Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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23 views

Reactivity of Alkenes with HBr

I am new in the Organic Chemistry (World of Reactions). I had got one question in my test. But, when I had seen it, I got no proper logic to tick the correct answer, and then when I saw solution, then ...
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How baking soda help in indigestion of stomach?

We have learnt that baking soda can be used for neutralizing excessive acid in stomach formed during indigestion. And after some time we get a burp(CO2) after drinking baking soda solution. So why we ...
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ortho-bromoanisole + NaNH2 + Liquid NH3 =?

when we add ortho-bromoanisole in NaNH2 + NH3 we form products using the benzyne mechanism. here, we form the products considering only -I effect of -OCH3, if we consider its +M effect we would form, ...
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Regarding the mechanism of oxymercuration-demercuration of alkenes

I'm trying to write the reaction mechanism of oxymercuration-demercuration of alkenes. The one my textbook gave is this : Alkene react with mercuric acetate in a mixture of water and THF to produce ...
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Reaction of CO2 with NaOH and H2O [duplicate]

Sir, I want to know the conditions in which the following reactions takes place. CO2 + NaOH ---> H2CO3 ---> Na2CO3 (salt of Oxo-acid) CO2 + H2O ---> H2CO3 (oxo-acid) So, Both the ...
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How does deprotonation works?

I've been studying organic chemistry and came across this example : CH3-CH2-CH(+)-CH3 ---> CH3-CH=CH-CH3, the explanation the textbook gave was related to deprotonation. I've tried drawing lewis ...
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Intermediate vs final product stability [closed]

What's more important in a reaction mechanism, the stability of intermediate or stability of final product formed? For example, look at the attached image. Here if we look for more stable intermediate,...
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Relationship between thermodynamics and steric hindrance in reaction outcomes?

I am investigating reactions with alkyl-substituted amines ($\ce{R} = \ce{Me}, \ce{Et}, \ce{^iPr}, \ce{^tBu}$) and a second reagent, in which product Z is formed. $\Delta G$ for all of these ...
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60 views

Racemization of hydrocarbon in presence of AlCl3

Our textbook mentioned that the compound in the diagram racemizes in presence of $\ce{AlCl3}$, but it didn't explain anything. Any help regarding the mechanism of the reaction would be appreciated.
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What is the effect of temperature on the enthalpy of reaction?

In the study of reaction mechanisms, enthalpy of formation for intermediate compounds at various temperatures is studied. I understand the reason to do that. How much (and what) effect can temperature ...
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Why do radical inhibitors inhibit a reaction by creating a "more stable" radical, but for monohalogenation, we WANT to form the most stable radical?

According to my notes, radical inhibitors tend to turn a more reactive radical into a less reactive radical by making it more stable. For instance, the hydroquinone reacts with a radical species, ...
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HDPE production free radicals

I know that LDPE is produced by addition polymerization, where the free radical is peroxide or some other radical oxygen species. This isn't part of the product we want but also isn't a catalyst, ...
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Reaction of primary amine with mixed acid anhydride

Is this reaction $\ce{S_N2}$ (because attack of nucleophile and removal of leaving group are not taking place in a single step)? Which part of anhydride should form the substituted amide? If it is an ...
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How to make a steady supply of water from a supply of H2 and O2

writing a survival novel where a guy needs to survive and needs to make water to do so. It is on another planet and he access to sci-fi type manufacturing machines that can make most tings. He has a ...
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Why we can use ΔH to determine reaction rate in free radical bromination reaction steps?

I am trying to understand why we can use ΔH to determine reaction rate in this a free radical halogenation reaction. Given: (CH3)2CH2 + Br• → (CH3)2CH• + HBr = 397 - 368 = +29 kJ/mol = ΔH (CH3)2CH• + ...
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Why are alpha hydroxy acids stable? [closed]

We were told by our teacher that 4 hydroxyl groups on same carbon atom results in formation of carbon dioxide by removal of 2 water molecules and he also told that 3 hydroxyl groups on the same Carbon ...
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How is MgSO4 a neutral salt? [duplicate]

So the reaction for forming MgSO4 involves two reactants: H2SO4 and Mg(OH)2, However, the salt formed is netural. Even though H2SO4 is a strong acid and Mg(OH)2 is not a strong base. Shouldn't the ...
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How do ketone react with a peroxy acid to yield an ester? [duplicate]

This may be a really dumb question but I can't find any mechanism plot or reasoning how ketone reacts with carboxylic acid and form an ester. I thought R-OH react with RC(O)OOH to form ester.. I tried ...
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What causes the amber/colourless/blue colours in the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction?

