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Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Bicarbonate concentration in the RO permeate

I am facing a challenge since long ago, but have not been able to find a suitable solution for it. Please share your thoughts if you have the knowledge or experience in this area. I am running an RO ...
Mirwais 's user avatar
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52 views

Conflict: Sandmeyer reaction and Gattermann reaction

So it is known that benzene diazonium chloride when reaction with cuprous(I) chloride would produce a chlorobenzene which is called Sandmeyer reaction. Now for the same salt, if we react it with ...
Xlomer's user avatar
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Finding the relative position of the molecule in the adsorbate and adsorbent by minimizing the Hamiltonian

I am trying to model an adsorbing process (or more precisely, Heterogeneous catalysis process between solid catalyst and gas reactants). One of the step is to minimize the Hamiltonian by optimizing ...
Minh Triet's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
76 views

Compatibility of DCM/CCl3 with sodium hydride

In our undergraduate studies we were told that chlorinated solvents should not get in contact with alkaline elements like sodium, potassium etc., due to the violent reaction that will form the ...
raptorlane's user avatar
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0 answers
48 views

When is the activity of a solid equal to 1

The activity of a solid is often equal to 1. Is it always the case? Or only in liquids and gases? In particular, if we consider the following reaction : $Sn(\alpha)_{(s)} = Sn(\beta)_{(s)}$, where $\...
Arthur Filippi's user avatar
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Why does allylic bromination occur with N-bromosuccinimide?

For the purpose of allylic bromination on an alkene, say propan-1-ene, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) is added to HBr in carbon tetrachloride which leads to the formation of bromine. The bromine, in the ...
Nightwing's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
861 views

Why does the Wurtz-Fittig reaction occur?

In the Wurtz-Fittig reaction, an aryl halide and an alkyl halide react with sodium in the presence of dry ether to give R-Ar as the major product. Why is the coupling of R and Ar favoured? In other ...
Nightwing's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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What does phosphorodibromidous acid do in solution?

When tribromophosphine is used to activate an OH to enable its substitution, the leaving group is listed by PubChem as "phosphorodibromidous acid" and doesn't seem to really exist from a ...
trerri's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
76 views

Dehydration of isoborneol with carbocation rearrangement

What rearrangement happens when isoborneol (structure below) is heated with acid? Since acid is used and the hydroxyl group is present, the reaction mechanism is dehydration. My attempt: In the ...
Bongo Man's user avatar
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Why is Hoffmann product preferred over Zaitsev in this reaction?

[] Why is Hoffman product formed here in the elimination step in place of Zaitsev product? My guess is that adjacent double bonds are unstable for some reason In the next step $\ce{H^+}$ does not ...
ocresol's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is the major product formed when you react 1,3-butadiene with HBr in the presence of both ROOR and heat? [duplicate]

I just had an exam where we were given 1,3-butadiene as our reactant and our major product as 1-bromo-2-butene, where we had to state what the reagent was for that particular reaction. I stated that ...
Indominus beaker's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
164 views

Efficient absorption techniques for oxygen gas

This question is somewhat vague, but I am interested in biogas treatment and a major component in biogas treatment is oxygen filtration. I know there are various methods for oxygen filtration such as ...
Aakarsh's user avatar
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1 answer
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Mechanism of cyclic ether formation from alcohol [closed]

first thought was protonating alkene to give carbocation which does EAS on the phenyl group followed by attack of oxygen on the 3 deg carbon to break the newly formed 4 membered ring. problem with ...
bromocresol's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
60 views

Mechanism of Jones oxidation

We were required to find the number of moles of $CrO_3$ required to oxidize 6 moles of heptan-2-ol. I tried balancing the equation but I am not aware of the final chromium containing product. Knowing ...
JackSparrow's user avatar
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1 answer
44 views

Leaving group ability vs Stability of Transition state for determining rate of E2 elimination reaction [closed]

Source: Teacher's Assignment. (not a homework doubt, but a big conceptual doubt about the question) In this question we have to compare rate of E2 reactions and the answer is C2H4I2 > C2H4Br2 > ...
EagerToLearn's user avatar
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Substitution reaction with alcoholic KOH

Whenever, there is the reagent "alcoholic KOH", we prefer E2 Elimination reaction. However in case of 3 degree alkyl halides, like tert-butyl chloride, why do we not consider SN1 pathway? ...
EagerToLearn's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
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Aluminum foil & Iron (III) chloride hexahydrate

