Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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What will be the reaction of diospyrol with air? What compound will be formed when diospyrol reacts with air? [closed]

Diospyrol is present in Diospyros mollis which is used to make black dye. What is the chemistry and structure of this black dye? Diospyrol image from here
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Why is it not possible for water to directly attach itself to the alkene to form an alcohol in oxymercuration? What is the need for mercuric acetate?

When going through the preparation of alcohols, I came across the method of Oxymercuration-Demercuration. Now, after going over the reaction, I didn't understand the purpose of the mercuric acetate ...
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What is the difference between a single displacement reaction and a two competing reaction system?

For example, consider the single-displacement reaction $$\ce{AB + C <=> BC + A}$$ My question is then if writing this reaction as the system \begin{gather} \ce{AB <=> A + B} \\ \ce{B + C &...
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p-nitrophenol synthesis reaction frorm phenol [duplicate]

I have found that in order to synthesize p-nitrophenol from phenol, it should be treated with sodium nitrite (NaNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as seen in 1. However I'm interested in knowing the other ...
4 votes
1 answer
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Regioselectivity of the Hydroboration and Epoxidation of Limonene

Could someone help me out with the most likely major products for each reaction? 1 eq. of reagent is used for both reactions, so my initial thought was that both processes would only occur at the C=C ...
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Why and how do aqueous silica systems precipitate and can its occurrence be mitigated by quantifying its speciation correctly?

Background/Context: For context, I have been doing a lot of work on experimental systems in geopolymer chemistry lately with a focus on "activator" solutions which are essentially mixtures ...
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Do rearrangements occur in oxymercuration and demercuration?

My book (Morrison & Boyd) says that rearrangements are possible in this reaction; unfortunately, it is just written and no examples are provided. So do rearrangements occur in oxymercuration / ...
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Mechanism for synthesis of benzofuran

Would someone be able to help me with the mechanism for the synthesis of benzofuran from salicyladehyde (taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzofuran)? I have got as far as the decarboxylation ...
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Does acrolein give positive iodoform test?

Which of the following compound(s) give(s) a positive iodoform test? A. Acrolein B. Acetone C. Acetoacetic ester D. 2-Propanol According to me, the answer should be options B, C, and D as B is a ...
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Can the relative velocity of two colliding molecules be too large to allow reaction to occur?

In a collision between two molecules, can the relative velocity of one with respect to the other be too large for a reaction to occur? For example, suppose that two molecules collide with (a) a ...
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Mechanism of the blue bottle experiment

I have researched multiple mechanisms for this experiment yet all of them suggest different versions or are too vague. None of them are consistent since the final overall equation seems to be missing ...
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Why bromoacetone is more reactive towards SN2 than alkyl bromides? [duplicate]

Compare the rates towards SN2 reaction: I got the point that 2-bromobutane d is a secondary halide, so the steric hinderance is highest making it least reactive among the four. Both b and c are ...
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How is a Barrierless Reaction Confirmed in Quantum Chemistry?

Background: Some quantum chemistry papers explore potential energy surfaces by characterizing critical points with an ab initio method. Reactants, products, intermediates, and transition states are ...
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What drives double displacement reactions?

I have two questions: I understand that in a displacement reaction the more reactive element displace the less reactive element. But why? In the reaction with Zinc and Copper Sulfate, we form Copper ...
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Is E1 possible without SN1?

I know that E1 and SN1 are competing reactions and often occur parallelly, and that solvents which are more polar in nature tend to favour SN1. I have seen cases where there is no E1 reaction at all ...
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Does aqueous KOH favor SN2 or SN1 with secondary halides?

I have read that aq. KOH is equally reactive towards SN1 and SN2 with secondary halides. I'm aware that aq. KOH will participate in SN2 as well because of the lack of steric hindrance in secondary ...
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What chemical reactions takes place in purifying acetylene?

