tried the basic fragmentations (McLafferty, loss of OH radical, etc.) but I can't figure the structure of ...

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