When I put an aluminum foil strip into 25mL of 0.4M FeCl3.6H2O I was expecting a single replacement reaction with aluminum chloride forming and iron forming a ppt, instead nothing happened. A reaction ...
mole's user avatar
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How to predict whether a redox or an acid-base reaction will occur? [duplicate]

I've been thinking a lot about this question, but even after intense research, I didn't find any satisfying answer, even here. So here's my question, illustrated with an example: We have a negatively ...
dark_ursus's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
32 views

Relation between formation of carbocation and availability of nucleophile

Many sources suggest that in SN1 reactions the leaving group first exits the molecule, and the resulting carbocation is subsequently attacked by the nucleophile, suggesting that there is no relation ...
Eisenstein's user avatar
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Dehalogenation of geminal dihalide

I found a reaction of a geminal dihalide with zinc in the book Organic chemistry by Clayden. The reaction in question is : I cannot find any reference online to the second reaction of Zn which seems ...
Priyesha Jha's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
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Does catechol give Tollens’ test?

Do hydroquinones like catechol or p-hydroxyphenol give Tollens’ test? I know that β-diketones can reduce Tollens’ reagent to give a “silver mirror”, so I would guess that due to tautomerization ...
KMT's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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3,3'-methylimino-di-propionic acid diethyl ester, to 1-Methyl-4-piperidone, via an Intermediate

They ask us to give the structure of the intermediate "A" and the mechanisms of both steps My attempt: I found the name of the started and end molecules on reaxys.com NaOEt could ...
wengen's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Frequency to induce nitrogen inversion

I would like to know how to compute the frequency at which nitrogen inversion happens in ammonia gas at STP. The activation energy for such process is 24.2 kJ/mol, therefore I thought that it is ...
crisecon's user avatar
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Explaination of order of leaving groups

In Solomons' Organic Chemistry, in a section discussing leaving groups, it is stated that$-$ Among the halogens, an iodide ion is the best leaving group and a fluoride ion is the poorest: $$I− > ...
Eisenstein's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
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Why is the phenyl shift happening?

In the mechanism here, why is the phenyl shift happening instead of O from OH attacking the +ve carbon? also both the carbons are 3 degree...so what is the need of shift ?
StackpackedKar's user avatar
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31 views

Why do carbenes react differently with different alkenes in Reimer-Tiemann reaction?

Carbenes in the usual form of reimer-tiemann reaction react by forming one bond and getting negatively charged like this but in abnormal reactions of cyclopentadiene(and I suspect all 5 member rings) ...
mechanist's user avatar
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35 views

Why nitration of aniline carried out after acetylation give ortho and para major products?

I was reading about the meta directing nature of anilinium cations and the answer mentioned that these reactions are usually carried out with 90-98% sulphuric acid. At these concentrations I would ...
mechanist's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
38 views

A curly arrow can only have its tail starting from a double bond or lone pair?

According to this video, a curly arrow representing a reaction mechanism can only have its tail starting from a double bond or a lone pair. I am wondering if the tail of a curly arrow could also start ...
niobium's user avatar
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5 votes
0 answers
48 views

Mechanism of Cu Catalyzed reaction between Benzoic acid with DMF

I'm looking for the mechanism of this reaction that I have stumbled upon. It is believed to be a radical reaction and I can kinda see that but I'm not convinced that I can understand all of the steps, ...
GabrielAlx's user avatar
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Reaction SMARTS for Secondary Amine and Carboxylic Acid

I'm working on replicating methods from Klarich et al. [1] and the authors do not provide the reaction SMARTS used for synthesizing secondary amine + carboxylic acid building blocks. Does anyone have ...
Karl's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
93 views

Calculation of Reaction Extent as a Function of Pressure and Temperature: Issue with Activity-Based Approach

I'm working on modeling reactions involving combinations of hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and strontium (Sr) elements. I've obtained the temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy of formation, enthalpy, ...
David's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
112 views

1-Bromo-4-tert-butylbenzene reaction with NaNH2 [closed]

I'm struggling to grasp how the reaction would turn out. Could you help? My idea was that the bromide atom will get replaced by the amino group of $\ce{NaNH2}$, but when I google, I read that $\ce{...
wengen's user avatar
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0 votes
3 answers
110 views

Why are we permitted to add things to balance redox equations?

Consider balancing redox half equations. As a general rule, we can add electrons, water, hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions to balance the redox half equation. However, it is not entirely clear why we ...
11221's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
377 views

Does the acetic acid in vinegar oxidize significantly?