Acetylene produced by water on calcium carbide method contain several impurity compound, that are harmful for welding or other purposes of acetylene and needs to be absorbed from the gas mixture ...
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Mechanism of Grignard reaction with 2-(thiiran-2-yl)oxirane

What will be the final major product? The answer is 2-(methoxymethyl)-3-(substituted methyl)thiirane: I think $\ce{R}$ of $\ce{RMgX}$ attacks thiirane ring because negative charge on sulfur is more ...
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Chlorine Cleaner for Car Interior

I am interested in removing cigarette odor from one car and a vinyl/plasticy smell from another. I have found a product that is supposed to work for this: NuVinAir (www.nuvinair.com). It works by ...
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Kolbe's electrolysis reaction for alkenes' production

I came across a question in which the major product was asked for Kolbe's electrolysis of potassium salt of 2,3-dimethylbutane-1,4-dioic acid. The answer was given as trans-(but-2-ene). I couldn't ...
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What would be the product(s) when 2-iodobutane is heated with tertiary butoxide?

The following question from Black Book Organic Chemistry IIT JEE Advanced Level Papers [1]: Choose the correct option(s) among the following about [P]: A) Two C−H bonds in [P] are involved in ...
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Do you always need to balance a chemical equation to find the percentage yield and limiting reagent?

I'm doing some problems through MIT open courseware and I've got one I'm absolutely stuck on. It details a three-step synthesis for hyperzine A, gives molecular weights and diagrams for individual ...
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What are the other examples of compounds undergoing decarboxylation in the pericylic manner as shown by β-ketocarboxylic acids?

I know that β-ketocarboxylic acids undergo decarboxylation on light heating through an enol intermediate undergoing a pericyclic reaction. However, what other groups may be placed at the β position ...
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Does E1 mechanism always imply first order reaction?

Oxford University Press, Okuyama & Maskill: Organic Chemistry — Chapter 13: Multiple Choice Questions, Question 1: Which of the following statements regarding the E1 mechanism is wrong? a) ...
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Reaction of alkane with alkene in acidic medium

This question was asked in jee mains 2022 june 25 shift 1. I have never seen such a kind of reaction before and also could not find it anywhere on internet. But I guessed that the proton will add to ...
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Can Thiamine Pyrophosphate be Prepared from Thiamine Hydrochloride by chemical means?

Is there a quick and easy way to prepare Thiamine Pyrophosphate in the lab (i.e. without using micro-organisms) starting by Thiamine Hydrochloride (by a simple displacement reaction maybe)?
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Synthesizing octopine from arginine and 2-bromopropionic acid

I am a biologist, and organic chemistry lessons are a distant memory now. I am interested in synthesizing a small amount of octopine. Octopine is a natural molecule resulting from an enzyme-catalyzed ...
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Reimer-Tiemann reaction of aniline

[how reaction actually happens I wonder is it possible for aniline to undergo Reimer-Tiemann reaction just like phenol? What is the problem in that? How to compare rates of carbylamine reaction and ...
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Aromatic nucleophilic substitution of benzyne with amine

All the books say that we can have aromatic nucleophilic substitution by benzyne with strong base like $\ce{NH2-}$. Anyway, I've never seen another base. For example, can we have ARn with 1-...
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Reaction between 1,2-bis(buta-1,3-dien-1-yl)cyclohexan-1-ol and potassium hydride in THF

Which product is formed in the following reaction? I am quite certain that we deal with an oxy-Cope rearrangement that works at room temperature, but I don’t know how to draw the product given the ...
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Does E1cB take place over here?

I formed this product (reason: alkene has 6 alpha hydrogens) ----> However, it turns out, this is the answer: The reason why I suspect this is e1cb is because NO2 could stabilize the carboanion (...
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What is the effect of NaNO2/HCl at 0-5° C on Nitro group?

In this particular reaction firstly $\ce{NaNO2/HCl}$ at $\pu{0-5°C}$ was taken and after that $\ce{H2/Ni}$ . But what I doubt is, was there any role of $\ce{NaNO2/HCl}$ at $\pu{0-5°C}$ ? Since only ...
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Confusion regarding order of reaction

The following points are given in my textbook about order and molecularity:- (i) Order of a reaction is an experimental quantity. It can be zero and even a fraction but molecularity cannot be zero or ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How is the intermediate compound 2-chloropropan-1,3-diol is formed when hypochlorous acid is added to allyl alcohol in the preparation of glycerol?

