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Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Fuel Cell Water Waste [on hold]

What is the quality of the water produced by a Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell?
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What is the major product in the given reaction?? I cannot figure out why d is the answer?please help me out [on hold]

I cannot figure out how the hell d is answer According to me b must be the answer due to +i effect.
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FUNCTIONALIZATION WITH FERULIC ACID [on hold]

I am going to fuctionalize my two different surfaces with ferulic acid. One of the surfaces has OH groups and another surface has COOH groups. Can Ferulic acid covalently attache to these surfaces?
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Is my mechanism for the reaction, where FabH catalyzes it in fatty acid biosynthesis, complete and correct?

I need to write a mechanism for the following reaction. In this reaction, FabH is the protein that catalyzes the reaction in fatty acid biosynthesis. The beta keto carboxylic acid decarboxylates to ...
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1answer
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what the solution of this problem, negative absorbance values in UV-vis spectrum

In my project, I take the UV-visible spectrum of reaction between pyridinium chlorochromate and N-acetylcysteine. In some wavelengths, the absorbance value is negative for example it is (-0.006, -0....
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1answer
27 views

Mechanism for Bial's test

In biochemistry laboratory, it's common for undergraduate students to perform identification of carbohydrates and its functional groups. Bial's test, a method to check if any pentose is present, is ...
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What is the byproduct of a reaction between copper sulfate pentahydrate, sodium carbonate, and elemental iron when heated? [on hold]

This is entirely a curiosity of mine that requires an answer and not an actual experiment or documented reaction, so far as I can find. I was looking for a professional to inspect/clean a wood stove ...
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24 views

Release of oxygen in reactions of PbO2 and Pb3O4? [on hold]

I have understood that roughly $\ce{Pb3O4}$ is equivalent to $\ce{2PbO.PbO2}$. I have the following reactions to study. Would someone please help me understand the mechanism? Both $\ce{PbO2}$ and $\...
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Is the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction reversible/repeatable? [on hold]

And are there ratios of the ingredients to make it work? I'm currently looking for interesting chemistry experiments for my school open day, hence the formation of this post. If you have any other ...
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What will be the product here?

In this question, I thought the answer would be 3rd due to methyl shift but as per the solution, it is 2nd. Is it a case of Ethyl shift?
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1answer
40 views

Reaction mechanism for the conversion of acyl hydrazide to acyl azide

How is an an acyl hydrazide converted into an acyl azide in the presence of $\ce{HNO2}$? According to me, the $\ce{-NH2}$ group of hydrazide will get converted into $\ce{-N2+}$ through $\ce{HNO2}$. ...
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Reaction Of Alkyl Halide with Aqueous Ammonia [closed]

What will be the products of SN reaction of alkyl halide with Aqueous Ammonia. In this reaction which will be attacking nucleophile on alkyl halide, Hydroxide ion or Ammonia?
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Dilute 20 drums of caustic soda solution 50% with 60 drums water to get caustic soda 10% solution [closed]

i want to buy caustic soda 50% solution and then dilute it with water to get 10%. for example; i will buy 20 drums 208 litre per drum and then dilute with 60 drums water to get caustic soda 10%. am i ...
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3answers
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Markovnikov Rule of Alkenes

$$\ce{CH3CH(CH3)CHCHCH2CH3 + HBr ->}$$ According to Markovnikov Rule, "the rich get richer". But, as we can see the 2 carbons have the same amount of $\ce{H}$. So, what's probably the answer?
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1answer
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Effect of substituents on Ullmann reaction

This question that I recently encountered asked what the most suitable substrate for the Ullmann reaction would be. The answer given is (b) but I think it has to be (d) as the nitro group acts as EWG ...
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1answer
79 views

Nucleophillic addition vs SN2

The following question came in Paper 2 of JEE Advanced 2014- Here we have $\ce{CH3-}$ as the nucleophile. There are 2 possible attacks: SN2 type attack on the chlorine group. Nucleophilic addition ...
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JEE 2016 Organic Problem

