Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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ACETOPHENONE + SULFURIC ACID [closed]

we know that the substance turns yellow/orange once formed but we don't know what it exactly is after C8H8O & sulfuric acid are mixed together
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How are unstable transition states determined?

The Wikipedia article about the Grignard Reaction says that The addition of the Grignard reagent to the carbonyl typically proceeds through a six-membered ring transition state. This got me ...
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Weak Acid Weak Base Neutralization Mechanism

According to the bronsted-lowry definitions of acids and bases, an acid is an H+ donor, while a base is an H+ acceptor. However, in my introductory chemistry class, my teacher did not explain this ...
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Curtin-Hammett principle to evaluate alkene insertion

Given an unsymmetrical alkene in a simple non-stereoselective catalytic hydrogenation reaction. If one would want to investigate the nuances in the catalytic cycle of a dihydride complex leading to ...
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Enantioselectivity of Noyori Asymmetric Hydrogenation

I'm unable to understand the enantioselectivity of Noyori's hydrogenation reaction, and would appreciate any help with the same: Here's a mechanism I found on Wikipedia: but, to my disappointment, ...
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Reaction Mechanism of a ring contraction [closed]

I found this question in an IIT JEE paper from a few years back. It is a vicinal diketone on a cyclohexane ring contracting to a cyclopentane ring with an alcoholic substituent group and an ester ...
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1answer
25 views

What is the molecularity of a reaction if it has a fractional order as per rate equation? [closed]

The rate equation of any reaction is found by using its slowest step. My book says that molecularity of the slowest step of a reaction is equal to the order of the same reaction. However, there are ...
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1answer
43 views

Aromatic compound and Grignard reagent reaction

Am I correct in thinking a Grignard reagent like MeMgBr acts as a nucleophile? And would that mean it will substitute another group? So for example if you reacted it with bromobenzene, would the Br be ...
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What is the chemical equation for a Maillard reaction? [closed]

I'm a 10th-grader in my first year of chemistry. We have an assignment to make a brochure about a certain reaction, and I'm studying Maillard reactions. Does anyone know the chemical equation ...
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Ammonia Vapor Absorption Refrigerator

I am working on fabricating the icyball system. I am planning to charge it with the help of convex mirrors. Whether it is necessary to create a vaccum inside the refrigeration closed cylinders before ...
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How can I eliminate the harmful gas produced from the heating/manipulation of galvanized steel? [closed]

When welding on steel with a galvanized coating, hexavalent chromium is yielded from the chemical reaction. This gas is something that I would like to eliminate before I begin welding, possibly with ...
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What is the “mechanism” of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide?

In my classwork on the decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide by catalase, I wrote the following equation: $$\ce{2H2O2 -> 2H2O + O2}$$ However, my teacher said that I should go further in ...
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Reaction of octahydroazecine with iodine crystals [closed]

I really don’t understand why the following reaction would take place first of all. So this is a sub part of a question wherein we have to compare the basicity of the compounds formed through some ...
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Reaction of dimethyl sulfate with Protocatechualdehyde [closed]

I know that $\ce{(CH3)2SO4}$ reacts with phenols to give methoxybenzene. But the question that came in INChO-2018 was: When one equivalent of $\ce{NaOH}$ and one equivalent of dimethyl sulfate ...
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Mechanism of Etard reaction [duplicate]

According to Wikipedia Etard reaction proceed via a ene reaction with chromyl chloride forming a Etard complex(Chromium complex) which is then decomposed by a [2,3] sigmatropic shift to give aldehyde. ...
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How does Gypsum Concrete work?

When mixed with water how does gypsum act as a binder in creating concrete?
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Reactivity of phenol and hydroquinone in electrophilic aromatic substitution

So I had a argument with my teacher about which is more reactive, phenol or hydroquinone. So he first taught us the formation of $\pi$-complex (where the $\pi$-electrons are donated to the ...
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1answer
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What happens to concrete if you add lye to the mix?