The expected product is 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol since secondary carbocation is more stable than primary but it is not formed. I have surfed the internet a lot regarding this and none seems to be a ...
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Reaction of 1,4-Dichlorobenzene & Hydroxylamine

I'm looking for reactions that would attack the chlorine in dichlorobenzenes. Wikipedia mentions a reaction with hydroxylamine, yet Googling, I haven't found exact said reaction. Can anyone provide it ...
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Rate order when the slow step only contains intermediates?

I feel a bit sheepish asking this, but I was told that the stoichiometry of the slow step of a mechanism indicates the order of a reaction with respect to a reactant. However, in the slow step of this ...
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Rearrangement vs. Ring Strain in Cyclobutanecarboxaldehyde Nucleophilic Reaction

Predict the major product of the following reaction: Note: Product A is incorrectly marked as secondary halide, it should have been primary halide This question appeared in an national level ...
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How should the reactivity of 1-propanesulfonyl chloride be expected to compare to tosyl chloride for sulfonylation?

I've come across some scientific literature (e.g., https://doi.org/10.1021/jm400751p) that notably feature 1-propanesulfonyl chloride (PsCl) in the selective activation of hydroxy groups, such as a ...
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How does coenzyme A produce proton from pyruvate ions?

Coenzyme A (CoA) is a complex molecule consisting of mercaptamine, β-alanine, pantoic acid, diphosphate, pentose, phosphate and adenine moieties: Which part of it actually plays role in the formation ...
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How does the second hydrolysis of phthalimide work (hydrolysis of amide)?

In the hydrolysis of Phthalimides we can see two successive hydrolysis of "amides" see ChemLibre for a nice mechanism This is interesting because normally (also according to ChemLibre) ...
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Is H2 gas produced when a mercury electrode is used as cathode in the electrolysis of Brine?

If platinum electrodes are used as electrodes, H2 gas and Cl2 gas are produced at the anode and cathode respectively. However, if a mercury electrode is used as the cathode, an exception is seen. ...
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What will happen if the electrolysis of Brine takes place for a long time?

This is the reaction: $$\ce{2NaCl(aq) + 2H2O(l) -> 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) + Cl2(g)}$$ If the above reaction goes on for long enough, we will eventually run out of Cl- ions. There will only remain an ...
1 vote
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Reduction of unsymmetrical ketones using BINAL-H (Enantioselectivity)

I am struggling with a problem regarding the enantioselectivity of BINAL-H for quite some time now. The reaction scheme shows the reaction with (S)-BINAL-H as it is observed plus the transition state ...
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Tmax of parallel reactions/Steady state reactions

Below are four reactions, to this experiment inhibitor is added so that k$_3$ = $0$ (but the other reactions are unaffected) calculate [D] when the reaction is over. The initial concentration of A is $...
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Is LCP working well in real experiments? or is it more of an oversimplified principle?

I have a question for people who have applied Le Chatelier's principle (LCP) to their experiment or have knowledge about people who have done that to increase the yield. Essentially, I am curious &...
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Gold cyanidation process

My chemistry book says the following: In the metallurgy of silver and gold , the respective metal is leached with a dilute solution of $\ce{NaCN}$ in presence of $\ce{O2}$ as a result of which the ...
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Acid hydrolysis of Birch-reduced Anisole

The following is a question from Advanced problems in organic chemistry by MS Chouhan: Product $A$ is rather straightforward: and on acidic hydrolysis, the following reaction takes place: Here the ...
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Does the halogenation of an alkane also produce haloalkanes of a longer chain length?

Take a typical halogenation of an alkane reaction (the bromination of methane). $$\ce{Br_2->Br· + Br· (in the presence of UV light)} $$ $$\ce{Br· + CH4->·CH3 + HBr} $$ One of the possible ...
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Spontaneous reaction between chlorine and a hypothetical atom

Suppose, my hypothetical element is $\ce X$, whose first ionization energy is $\pu{200kJ/mol}$. An atom of this element will react with an atom of chlorine (assume that I've already dissociated a ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is collision theory applicable only for molecules?

$$\ce{Na (s) + Cl_2 (g)->NaCl(s)}$$ Is collision theory applicable for the above reaction, or is collision theory applicable only for molecules? In other words, do chlorine atoms collide with ...
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