The following problem is from Paper-2 of JEE Advanced 2016. The answer given to the problem is A. The solution given by various sources suggests an Aldol addition, followed by a cross cannizaro in ...
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most frequently used organic (name) reactions

The situation: Beside the relevant inventory in the Merck index, organic-chemistry.org lists 243 name reactions (as counted on 08-Feb-2018), the compilation by Kurti and Czako includes "250 selections"...
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2answers
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Perpendicular orbitals in aryl and vinyl carbocations? [duplicate]

This point (iv) has been given under reasons for extremely low reactivity of aryl and vinyl halides. I cannot understand it. First of all, isn't the positive carbon atom in phenyl as well as vinyl ...
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1answer
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Why is the carbanion resonance structure being used in the aldol condensation mechanism?

In the above mechanism's first step, what motivates the use of the carbanion resonance structure of the enolate ion if the negative charge is better localized on the more electronegative oxygen? Edit:...
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2answers
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How does di-isobutylaluminium hydride ( DiBAl-H ) reduces carboxylic acid

$\text{DiBAl-H}$ reduces by electrophilic attack and provides hydrogen by $\text{H}^-$ transfer. Unlike $\text{LiAlH}_4$ it does not directly provide $\text{H}^-$ ion. So it should not undergo acid ...
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Coal, once burned creates many substances. How to separate?

Could we expose the smoke to different substances reactive to substances in the smoke, that will create a liquid or solid substance, in order to separate, for instance carbon monoxide, from the ...
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Acid catalyzed enolization and alpha hydrogen

In acidic catalyzed enolization of butan-2-one: We have 2 alpha hydrogens available. From the mechanism of acid catalyzed enolization there is a certain carbocation character at the carbonyl carbon ...
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1answer
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Bond cleavage of 3 membered cyclic ring on heating

I was told to propose a mechanism for the following conversion: One obvious step is the conversion of cyclic ketal to ketone because of acidic conditions. But I am unable to understand how the three ...
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2answers
56 views

Order of Nucleophilicity

I know this question has been asked many times but I need to confirm this doubt which has been pestering me for the past few days. Suppose in an $\mathrm{S_N2}$ reaction (in polar aprotic solvent) we ...
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1answer
42 views

Fragmentation involving formation of enamine

I have a problem on fragmentation which requires mechanisms involving formation of an enamine from a cyclic ketone and cyclic secondary amine. This then reacts with a cyclic aldehyde via conjugate ...
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83 views

Grignard Reagent in THF vs in Diethyl ether

While learning about the Grignard reagent I was taught this by my teacher, but I couldn’t justify why it was so.. I cannot see how Grignard reagent would react differently in basically an ethereal ...
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Steric Factors on reaction with grignard reagent

I was asked to find the products X and Y. For the product X,Here the grignard reagent and even the carbonyl substrate was too sterically hindered to approach the carbonyl center so no reaction would ...
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1answer
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Simple soda–lime decarboxylation

This is my homework question I tried it hard the question is as follow: I attempted it as follow: According to my understanding as acid base reaction are fastest the carbanion will gain a $\ce{H+}$. ...
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2answers
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How do dibromopyrazolones undergo base-promoted decomposition?

I was not sure but seeing the base as NaOH I used the fact that it will take most acidic hydrogen that is N-H and electron pair will come over it and it will resonate from two sides. I could make upto ...
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Kolbe's electrolysis of acetylenedicarboxylic acid

I have been wondering what this reaction would lead to? The ethyne diradical can't dimerize because triple bonded cyclic structures don't form until 8 carbons. And even if it polymerizes I find no way ...
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Should I use MCPBA here?

I came across a question that asked for a method to convert propene to glycerol. I used the method in the pic, but I'm worried about two steps- Step-2, This reaction is just made up by myself! I'm ...
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1answer
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Probability of the single molecule reaction to happen

I am trying to simulate the single particle second order reactions with known rate constants $k_1$ and $k_{-1}$ in Python. The point of this simulation is to fit the real experimental data to the ...
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1answer
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High concentration of ferric ion catalyst decreases rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in the Fenton reaction

I did a project on the Fenton reaction and rate of decomposition of $\ce{H2O2}$. I used colorimetry to measure the rate of decolourisation of methylene blue when I mixed $\pu{5e-6 mol}$ $\ce{FeCl3}$ ...
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How to remove protein smell?