What happens if you’re mixing concrete and you add some lye to it? Does it make it weaker, stronger or does nothing at all? I’m guessing concrete is basic so adding lye to it might expedite the ...
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Why organic reaction mechanisms so popular [closed]

Why are organic reaction mechanisms so much more popular than inorganic mechanisms? When I come to think of it, what is a reaction mechanism? How can we use an arrow? Is it a rough approximation of ...
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1answer
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How to precipitate Chloroplatinic acid? [closed]

For the precipitation reaction, I have to react $\ce{H2PtCl6}$ with $\ce{(NH4)2CO3}$ while maintaining the $\ce{pH}$ in the range of 7-8 at 60 °C. But the problem is Chloroplatinic acid is not ...
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Reaction of alc. KOH with alkyl halide

The following question was given in FIITJEE study material: At first, I thought it should be elimination. But, soon I realized that there is no heating, plus a primary alkyl halide is used. So, "...
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1answer
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Why does methyl not shift in the mechanism of isoborneol to camphene?

After the formation of carbocation, I was confused why would the reaction not go in favor of forming bornylene. I am still not sure why but I think that $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridized carbon will cause a ...
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Is the activation energy always inversely proportional to the reaction rate?

When I obtained the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation for a 10-minute glowstick (rapid, rigorous reaction), it was almost 4 times that of a 12-hour glowstick (slow, mild reaction). ...
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Se+P White or red P?

I read this in an old chemistry book. It says: When selenium is dropped into melted phosphorus, it dissolves rapidly, and the compound sinks through the liquid phosphorus in red streaks. My ...
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1answer
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Double dehydration of a geminal diol [closed]

I've recently came across this reaction and I am wondering about the mechanism. Could someone please help me? If you could give me the name of the reaction (if it has one) it should also be enough for ...
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Ozonolysis: mechanism for reductive workup of ozonide using Zn/Acetic Acid/Water

What is the mechanism for the reductive workup of an ozonide using zinc/acetic acid/water? Many sources online show the mechanism using DMS instead: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-...
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Substituted Diene Preparation from Aniline / Novel Cyclic Imine Preparation

I have recently been studying the following mechanism recommended by another user from the following DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2004.06.026. In this paper, the following mechanism is proposed (...
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1answer
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Calculate the mass of iron in the original mixture!

I seemingly can't solve the following problem, I've spend over 30 mins on it, no progress, can any of you geniusses give a step by step solution to me? Thank you so much Problem: A mixture of ...
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How long does it take Freon refrigerant to disappear from a room after an accidental major leakage?

I would like to know please how long does it take Freon refrigerant to completely disappear from a room after an accidental major leakage? Does it stick to surfaces , clothes or walls? Does natural ...
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Plausible Mechanisms for Polyketide Formation from Phloroglucinol

I am working on modifying the reaction below. I am adding the sulfonate (ignore the sulfonic acid groups shown) groups so that polysubstitution of the phloroglucinol does not occur. In terms of the ...
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1answer
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Emulsification and liquid liquid surface reaction [closed]

What will happen if I skip the addition of surfactant? will the reaction happen only at the surface of the parent liquids?
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How is NaBH4 able to reduce tertiary alkyl halides to alkane but LiAlH4 create an alkene?

When attacking tertiary alkyl halides, aren't both of them just supposed to follow SN2 and substitute the leaving group with Hydride ion? Apparently only NaBH4 does it and LiAlH4 causes an E1 ...
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Which free radical is more stable, allyl free radical or benzyl free radical? [duplicate]

Can someone pls tell me which one is it? Benzyl free radical has 4 resonance structures compared to allyl free radical which has only 2. More the resonance structures should mean more stable the ...
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Epoxide with solvent vs with water

The answer given is an epoxide. But is an epoxide stable at room temperature? And also epoxides tend to open in presence of water. Even if methyl alcohol is treated as a solvent, then too methyl ...
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Is organic chemistry mechanisms limited to organic chemistry?

