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Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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What is the mechanism of the reaction of a ketone with sodium nitrite/ hydrogen chloride?

What is the mechanism of reaction of a ketone with $\ce{NaNO2/HCl}$? Can $\ce{NaNO2/HCl}$ be considered as freshly prepared $\ce{HONO}$ here? I am confused about how the reaction will proceed.
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Reaction of ketones with sodium amide

Find the product of the reaction of dimethyl ketone i.e. $\ce{CH3C(O)CH3}$ with $\ce{NaNH2}.$ Should I do nucleophilic addition and form the product in the picture??
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Do fabrics assimilate airborne dioxins? [on hold]

Do natural or synthetic fabrics (clothing, etc) dissolve/trap dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from third-party/external sources such as airborne plastic fumes or soot? Also, is it safe to assume ...
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Can dioxins be absorbed through the skin? [on hold]

I am aware that excessive/long-term exposure to dioxins dioxin-like compounds can cause skin problems (chloroacne) and their great affinity to lipids/fats, but I was wondering if the same occurs at ...
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2-step reaction mechanism for the decomposition of NO2Br

I need to propose a 2-step reaction mechanism for the following reaction: $$\ce{2NO2Br -> 2NO2 +Br}$$ And prove the mechanism is consistent with: $$v=k[\ce{NO2Br}]^2$$ For the mechanism to be ...
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Mechanism of oxidative dearomatisation with hypervalent iodine

The following step was taken from the synthesis of Kinamycin C on SynArchive. It employs the use of a peculiar reagent, that is, bis(acetoxy)iodobenzene (BAIB), also known as phenyliodine(III) ...
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101 views

How do I decide whether ring will expand in this reaction or not?

Attempt: After forming the carbocation adjacent to the cyclopropyl ring I had two options, $\ce{Cl-}$ then and there without any changes Expand ring, form a new carbocation and add $\ce{Cl-}$ ...
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Mechanism for Friedel-Crafts Acylation in Synthesis of Sertraline

In the first step of the synthesis of Sertraline, aluminium chloride catalyst was used in a Friedel-Craft's reaction to give the following product. My question is how does the exact mechanism work? 1-...
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1answer
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Do all reactants have appear in the first mechanism of the rate law?

I have the following reaction, $$\ce{CO + NO2 -> CO2 +NO}$$ The "second" mechanism is given: $$\ce{NO3 + CO -> NO2 + CO2}$$ So when searching for the first mechanism, I found this one to work: ...
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2answers
140 views

Mechanism of ring formation of an epoxide under acidic aqueous conditions

I am trying to figure out the mechanism of this reaction: I think the $\ce{H+}$ will first attack the oxygen of the epoxide and another $\ce{OH-}$ will be added to the most substituted carbocation, ...
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LDA and an aldehyde

Compounds A and B both react with LDA (lithium diisopropylamide, a strong base) to form the same anion C with the formula $\ce{C4H5O^-Li^+}$. I am unfamiliar with LDA. My first thought was that ...
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Reliable reaction predictor software [duplicate]

I am currently working on some novel techniques for synthesis,could anyone suggest a good reaction predictor software ,that may be reliable to a large extent ,so that I could anticipate my products to ...
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51 views

Why do metals form cations?

metals that have a low number of occupied shells such as lithium and potassium should have a stronger electrostatic attraction to their nuclei, so what causes them to always lose their electrons ...
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1answer
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What happens in this reaction! Some hints needed

I understand step A involves reductive ozonolysis. and that step B is addition involves addition of ammonia to the carbonyl site to form imines. But what does the sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid ...
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Does this ring expand in this situation? What's the mechanism behind this? [closed]

So this is picture that sketches the situation. [EDIT] Thanks @glucose for putting me back on the rails. To wrap this all up and complete this topic, the answer to my question should be the product ...
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1answer
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Can glucose and insulin exist in the same container without reacting?

Someone asked if glucose and insulin could be mixed in the same container and used as an injection to provide a quick energy boost. I'm not interested about the medical part of this question, but just ...
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Organic Chemistry [closed]

This question was asked in the JEE exam held in India. I had a doubt between the 2nd and the 3rd options, whether a single chlorine atom or two chlorine atoms are added in the first step of the ...
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Why primary alcohol follows SN1 mechanism?