When I took a chemistry class a few years ago and I remember the teacher saying , like dissolves like. So with that logic, is there a say to denaturalize protein? I spilled a protein shake in the back ...
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Regarding Clemensen Reduction of the following compound [duplicate]

While I was doing problems on reduction of aldehydes and ketones, I encountered this particular question Here, I know that Clemensen reduction reduces the ketone group to $-CH_2-$ group. But, the ...
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What is the Mechanism of hydrogenation of alkenes by Wilkinson's catalyst?

I've learnt that the Wilkinson's catalyst $[\ce{Rh(PPh3)3}]$ is used for hydrogenation of alkenes into alkanes. But I'm curious to know the mechanism. Could someone help me?
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2answers
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Using TBAI (tetra-butylammonium iodide) as a catalyst. Ideas on the mechanism or the driving force?

for my etherification of an alcoxide with alkylbromide I used TBAI as a catalyst. The catalyst transfers the alkylbromide into an alkyliodide which is more reactive. I was wondering, what is the ...
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Attack of 3-methylbutan-1-ol on benzene in acidic medium

That's how I proceeded with the question. However the answer is tert-butylbenzene. I can't figure out why do I have an extra carbon atom. SOURCE - JEE Advanced 1994
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why do I get chlorine gas production during electroetching?

I was electroetching stainless steel plates with table salt as electrolyte and the power supply was providing 5V, 6A when I placed the anode and cathode about .25 inches apart. I started smelling a ...
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2answers
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Reaction of orthocresol with butyrolactone in presence of AlCl3 and heat

What will be the major product of the following reaction? Please also help me with the mechanism. I'm not sure whether C- acylation or O- acylation will occur here. And if O- acylation does occur, I ...
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1answer
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Friedel-Craft reaction with amide substituent

In this question, I know that aniline will not undergo FC reaction as it forms a complex with $\ce {AlCl3}$ and precipitates out. The answer given is (c) and I agree with it. However, the benzene ring ...
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Oxidative Addition - Really concerted?

I guess you are all familiar with the oxidative addition or reductive elimination reaction in organometallic chemistry. If you read further into the topic you may find different pathways like via ...
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1answer
126 views

How does Grignard reagent form? [duplicate]

So I've read that during the formation of the Grignard reagent, The R-X bond cleaves homolytically forming free radicals. My question is how is this happeneing? Due to the high electronegativity ...
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1answer
364 views

ICHO Synthesis Problem 2018

I've several doubts about this ICHO synthesis problem, which was a part of the preparatory problem package of 2018 (so yes, it's not a part of an ongoing contest) Before sharing the answer given, I'...
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1answer
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Can an iodine clock reaction work without using a strong acid?

I'm going to do an iodine clock reaction for a project and we had to submit the materials and safety sheets for the experiment a while ago. I thought I could do one by using hydrogen peroxide, sodium ...
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Disiamylborane on alkyl halides

I am having problem predicting the last product in the following reaction: $$\ce{CH#CH ->[Na/NH3 (l)][(Excess)] (P) ->[DCl] (Q) ->[(i)Sia2BH][(ii)CH3COOH] (R)}$$ I am getting an alkyl ...
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Favorskii rearrangment

Why does the alkoxide anion dont act as a nucleophile in the fevorskii rearrangement? It can displace halide as halide is alpha to carbonyl and carbonyl decreses the energy of c-halide lumo
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2answers
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Acidic, Basic, and Neutral Medium

So I'm new to this concept and I can't find any proper explanation to this. What does it mean for a reaction to occur in an acidic, basic, or neutral medium?
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Major product for aldol condensation between acetophenone and acetaldehyde

Crossed aldol condensation is done between acetaldehyde and acetophenone by using NaOH as the base. So, here we can get 4 possible products. But which one would be the major? I know that acetaldehyde ...