I am curious to know the mechanism of each reaction. Organic chemistry is satisfying for me because there is a mechanism behind each reaction which make a sense but when I Google for the mechanism of ...
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Controlling rate of endothermic reaction

In an experiment, I have two endothermic reactions taking place simultaneously: $$ \begin{align} \ce{A + B &-> C + D}\tag{1}\\ \ce{E + G &-> Z + F}\tag{2} \end{align} $$ $\ce{C}$ and $\...
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Reaction mechanism of lithiated benzene and oxygen in acid

According to (1) addition of O2 in acid to lithiated benzene makes phenol. I'm trying to deduce the mechanism, and somehow it doesn't feel right but I'm not sure. (1) Snieckus, V. Directed ortho ...
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When aluminium is ignited in atmosphere, will it form only aluminium oxide or also aluminium nitride?

We know when lithium is burnt in air, it forms lithium nitride and lithium oxide. I am wondering if this applies to aluminium (other metals) also?
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Can ascorbic acid be neutralized and keep it's elastic properties in dough?

Ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) is commonly used in dough to give it strength and elasticity. However, I need this dough to be alkaline, or at the very least neutral. I've used sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) before ...
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What is the rate equation of decomposition of H2O2 with catalysts?

What is the rate equation of this reaction with the presence of catalysts $\ce{MnO2}$, $\ce{PbO2}$ and $\ce{Fe2O3}$? (asking for each of them, separately, not altogether) $$\ce{2H2O2 -> 2H2O + O2}$...
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Does a bulky nuclephile react faster by Michael or direct addition?

Between Michael or direct addition on a $\alpha,\beta$-unsaturated ketone, I think that Michael addition is faster than the direct addition as the nucleophile can attack orthrogonally to the $\ce{C=C}$...
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Can the relative reactivities of different compounds that undergo the same reaction be compared if the compounds follow different overall kinetics?

I have read that if some different compounds undergo the same reaction and under the same conditions, but follow different overall kinetic orders, then their rate constants or relative reactivities ...
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Cyclisation of acetone on reaction with conc. H2SO4

Mechanism for reaction of acetone with conc. $\ce{H2SO4}$: The product is supposed to be mesitylene and on various sites I found the reason behind it to be aldol condensation And some sites did ...
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3answers
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How to make elemental silicon?

I want to extract elemental silicon from pure silicon dioxide powder. From what I've read, one way to do it is by adding carbon from graphite at very high temperatures, which is difficult. A better ...
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1answer
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Does reaction of alkali and alkaine earth metals' reaction with water an acid-base reaction? [closed]

In my chemistry notes the teacher gave me the note that reaction of alkali, alkaline earh metals' reactivity with water, acids(e.g. H2S) increases down the group and bases(e.g.NH3) decreases down the ...
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Why does protic solvent suggest E1 mechanism rather than E2?

If I understood correctly, having a protic solvent increases chance of E1 mechanism. But I can not rationalize this because carbocation intermediate is a positively charged molecule, and by ...
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How does the temperature affect the frequency factor?

I am a high school student and have been trying to learn how the temperature affects the frequency factor. I did not even understand the equation below, which is from this site. Can anyone please ...
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1answer
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5-methylhexa-1,3-diene reaction with HBr [closed]

What will be the major product of the reaction? I guess that rearrangement will take place and give 5-bromo-5-methylhex-2-ene as a product, but I'm completely not sure
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1answer
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Mechanism involved in bromine water test

$$\ce{CH3CH=CH2 ->[Br2] CH3-CHBr-CH2Br}$$ In the reaction mechanism, why does the nucleophile attack at the 2nd carbon atom? Shouldn't it attack at the 1st one, so that in the transition state, ...
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1answer
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Are the reaction rates of these equations equal? [closed]

$$\ce{CH3CH2CH2Br + OH- -> CH3CH2CH2OH + Br-}$$ $$\mathrm{rate} = k[\ce{CH3CH2CH2Br}][\ce{OH-}]$$ If I change the $\ce{Br}$ with any element from halogens (without changing concentration, volume, ...

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