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Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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How do you calculate relative atomic masses of 2 isotopes by just knowing only their atomic masses?

How do you calculate relative atomic masses of 2 given isotopes with one having an atomic mass of 63, and the other having 65 (but no abundance is given)?
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Carboanion in heterolytic cleavage

My book states the following (Look below figure 12.3): The heterolytic cleavage can also give a species in which carbon gets the shared pair of electrons. For example, when group Z attached to the ...
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20 views

Which is faster- SN1 or SN2?

We were studying about nucleophilic substitution reactions. My professor said that in general SN1 reactions are faster than SN2 reactions. I am unable to understand that how can we generalise the rate ...
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23 views

Inorganic foreign author books [duplicate]

I want to know the best foreign author books of following topics that cover them in full depth 1.) Chemical bonding (pls list down all books that explains every topic of bonding in great depth if ...
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can parallel circuits be used for the efficient production during series of experiments? [on hold]

can parallel circuits be used for the efficient production during series of experiments. Where the voltage and current will determine how much each product will be produced in the end of each ...
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25 views

Stabilizing donor-acceptor interaction between orthogonal orbitals in the SN2 transition state?

For the $\mathrm{S_N2}$ reaction between chloroacetone and iodide, my professor has drawn a donor-acceptor interaction between the iodine lone pair attacking the Cl-substituted carbon and the π ...
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0answers
44 views

Diels-Alder - aromatic compound - mechanism [closed]

I am trying to figure out a mechanism for the following reaction but I am sort of lost and I can't find anything that would help me... All the reactions I found are "pretty easy" to solve... Thanks ...
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0answers
13 views

Super-absorbent Polymers [closed]

I want to cast a cube out of super-absorbent powder (Fake Snow) for an art piece, and make it become shapeless by gradually exposing it to water over 7 days. I have 2 questions: What is the best type ...
3
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1answer
102 views

How can batteries reach equilibrium if the reactions are irreversible?

My book says that the batteries we have considered so far (Daniell cells) have a low life span because they reach equilibrium too quickly. In the next paragraph, it states they are also made by ...
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0answers
24 views

Coupling reaction with reagent Na / Dry Ether

The following question was asked on myPAT website: I started with the solution by assuming Wurtz reaction would take place. And hence, I came with the product shown in option A. I knew that ...
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1answer
56 views

Not a chemist, needs help with a calculation regarding addition of HCl to sodium formate solution [closed]

As stated I am not a chemist, but I need help on a question I have. Assume I have a Formic acid 75% and I add between 5-10 kg to 1.000 liter of water. If I wanted to add sodium formate and HCl 37% to ...
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0answers
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Gas reactions/Combustion [duplicate]

I have a project(not a school project, personal) where I am mixing Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen in a pressurized storage container. I am attempting to figure out that if those gases react/combust what ...
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2answers
109 views

Equilibrium Constant & Rate-Determining Step

My first language is not English, so there might be some parts where it's hard to read. Sorry in advance. I have some questions regarding the derivation of the equilibrium constant and the rate-...
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1answer
113 views

Why does thallium hydroxide increase the yield of product in a Suzuki reaction?

I came across a research paper by Uenishi et al. [1] where relative rates of $\ce{KOH}$ and $\ce{TlOH}$ in Suzuki coupling reactions are compared. Thallium hydroxide increased the yield of products, ...
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2answers
102 views

Can some one please explain alkyl shifts for me

Provide a mechanism for the following reaction. Include all intermediates, resonance structures, charges, and electron pushing arrows to obtain full credit. I’m stuck with this problem. I got ...
2
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1answer
59 views

Relating collision theory to rate of reaction [closed]

I want to relate the macroscopic advancement of a reaction, the rate of the reaction, with the microscopic collisions of the molecules. This is the type I have developed so far: $$u = A^2 \times \...
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0answers
50 views

What reactions involving hydrazine, dinitrogen tetroxide and possibly a contaminant can produce a salt?

Hydrazine $\ce{N2H4}$ and dinitrogen tetroxide $\ce{N2O4}$ form a hypergolic fuel and oxidizer pair widely used in spacecraft including Akatsuki. Wikipedia states: Hydrazine can be monoprotonated ...
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1answer
36 views

Bromination of an alkene in presence of water

Bromination of an alkene in presence of water results in its mechanism in a cyclic bromonium ion and "afterwards $\ce{H2O}$ binds to the carbon atom surrounded by more electron donating groups." This ...
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1answer
53 views

Which reaction occurs first when 5-hexen-1-ol reacts with sulfuric acid?