Example 2: Identify all the products formed in the following reaction and indicate the major product. Solution: Three products will be formed in the given reaction as shown below: In ...
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2answers
26 views

Negative charges in acid-catalyzed reactions [closed]

Whenever my professor draws a mechanism in an acid-catalyzed reaction, he always says you can't form negative charges. Why is that?
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1answer
42 views

Why doesn't open-chain glucose react with water readily in aqueous solution?

Though the exact number given varies from 0.02% to 3%, it's well agreed that glucose spends a very small percentage of its time in aqueous solution as a linear aldehyde. Glucose's overwhelming ...
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2answers
34 views

What happens when mixing elemental mercury with sodium hypochlorite solution [closed]

Say you spilled elemental mercury from a thermometer and used household bleach on it, what would be the reaction if any?
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104 views

Is isobutyl chloride or ethyl chloride more reactive in an SN1 reaction?

Compare the rate of $\mathrm{S_N1}$ reaction in the following compounds: We see that both compounds form primary carbocations. However, there is more hyperconjugation in the second compound as ...
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method to certify the number of chiral carbons in fischer and haworth projection of glucose

While reading some notes about Glucose and its various projections: Fischer Projection: 4 chiral centres Haworth Projection: 5 chiral centres My doubt is that is there any (specific) method (...
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Aldehyde and ketone reactions

Reagents to carry out above conversion, P, Q, R respectively are: (a) $\ce{H2C=CH-CH2-Br}$, $(\ce{HO-})$, $[\ce{HO-}, Δ]$, Wacker process. (b) $\ce{H2C=CH-CH2-Br(HO^-)}$, Wacker process, $\...
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32 views

What is the minimum operating temperature of chemical hand warmers?

I have been looking at chemical hand warmers such as Hot Hands, Grabber and HotSnapZ. Unfortunately, I cannot find a minimum operating temperature for these types of devices. Logic tells us that they ...
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Which is easier, the nitration of toluene or the nitration of mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene)?

Does the toluene can undergo nitration easier than mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene), due to the high repulsion that will occur between $\ce{NO2}$ and the two adjacent methyl groups (in mesitylene ...
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Kinetics for E1cb reactions

We were taught that the kinetics of a reaction is determined by the reactions ‘rate determining step’ which is also the slowest step of the reaction. For E1 as well as E2 reactions the slowest steps ...
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How is a ring formed when a carbon atom in an aliphatic chain attached to benzene ring has a positive charge?

This is my approach towards this problem. First off, a positive charge would appear in the C atom at the end of the chain, and then that carbocation would rearrange into a tertiary carbocation. But I ...
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1answer
41 views

What do electrons usually do when lead acid battery is idle?

Lead acid batteries operation are governed by Redox reactions for charging and discharging. But, what do electrons usually do when lead acid battery is idle? And why? Assumptions: Say more ...
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1answer
91 views

The major product of the following reaction

Here,1,2-dibromobutane is reacted with i) alc. $\ce{KOH}$ ii) $\ce{NaNH2}$ in liq. $\ce{NH3}$ According to me, since alc. $\ce{KOH}$ causes dehydrohalogenation, using Saytzeff's rule the product ...
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28 views

Influence of protic and aprotic solvents on SN reactions [closed]

How does protic and aprotic solvents influence reaction mechanism considering SN1 vs SN2?
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37 views

Why are some reactions exothermic and some are endothermic? [closed]

Some reactions turn out to be exothermic or endothermic. But why does this occur? Why do some reactions need energy to bond but some release energy to bond? Also how to determine whether the reaction ...
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What is the expected product of reaction between PCC and NAC that has an lambda max at 255nm?

250 nm and 214 nm are the maximum wavelengths of n-acetyl cysteine disulfide according to this paper "On N-acetylcysteine. Part 11. Oxidation of N- acetylcysteine by hydrogen peroxide: a kinetic study ...
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3answers
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Effect of concentration on rate of reaction

I came across this problem: The $\ce{2NO + Br2 -> 2NOBr}$ follows the mechanism below: $$ \begin{align} \ce{NO + Br2 &-> NOBr2} & &\text{fast} \tag{1} \\ \ce{NO + NOBr2 &-...
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Will hydrogen chloride dissolved in ethanol react with magnesium?