I apologize in advance for this question. I did very well in O Chem, but that was 50 years ago and I had to study very hard. I don't remember much of it now except what's common in basic biological ...
anongoodnurse's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
37 views

Oxidation of 1,2 dicarbonyls by tollens reagent

According to the wiki page on Tollen's reagent https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tollens%27_reagent#Qualitative_organic_analysis It also gives a positive test with hydrazines, hydrazones, α-hydroxy ...
mark's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
46 views

Need help with synthesis of iron (II,III) oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles

I am attempting to synthesize iron (II,III) oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4). I have some iron acetate and have seen some literature where people have synthesized Cu nanoparticles using a polyol process. ...
assasinchop7's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
80 views

Questions on protonation / substituent effects on the energies of HOMO and LUMO

I am trying to understand mechanisms through HOMO/LUMO and am struggling to understand 3 points from a lecture slide I found on the internet: Focusing on sigma*(C-F), sigma*(C-O) and sigma*(C-C), I ...
Question's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
48 views

Question about regioselectivity depending on the base used [closed]

In one of my organic chemistry lessons, it is possible to produce 2-methylbut-2-ene and 2-methylbut-1-ene from 2-bromo-2-methylbutane using a base, using the mechanism E2. The percentage of the two ...
AT N's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
39 views

What is the difference in reactivity between the various borates (trimethyl, triethyl, triisopropyl borate) to form boronic acids?

For the transformation of 1,3-dibromobenzene to bromobenzene boronic acid, different groups use different boration reagents namely trimethylborate, triethyborate and triisopropylborate). The reaction ...
The Red Man Jolan Bonelli's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
54 views

Will a reaction happen slower if it has a higher enthalpy change than its counterparts?

Suppose both reactions are conducted in identical conditions and they have the same activation energy, and B has 0 enthalpy. Which one will happen faster? My experiment said reaction A happen slower ...
Chris Nalusaku's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
43 views

Why is some racemisation possible in Sn2 reaction?

Partial racemisation is known to occur in Sn1 reactions, but why does Sn2 reaction also show little racemisation?
user144595's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
75 views

Why does solution turn yellow at higher temperatures in potassium iodate-sodium metabisulfite variation?

When I did the potassium iodide-sodium thiosulfate experiment, the reaction mixture did not turn yellow at higher temperatures. For example, it was blue-black at 50 degrees celsius, however, for ...
Cin's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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What is the full mechanism for the controlled reduction of an alkyne using LiAlH₄?

Was going through my notes and realised I didn't completely fill them in. The first few steps I think are quite self-explanatory but I'm really confused about the last step where I go from the five-...
ajk's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
60 views

Silver Nitrate Solution + Flame = Mirror?

I purchased an interesting product recently, which says it contains: "Isopropyl alocohol, silver nitrate, Water-based lacquer". You apply it to a smooth surface, then use a blowtorch on it ...
Jon's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
26 views

The mechanism for the addition of HCl to propylene

Problem: The mechanism for the addition of HCl to propylene is described below. Complete the mechanism in step 1 with one curved arrow showing the electron movement that occurs when the double bond ...
Nora's user avatar
  • 133
0 votes
1 answer
40 views

Potassium Ethoxide Synthesis: Does the Reaction Involve Radical Processes?

Can Potassium Ethoxide be obtained by reacting the alcohol with metallic potassium? Considering that potassium, as a group one metal, has only one valence electron, would this reaction therfore ...
Re7's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
1 answer
34 views

Which of these monomers can polymerize by chain addition reaction?

Problem: Which of these monomers can polymerize by chain addition reaction? Solution: The monomers with red crosses underneath them can polymerize by chain addition reaction. Question: So, how I am ...
Nora's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
114 views

Why NaOH(s,l) + CO2(g) → Na2CO3(s)? Why not NaOH(g) + CO2(g) → Na2CO3(g)?

Why doesn't $\ce{NaOH(g)}$ react with $\ce{CO2(g)}$ to produce gaseous sodium carbonate $\ce{(Na2CO3(g))}$: $$ \ce{2 NaOH(g) + CO2(g) → Na2CO3(g) + H2O(g)} \tag{3} $$ Why don't we see any gaseous $\ce{...
Farzad's user avatar
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-5 votes
1 answer
81 views

Why can't the diene in a diels-alder also be a dienophile [closed]

why can't the diene react with itself like this
OZWizard X's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
56 views

Mechanism of oxidation reaction with periodate

What is the mechanism of reaction of periodate with β-hydroxy amine? I tried the to write the mechanism similar to that of reaction with 1,2-diol but I am not able to obtain 2 carbonyl compound and ...
WIZARD GAMER's user avatar

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