Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Liquids which may dissolve poly(acrylic acid)?

I'm performing an experiment on reacting liquids, I want a liquid which may dissolve poly(acrylic acid) and is immiscible with water at the same time! Note: When kept with water, the above solution ...
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How does temperature affect the activation energy?

I know that it affects the reaction by increasing the energy of particles so that more of them have a higher or equal energy than the activation energy. However, when I look at a rate equation and ...
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What are the products of a reaction between CCl3F and NaOH?

I'm just wondering what could arise from a reaction between an aqueous CFC such as $\ce{CCl3F}$ and aqueous sodium hydroxide, $\ce{NaOH}$. Would the dissociated $\ce{OH-}$ ions undergo an $\mathrm{...
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How does the temperature affect the frequency factor?

I am a high school student and have been trying to learn how the temperature affects the frequency factor. I did not even understand the equation below, which is from this site. Can anyone please ...
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1answer
29 views

5-methylhexa-1,3-diene reaction with HBr [closed]

What will be the major product of the reaction? I guess that rearrangement will take place and give 5-bromo-5-methylhex-2-ene as a product, but I'm completely not sure
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What makes something flammable? [closed]

When does a flame occur? Does flame have a temperature? What is the thing that makes something fire? Does iron fire?
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18 views

Mechanism involved in bromine water test

$$\ce{CH3CH=CH2 ->[Br2] CH3-CHBr-CH2Br}$$ In the reaction mechanism, why does the nucleophile attack at the 2nd carbon atom? Shouldn't it attack at the 1st one, so that in the transition state, ...
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2answers
56 views

Are the reaction rates of these equations equal?

$$\ce{CH3CH2CH2Br + OH- -> CH3CH2CH2OH + Br-}$$ $$\mathrm{rate} = k[\ce{CH3CH2CH2Br}][\ce{OH-}]$$ If I change the $\ce{Br}$ with any element from halogens (without changing concentration, volume, ...
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Acid-catalysed isomerisation of phenyl epoxide to aldehyde

How does $\ce{H3O+}$ cause the formation of an aldehyde from the following epoxide? I thought that the epoxide would undergo opening to form a 1,2-diol, as illustrated below. Am I wrong?
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are there any chemicals that aren’t absorbed into the skin? [closed]

For example it could slide, fall off, or change form. It’s for a entrepreneurship project I’m working on. Thanks in advance!
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Does aniline react with FeBr₃?

I have read that aniline does not undergo Friedel–Crafts reaction because it complexes with Lewis acid $\ce{AlCl3}.$ Will it also react with $\ce{FeBr3}$ during bromination (to receive a 3-bromo ...
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Chemical Structure of PLA soaked in Ethyl acetate

I am trying to find a way to separate my PLA samples and ABS samples. Both of these are 3D printing plastics (Polylactic acid and Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) Last night I've observed: When ...
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23 views

What happens when these 3 chemicals are mixed in air? [closed]

What happens when these 3 chemicals are mixed in air? Pentanone/Di-isopropyl Ketone (2,4-Dimethyl-3-Pentanone) Iodine, reagent grade Sodium Iodide, reagent grade. The 3 parts make up a liquid in ...
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To what extent do factors affecting rate of a reaction affect? [closed]

I am a high school student and planning to write an assessment on the subject of factors affection rate of a reaction. I would like to search for how much a factor affects. Is this a good subject and ...
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1answer
37 views

The product of the reaction of chloroiodoalkane and cyanide ion in acetone

What would be the product of the following reaction $\ce{Cl-CH2-CH2-CH2-I + KCN} $ ($\pu{1mol}$ each) in acetone? I think the reaction should follow the second order nucleophilic substitution ...
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Recycling Reactor

Given the synthesis reaction of methanol: $$\ce{CO2 + CO + 5H2 -> CH3OH + H2O}$$ In a reactor with a recycle stream contains all 4 components. When calculating the energy of reactants, do we ...
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39 views

Why does the O atom of N-phenylnitrosamine donate its lone pair towards H+ when O is more electronegative than N?

Nitrogen has lone pair as well which it can donate towards the proton but instead we see the oxygen being protonated despite being more electronegative. Also, this is not like the next part where $\ce{...
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Is it feasible to measure the pH of solution consisting of hydrofluoric acid, methanol and water using redox potential method?