I am trying to solve this question: Find the major product of the following reaction: Now we could either do electrophilic addition on the alkene or do dehydration of alcohol. These two ...
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47 views

Is a maleimide reaction inhibited by ethylene glycol?

Due to a recent switch in systems, we have to add 45% ethylene glycol to a maleimide reaction with Sulfo-MBS (m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide ester) and a reduced oligonucleotide ...
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1answer
58 views

Why does the reaction between 2‐methylbut‐3‐en‐2‐ol and hydrogen bromide show allylic shift?

In the following reaction shouldn't the minor product be the major one as the carbocation formed before attachment of bromine is 3°? Also, can someone tell me why the product includes only ...
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0answers
14 views

How to confirm experimentally that a hemi-acetal compound has formed?

I have read that under mildly acidic or alkaline conditions alcohols can attack aldehydes/ketones to produce hemi-acetals. But the reaction is reversible, so the reactants and the hemia-cetal are in ...
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1answer
73 views

Reaction of ether with HCl

Most of the reactions undergo ring expansion whenever favourable. But this reaction [1, p. 514] doesn't seems to do so: Practice Problem 11.18 Provide a mechanism for the following reaction. ...
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1answer
79 views

Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Pyrrole [duplicate]

I thought that I already know how the Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EArs) for Aromatic rings work but then this reaction was shown to me and I was really sure that my professors didn't bothered ...
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0answers
42 views

Where will the oxygen atom be inserted on the Baeyer-Villiger esterification? [duplicate]

On our exam in organic chemistry, there was a question that I failed to answer correctly. The question is about the Baeyer-Villiger esterification of propiophenone or ethyl phenyl ketone: On the exam,...
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1answer
133 views

What is the mechanism of oxidation of phenol to benzoquinone?

I looked up the mechanism in a lot of organic chemistry books, including Clayden, Klein, Solomons, McMurry but I couldn't find the mechanism of oxidation of a phenol. I also looked it up in ...
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3answers
71 views

Was it CO2 or Muriatic Acid?

We had a malfunction with the chlorination system at our pool. There was a reaction between the Calcium Hypochlorite tablets and either $\ce{CO2}$, Carbonic Acid, or Muriatic Acid. There was a ...
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1answer
60 views

Calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid - data analysis [closed]

I conducted an experiment in which $\pu{10mL}$ of dilute hydrochloric acid was added to a beaker, and this acid was heated up to room temperature ($\pu{22 ^\circ C}$) using a Bunsen burner. Then, $\pu{...
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1answer
50 views

Diborane reduction

I am stuck at a step in reduction of alkene using $\ce{B2H6}.$ I assume that step 1 is the addition of borane to alkene. After that a water molecule attacks $\ce{-BH2},$ it being a Lewis acid. ...
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0answers
28 views

Is activation energy directly related to the reaction rate? (keeping the temperature, concentration, catalyst, particle size and pressure constant)

For different chemical reactions, does the activation energy of that reaction directly relate to the reaction rate? In other words, would a reaction always be slower if it had a higher activation ...
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32 views

What effect does the dye color have on the kinetics of a commercial lightstick?

According to thoughtco: If fluorescent dyes weren't put in glow sticks, you wouldn't see any light at all. This is because the energy produced is usually invisible ultraviolet light. Fluorescent dyes ...
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1answer
45 views

Role of hcl gas in organic reactions [closed]

I encountered many questions in the competitive exam field of high school organic chemistry where we add some compounds and treat it in excess alcohol solutions in the presence of dry hcl gas, it is ...
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0answers
35 views

Hemiacetal formation mechanism

The question is asking which reagents can be used to carry out this reaction. I get the L (PCC) is used to turn the primary alcohol into an aldehyde. However, I believe that is not the only reagent ...
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1answer
40 views

Testing for manganese in water [closed]

Is there a decent way to test for solvable manganese in water without purchasing a 150USD test kit? I have a fair chemistry set available (I use it to teach my kids chemistry), and would rather pay ...
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0answers
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Removing potash from water using poly-aluminum chloride