I am using this commonly cited but simplified reaction mechanism of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction. Reaction 1 & 2 occur simultaneously. For reaction 1, when the iodide concentration is low, the ...
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addition of HBr to a conjugated alkene

here we shift double bond and change the carbocation from 3 degree to 2 degree, by doing so we are saying that hindrance matters more than carbocation stability, is this always the case in such ...
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Fluorine detection in organic compounds

Many of you will know why I am asking this question. There is a lot of attention recently to the dangers of the so called Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS). In essence organic ...
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The Mechanism of Termolecular Reactions

How does a termolecular elementary reaction happen under the law of mass action? My physical chemistry textbook only says details about bimolecular and unimolecular reactions with collision theory. I ...
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Understanding electrolysis w/ oxalic acid electrolyte, iron electrodes

I've been experimenting with electrolysis for rust removal, electroplating, de-plating, etc. Right now I have a rust removal setup with carbon steel electrodes and a solution of oxalic acid in ...
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Regioselectivity in the opening of 3-membered heterocycles

(a) Consider the following reactions : For these two reactions, the nucleophile attacks the less substituted carbon as it is less sterically hindered. (b) Now consider the following reactions : For ...
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Reaction of Grignard reagents with phosphoric acid derivatives

The use of Grignard reagents that people are most familiar with is the production of tertiary alcohols by reaction with a suitable carbonyl compound, whether it be an ester, ketone, or aldehyde. As I ...
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Formation of α,β-unsaturated ketone from tertiary propargyl halide

My attempt: I went ahead with an $\mathrm{S_N1}$ type reaction followed by the attack of $\ce{OH-}$ on the 3 degree carbocation formed. This does not match with the answer given (see image below), in ...
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Preference for most acidic hydrogen

I understand that deprotonation from the carbon circled in red is feasible because deprotonation results in a resonance-stabilised structure. But according to it, deprotonation is also feasible in ...
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1answer
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why Tin/Zinc alloys can be used to solder aluminum and Tin alone does not "wet" the aluminum?

It is impossible to solder aluminum with only tin, tin does not "wet" aluminum surface because of the instantaneous reaction aluminum/oxygen on the surface of the base metal (aluminum). I ...
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1answer
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What would the mechanism be for intermediate B to Supinidine, and what would by product C be? [closed]

I have managed to do the mechanism for the first step, but have no clue how 4 equivalents of MeLi are used for the second step of the reaction.
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Synthetic Autunite reaction with HCl

The mineral autunite, $\ce{Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2}$, is usually present in a hydrated form (i.e., $\ce{Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 * {10}-{12} H2O}$). I'm interested in understanding the reaction with hydrochloric acid. I ...
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Are there any pathways that can change a solution to all colors of the rainbow?

The challenge's like this. Suppose you have a beaker containing a liquid of transparent or any color. You add some drops of another liquid and the beaker turns into, say, red after some swishing. You ...
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Efficacy of Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction on =o, c=o bonds of ring structures?

Updated Q: Inquiring to understand the efficacy of intramolecular Friedel-Craft like reaction on stability on the ring structures with =o, c=o bonds. Keen to know if ring structures are challenged ...
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1answer
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Photochemical cycloaddition of ethene

I've got a question regarding the (2pi+2pi)-photocycloaddition of ethene to form cyclobutane. If I understood correctly, the reaction doesn't take place under normal conditions, even if we increase ...
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Rate of Decomposition of Sodium Thiosulphate

I want to calculate the activation energy of the decomposition of sodium thiosulphate, as a part of my school research project. I am aware that I must use the Arrhenius equation where the rate of ...
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1answer
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Finding the order of decreasing rate of solvolysis of the following molecules with aqueous ethanol [closed]

In this question, I need to find the order of decreasing rate of solvolysis of the above molecules with aqueous ethanol. I think this can be done by finding the species that can form the most stable ...
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1answer
60 views

Chain transfer in polystyrene synthesis

while I was studying the many side reactions of radical polymerization, I stumbled across this source which illustrates the chain transfer side reaction in polystyrene synthesis: Of course, there is ...
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1answer
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Is there any stereospecific enzyme in PDB that catalyzes an anabolic reaction and has an entry showing both reactant ligands?