Is it feasible to measure the pH of $\ce{HF}:\ce{H3COH}:\ce{H2O}$ solution using redox potential method? Can I use this method to calculate the $\ce{H+}$ ions in this solution and specifically, can I ...
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1answer
28 views

Remove stain from synthetic leather

I have a valuable soccer ball. It is not real leather, but a synthetic leather. I used this cleaning agent to remove a few marks: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Motsenbockers-Lift-Off-Graffiti-Remover-...
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43 views

Reaction of alkyl halides with potassium cyanide

Its given in my book that alkyl halides react with alcoholic potassium cyanide to give alkyl cyanide through $\mathrm{S_N2}$ mechanism. But why do we need to use alcoholic $\ce{KCN}$ (potassium ...
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Is it possible to apply titanium dioxide layer on Zinc+Aluminium Coating? [closed]

Can we apply titanium dioxide layer on steel sheets coated with zinc+Aluminium to facilitate self cleansing property when exposed to sunlight (UV Rays).
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What factors affect the chemiluminesnence of a glow stick reaction?

I know that temperature affects the reaction rate of a glowstick, but are there any other factors? I was thinking the different color dye molecules would have an effect on the reaction rate, since ...
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1answer
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How do Lewis acids interact with 1,4-diketones and amines to form an alkaloid?

The following double cyclization was used to generate the ring system of the lycoanitine alkaloids in 2005. Demonstrate your understanding of this C−C bond-forming process by providing a mechanistic ...
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Making Warming hand sanitizer at home [closed]

What can I mix with hand sanitizer to make it heat up as I apply to/rub into my hands? Something that doesn't affect the sanitizing.
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1answer
53 views

The reaction rate when the rate-determining step has a back reaction

For some reason, I am reviewing general chemistry and I find that the elementary reaction for the rate-determining step (RDS) is assumed to be irreversible, that is, single arrow, in all questions ...
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Why did the urea turn blue when reacting with copper oxide? [closed]

I took some urea prills, put them on some copper oxide I had and heated it, as the reaction happened the prills melted and turned blue. What intermediary might there be here? I understand urea will ...
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2answers
185 views

Do SN1 reaction always result in Racemisation

In the following reaction the products formed are not enantiomers but are diastereomoers.So there is no racemisation occured.So is it always correct to say that SN1 result in racemisation?
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What is the product of the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and ammonium thiocyanate?

Title. I saw a video showing 30% hydrogen peroxide being dripped onto ammonium thiocyanate. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fQju2e8CMPY I am wondering what the product of that reaction is. The people ...
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1answer
36 views

Increasing temperature in system of dynamic equilibrium

According to the article Summary of Le Chatelier's Principle on dynamicscience.com.au, for the process $$\ce{N2(g) + 3 H2(g) <=> 2 NH3(g)}\quad ΔH = \pu{-92 kJ/mol}$$ the forward reaction is ...
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Can anyone suggest a mechanism for hemiaminal metal complex to imine complex?

Can anyone suggest a probable reason for this conversion? This seems like a simple conversion from hemiaminal to imine. For secondary amine this kind of conversion might be possible by but in the ...
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1answer
83 views

Mechanism for reaction of NOCl (Tilden reagent) with primary amines

According to my textbook, the reaction between $\ce{NOCl}$ and $\ce{CH3CH2-NH2}$ is as follows: $$\ce{CH3CH2-NH2 + NOCl -> CH3CH2Cl + N2 + H2O}$$ But how exactly does the reaction proceed? ...
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Why do α- and β- Keto acids with Ph groups are generally not reduced,but other keto acids are reduced?

The reactions that I am thinking about: Ph here is for phenyl group I tried to do this by using the nakayabashi mechanism but could not find any resonance structure or anything special.I also thought ...
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1answer
121 views

Mechanism of chlorine disproportionation

It is a common fact that $\ce{Cl2}$ reacts to form $\ce{HCl}$ and $\ce{HOCl}$ when dissolved in water. However, how exactly does the reaction proceed? The first step could either be that the oxygen ...
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Why Does Adding Catalyst Slow Down My Reaction?