Magnesium will react with aqueous HCl to form magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. Simple. But I've just read in my textbook that HCl in a solution of ethanol no reaction will take place. There is no ...
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How is energy released when a chemical bond is formed? [closed]

Chemical reactions are classed as endothermic or exothermic. Defn: exothermic (of a reaction or process) accompanied by the release of heat. The heat is released when the chemical bonds in the ...
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Victor Mayer test for 2° alcohol

In the last step in Victor Mayer test for 2° alcohol, why do we need to add an alkali like NaOH? Isn't pseudo nitrolic acid that is formed already blue in colour? What would be the reaction of alkali ...
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1answer
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Confusion about the Sn1 and Sn2 Mechanism

My book says, and I understand, that the Sn1 mechanism is much faster for tertiary alkyl halides than primary. And the opposite for Sn2. This all makes sense. What I don't get is the conclusion it ...
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Naive question on the SN1 mechanism

I was teaching the $S_N1$ mechanism to a friend. He asked a question a subtle question I can't shake off. Take a tertiary alkyl halide and aqueous sodium hydroxide. The first step is the formation of ...
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Equilibrium Constant and Reaction Mechanism [duplicate]

How is it possible for the equilibrium constant to not depend on a reaction's mechanism? For the elementary reaction $$aA + bB \rightleftharpoons dD + eE$$ I understand that the rate of the ...
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2answers
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Acetone Enolate-HaloBenzene Reaction

A reaction I am trying to perform says to use a strong base like Sodium Amide with Acetone and Iodo-Benzene as reactants with DMSO as the solvent to form Phenylacetone. The main idea is to use the ...
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Kinetic and thermodynamic control of sulphonation of toluene

Sulfonation of toluene with conc. $\ce{H2SO4}$ at room temperature gives ortho- and para-toluenesulphonic acid (with $95 \%$ yield), whereas sulfonation of toluene with conc. $\ce{H2SO4}$ at $\pu{150-...
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1answer
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Pseudoelementary reactions in the Briggs-Rauscher oscillatory reaction mechanism

In this paper on the Briggs-Rauscher mechanism (JACS, 1982, paywalled), Noyes and Furrow propose an explanation of the oscillatory behaviour of the reaction based off of about eleven reactions from a ...
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Gibbs free energy of formation vs. Gibbs free energy of reaction?

Consider the following reaction: $$\ce{A(s) + B(s) <=> AB(s)}.$$ I know there might be kinetic limitations but I am only interested in thermodynamic relations. In general, the Gibbs free ...
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How would I write a balanced equation the formation of acetaminophen in the presence of water

For the reaction of 4-aminophenol with acetic anhydride and water, I wrote out this mechanism: Where the water is responsible for the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride. In the end of the mechanism, ...
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Formamide and Hoffmann Bromamide Reaction

I encountered a problem to identify the compound which does not give Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction. One of the options was formamide, and it was given as the answer. Why can't formamide ...
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2answers
238 views

Gibbs free energy in standard state vs. equilibrium

I have a problem with the definition of the standard Gibbs energy and its connection to the equilibrium constants. I think, that I've basically understood what the different equation mean but there ...
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How to recreate bioluminescence in fireflies in a lab?

I have several mg/mL of D-luciferin, luciferase (firefly), ATP solution (25 mmol) and MgSO4 (for the mg2+ ions). The experiment has to be done in cuvettes of 2,5 mL (if I get any results, it will be ...
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51 views

Iodoform on acetone gives one product?

During the Iodoform reaction of acetone why does the second iodine addition happen on the carbon that already has undergone substitution instead of the other carbon?
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Finding all Chemical Reactions Given Products and Reactants

Suppose only a set of chemical formulas is given. How can you find all mathematically possible chemical equations whose educts and products are only from this set? Take e.g. the set $\{ \ce{C, H2, O2,...