I am desperately searching for an anabolic enzymatic reaction, ideally with a metal ion involved in the reaction complex, and for which -- unlike in the case of the lactose synthase -- we have ...
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2answers
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How do I obtain a 3D MOLFILE for the lactose synthase structure, especially the catalytic center?

So for example there is a paper by Ramakrishnan and Qasba which presents a model in a 3d stereo picture it has UDP-Gal, Glc, Mn++, a piece of the lactalbumin protein (?) and a piece of the lactose ...
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What are the major products formed by reaction of methylidene cyclopropane with HBr in CCl4 solvent?

I am confused between two products: bromomethyl cyclopropane Allyl bromide Reason for my confusion: We know CPM cation will be formed which is stabilized by dancing resonating structures why can't ...
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1answer
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Does the Oxy or Alkoxy Claisen Rearrangement Exist?

@Waylander's cogent Comment to the query of @Random Guy inspired me to post a problem in synthesis to test a question I have pondered for some time. The activation energy (AE) for the Cope ...
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Alcohol to Ketone by CrO3 in cyclohexane

I have encountered an exercise question on conformation of cyclohexane and there is a statement saying, 'converting alcohol to ketone by CrO3 is much faster when R-OH is in axial position'. I would ...
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Alpha particles and nitrogen triiodide

I've been reading Wikipedia's article on $\ce{NI_3}$ (which doesn't contain an $\ce{I_3^-}$ ion, so "nitrogen III iodide" would probably be a better name for it) and getting very confused. I'...
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1answer
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SN1 mechanism on 3,5-dimethylbenzyl bromide [closed]

I wanted to see how to make the product on the right so my thought was to have an SN1 reaction to remove water and have the bromine ion attack making the product on the right hand side. Is this ...
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1answer
156 views

Mechanism for alcohol synthesis via terminal acetylene reaction with sodium amide followed with epoxide and protonation

If anyone can give me some guidance here, it'd be much appreciated. I know the NaNH2 would dissociate and the NH2- base would deprotonate the terminal acetylene. I'm assuming the resultant product ...
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What is the mechanism of paracetamol synthesis from N‐acetylsulfanilic acid? [closed]

C can be converted to D with NaOH and heating at 300 °C. What is the mechanism of the reaction?
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How could we synthesize tert-butyl-alcohol, starting with just methane as only carbon source?

would it be possible to synthesize tert-butyl-alcohol with methane as the only carbon source? I mean, I almost figured it out, so basically methane is radically substituted by bromine under UV, then ...
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84 views

Why doesn't the protonated propyne rearrange? [closed]

In the reaction of propyne with $\ce{HBr}$ this cation (prop-1-en-2-ylium) was mentioned by my teacher: $$\ce{H3C-\overset{+}{C}=CH2}$$ He told me that the carbocation will not rearrange as it will ...
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How can a catalyst be selective if it does not change the equilibrium constants?

\begin{align} \ce{CO(g) + 3H2(g) &->[Ni] CH4(g) + H2O(g)}\\ \ce{CO(g) + 2H2(g) &->[Cu/ZnO-Cr2O3] CH3OH(g) }\\ \ce{CO(g) + H2(g) &->[Cu] HCHO(g) } \end{align} As we see here, ...
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1answer
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How displacement reaction actually taking place? [closed]

"When a zinc plate placed in copper sulphate solutionfor some time,after sometime we can see holes in plate , why?" So this was a question in my book , I don't want answer of this one. But I ...
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Reaction of 1-Bromo-1-phenylethene with two equivalents of LDA

I was confronted with the reaction of 1-bromo-1-phenylethene with two equivalents of LDA, then the product is hydrolyzed. As it is a bulky base, it will surely deprotonate and form the phenylacetylene,...

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