I currently did a lab where I was meant to identify factors that increase the rate of the reaction. I reacted Glucose with Potassium Permanganate and used Sulfuric Acid as a catalyst. But in my ...
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Rate Equation of Chemical Traffic Light (NaOH + Glucose + H20 + Indigo Carmine)

I am trying to find the Rate Equation of the Chemical Traffic Light Experiment. Wikipedia says the Blue Bottle Experiment (similar, but uses a different dye) has the following orders: The reaction ...
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Counterion exchange

I have a quick question about counterion exchange. I have this very practical problem at my hands that I have a ethyl sulfate $(\ce{EtSO4-})$ counterion for a $\ce{R4N+}$ moiety ($\ce{R}$ = 3 ...
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Why palladium chloride not react with stannous chloride?

I want to make a Palladium Tin Colloidal Activator for plating a non-conductive surface using this tutorial Tutorial video. When I put the palladium chloride ...
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What is the function of toluene in this reaction?

I'm trying to find the mechanism for this reaction: My (tentative) thought for a possible mechanism is: EDIT: New thought for mechanism: But this leaves some loose ends that I haven't been able to ...
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How to remove NaCl from Ca(OH)2 solution? [duplicate]

For the preparation of CaO NPs, how to remove NaCl formed after the reaction of CaCl2 and NaOH, since the resultant solution after the reaction is in liquid state. Also the precipitates contain only ...
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How does electrophilic bromination with 1,2-dibromoethane work?

Hi I am trying to figure out the mechanism of a reaction containing a lithium carbanion and 1,2-dibromoethane in THF. The lithium carbanion is generated by deprotonating using LDA. Then 1,2-...
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How to get the enthalpy of a reaction from the enthalpy of formations with Hess' law?

Let's consider a generic reaction: $$\sum_{i=0}^{i=I}n_{i}A_{i} \rightarrow \sum_{j=0}^{j=J}m_{j}B_{j} $$ where $n$ and $m$ are the stoichiometric coefficients, while $A$ and $B$ are reagents and ...
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1answer
80 views

Aluminium Oxide as Dehydrating agent

According to this paper on dehydration by $\ce{Al2O3}$, Dehydroxylation causes a surface defects as Lewis acidic centers (unsaturated $\ce{Al^3+}$ ions) and basic Lewis centers ($\ce{O^2-}$ ions) ...
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Last step of proposed cubane synthesis

I was watching an online lecture on decarboxylation by soda lime and the first few examples were straight forward but after a while a felt that the questions couldn't simply have one effect and maybe ...
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1answer
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Rate of reaction- Arrhenius equation [closed]

Can the Arrhenius equation be used if the reactants are in the solid state and if I can use it for any state, how do I do so?
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1answer
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Can Michaelis-Menten constant be zero in the Michaelis-Menten Equation, or is this a non-zero constant? [closed]

Can Michaelis-Menten constant be zero in the Michaelis-Menten Equation, or is this a non-zero constant? I am applying the equation in epidemiology so I wanted to assume that it is zero but I am not ...
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What is the order of [H2SO4] with regards to the reaction H2SO4 + CaCO3?

What is the relationship between the concentration of sulfuric acid and the rate of reaction of $$\ce{H2SO4(aq) + CaCO3(s) ⟶ H2O(l) + CO2(g) + CaSO4(aq)}$$ in the rate law: $$\mathrm{rate} = k[\ce{...
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1answer
49 views

Why is 1,2-diiodoethane unstable? [duplicate]

Diiodoethane is a product of the reaction between glycol and $\ce{PI3}$. Why is 1,2-diiodoethane unstable?
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1answer
130 views

Mechanism for the reaction between trisilylamine and hydrogen chloride

In Concise Inorganic Chemistry by J. D. Lee (adapted by Sudarsan Guha), in the chapter "Chemical Bonding", under the topic "Back Bonding with Nitrogen as a donor atom" the following reaction is given: ...
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1answer
75 views

Why doesn't this reaction happen? [closed]

In the synthesis of DMAD, we eliminate two bromides from dibromosuccinic acid in basic environment to get acetylenedicarboxlyic acid (Step 2). However, this reaction could also happen: The reaction ...
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2answers
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Alkene reaction with acid via SN1 reaction

I want to ask a question about alkenes and their reactivity with acids. From high school studies, I recall that if you had an acid $\ce{H3O+}$ i.e. $H^+$ that it would react with an alkene as shown ...