I have been conducting an experiment for a school project, (removing metals from water)I added 50 grams of sulphate of potash to 2 litres of water, then allowed it to dissolve for a 24hrs. On two ...
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1answer
40 views

Is it possible to predict release of acid fumes in certain acid reactions? [closed]

Upon mixing both acids, the reaction between Formic Acid and Sulfuric Acid, besides producing Carbon Monoxide and Water, releases a certain amount of acid fumes. Does anyone know if the fumes, in ...
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1answer
54 views

Role of THF in oxymercuration of alkenes

I am trying to self learn solomon's organic chemistry book, but there is no explanation over why we should use THF in oxymercuration. After a quick search I found out that THF help stabilize in ...
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2answers
70 views

Acidic cleavage of ether with a 2° alkyl group

I know that an ether with a 3° alkyl group and a 1° alkyl group is cleaved by $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism to give a tertiary alkyl halide and a 1° alcohol. And an ether with a two 1° alkyl groups is ...
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0answers
40 views

Reacting ZnSO4 with KCl

I'm considering the following reaction: $\ce{ZnSO4} + 2 \ce{KCl} \ce{->} \ce{ZnCl2} + \ce{K2SO4}$ The high solubility of $\ce{ZnCl2}$ would favour the $\ce{ZnSO4}$ & $\ce{KCl}$ direction of ...
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1answer
69 views

Does 1,3-butadiene in bromine/water do addition twice?

Considering 1,3-butadiene (below) added to bromine water (considering it as $\ce{Br2(aq)}$): I've seen online that the products are 1,2-dibromobutene and 1,4 but what I don't understand is why ...
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48 views

Parameters by which to distinguish SN1 from E1

I am new to organic chemistry and am struggling with the following very basic question: Given is the following reaction: $$\ce{(CH3)3CCl + NH3(aq) →}$$ I am supposed to analyse the end-product (the ...
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1answer
156 views

Gold Plating on Glass?

I am considering labware options to handle NaOH solutions at ~150°C. One appealing idea would be to coat my current glassware with gold. I've read different sources mentioning the possibility without ...
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0answers
93 views

Mechanism of decarboxylation of cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid

According to FIITJEE's Sankalp Test-II answer key, it was given that the following compound decarboxylates on heating: Then, I read Why are beta-ketoacids better at decarboxylation than gamma or ...
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2answers
95 views

Synthesis of potassium trioxalatocobaltate(III) trihydrate

I've synthesized the compound potassium trioxalatocobaltate(III) trihydrate and for it I have two reaction equations. One of them is: $$\ce{CoCO3 + 3K2C2O4.2H2O -> K2[Co(C2O4)3] + 2CO2}$$ and the ...
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2answers
50 views

Rate law for breakdown of ozone to oxygen

For the following problem: Example 3: Write the rate law for $\ce{2 O3 -> 3 O2}$ given that the f‌irst step is fast and reversible, and the second step is slow. $$ \begin{align} &\text{...
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1answer
54 views

Reductive amination in case of secondary amines

When an aldehyde or a ketone undergoes reductive amination when a primary amine is acting,the mechanism follows a pathway through hemiaminal and imine,what happens when a secondary amine is acting on ...
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0answers
21 views

How can I determine the electrode potential of ethanoic acid redox reaction?

I'm conducting a research paper on the effect of surface area ratio from anode to cathode and the electrode material on the rate of electrolysis of ethanoic acid by measuring the volume of carbon ...
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1answer
91 views

Is this reaction possible? [duplicate]

When mixing HCl with K2CO3, the reaction that is usually given is the following: K2CO3 + 2HCl → 2KCl + CO2 + H2O I am wondering, however, if I could produce KHCO3 from K2CO3, by using half as many ...
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0answers
41 views

Why is there only little difference between molecular dipole moments in CHX3 compounds (X = Cl, Br, I)?

Why is there only little difference between molecular dipole moments in $\ce{CHX3}$ compounds ($\ce{X}$ = $\ce{Cl}$, $\ce{Br}$, $\ce{I}$)? As we can see there is a huge difference in dipole moment of ...
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1answer
49 views

What is the major product obtained on acidification of substituted epoxide?

The problem Source : MS Couhan (problems in organic chemistry . Chapter: Alcohols , phenols and ethers). My Thoughts If I proceed along $\ce{path 1}$ , $\ce1a$ is formed . It is unstable due to ...