Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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sodium gluconate + sodium bicarbonate =?

Can you complete the chemical equation: Sodium gluconate + sodium bicarbonate --> Does potassium bicarbonate yield the same results?
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2answers
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Reduction of ester in presence of ketone group

As there is no ring expansion I'm assuming that a carbocation should not form at ester carbon as it leads to ring expansion. But is there any an exception to it? Also the hint provided along with this ...
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What is the mechanism of this pyrylium synthesis?

In this preparation, http://www.orgsyn.org/Content/pdfs/procedures/CV5P1106.pdf, 2,4,6-trimethylpyrylium perchlorate is prepared from 4 molecules of acetic anhydride and 1 molecule of t-butanol. ...
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Potassium carbonate vs. Potassium hydroxide in Wood Ash

I'm trying to get more concrete information about the chemical process of creating soap from wood ash. What I’m confused about: Many soap-making materials say that you create potassium hydroxide ...
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How to make an aluminumoxide coating on an electrode?

The Questions is above. I am not a chemist but that is what I know: Aluminum has an Oxide Layer normally Aluminum-Oxide Layer can be broken down with NaOH Zink coatings are done by galvanic coating ...
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Old chemical reaction mechanism under quantum chemistry? [closed]

Quite a few old chemical mechanisms are explained via the old atomic models. After the discovery of quantum chemistry, we have a new atomic and molecular theory like MOT. So how do this old mechanism ...
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I am trying to mix ingredients but need to know how they will react to one another [closed]

When mixing ingredients do binding agents cause the active ingredient to loose certain amounts of its potency? and would a filler cause the same thing.
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Which of the following statements is true if HI is formed in the following reaction?

Which of the following statements is true if HI is formed in the following reaction? $$\ce{H2(g) + I2(g) -> 2HI(g)}$$ a. There are no collisions between the reactants in the reaction. ...
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Polar Protic and Aprotic Solvents

I know $\mathrm{S_N2}$ is favored polar aprotic solvents, which means that they may have hydrogens on them somewhere, but they lack $\ce{O-H}$ or $\ce{N-H}$ bonds, and therefore cannot hydrogen bond ...
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2answers
526 views

Coupling of silyl imine and aldehyde

LDA is a strong base and probably deprotonates somewhere which I'm not sure about. It I would to make a guess it would probably be beta to the imine. This is following by nucleophilic attack of the ...
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Will 1-[2-(chloromethyl)phenyl]propan-2-one, follow a Williamson ether synthesis route or, a Diels-Alder reaction?

I was asked to find the product of potassium ethoxide reaction with 1-[2-(chloromethyl)phenyl]propan-2-one (1). I came up with two different paths, each leading to the same product. 1-[2-(...
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intuitive explanation of Wegscheider condition and its violation

The Wegscheider condition restricts the values that rate constants in a set of chemical reactions can take on. can someone please explain intuitively why the condition has to be true, and give a ...
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1answer
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why lithium is less reactive than sodium? [duplicate]

Lithium lies above sodium in a group and is also smaller in size. According to periodic trend reactivity decreases from left to right in period and down the group.
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2answers
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What is the mechanism of the reaction of ethyl prop-2-ynoate to ethyl (2Z)-2,3-dibromoprop-2-enoate?

It's really weird for the product is 99% Z-comformation? Please tell me why? This reaction can be found in scifinder.
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Mechanism of DPD (N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine) reaction with free chlorine

NOTE: As I've been finding new informations about the question, I've been editing the question to keep it up to date. If some comment doesn't make sense just check the Edit History. DPD (N,N-diethyl-...
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Formation of charge carriers in HFCs

In a conductivity cell with a dielectric HFC liquid e.g. R134a (i.e., 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) between two electrodes, when applying a high voltage, how does current flow across the electrodes? Does ...
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1answer
31 views

Synthesis for turning synephrenine into N-methylphenethylamine

I am trying to devise a synthesis to change synephrine (4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenol) into N-methylphenethylamine. I was figuring that I could remove the hydroxyl group attached to the ...
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1answer
265 views
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Understanding Kolomogorov backward equations in active biological systems?

I am trying to understand the following equation from the paper by Wang et al. [1, p. 5 at the SI]: Michaelis–Menten Representation of the Kinesin Cycle We assumed that there is a strong ...
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Aldol Reaction on an intermediate

I was given the following reaction to prove a mechanism for: and I managed to prove the first step with ease. The second step, forming the "base-catalysed aldol" is the part that's rather confusing ...
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Why do certain compounds decompose into constituents on exposure to light in photolytic Decomposition?

Compounds like AgCl, AgBr, H₂O₂... decompose by the process of photolytic decomposition. Kindly explain why these material decompose on exposure to light along with mechanisms and processes.
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Clarification Needed on the usage of dashed lines for bonds

The diagram below has many bonds that are dashes. I'm having hard time understanding it. From what I see I tend to assume the following: There's an aromatic ring. M is metal which may bind to any ...
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1answer
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Grignard alkene on a carbonyl

I was given the following mechanism to prove today post-lecture: and my attempt is given below. Now, when the negative charge on the alkene attacks the carbonyl, the electrons are pushed onto the ...
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2answers
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DNA-Sequencing (detection of the change of pH-value) after emulsion PCR

I have troubles with understanding the exact order of the steps for DNA-sequencing after the Emulsion PCR (EmPCR). The EmPCR fills each bead with the same DNA strand (copies it $n$ times, till the ...
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Book Recommendations for Inorganic Chemistry Mechanisms [duplicate]

I am looking for a book which has details or basics to reaction mechanisms for inorganic chemistry for highschool level(preferably) or maybe undergrad level. Basically I am looking for a book which ...
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1answer
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What happens to copper(II) hydroxide when it's heated? what's inside its decomposition?

So just wondering, copper(II) hydroxide undergoes thermal decomposition when it's heated. But isn't it a solid by itself too? Why does it turn into another solid and water all of a sudden? Can ...
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2answers
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How to dissolve calcium sulfate fast?

I would like to dissolve $\ce{CaSO4}$ in a hardened condition (e.g. gypsum board) as fast as possible. I have seen in posts about $\ce{CaSO3}$ that vinegar and sulfamic acid are able to dissolve it. ...
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How to rationalise the difference in reactivity between alcoholic and aqueous KOH with alkyl bromides? [duplicate]

Why is it that when we use alcoholic $\ce{KOH}$ with say $\ce{R-Br}$, E2 elimination occurs, whereas with aqueous $\ce{KOH}$, SN reaction takes place, as both have the same nucleophile, ie $\ce{OH^-}$?...
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1answer
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Method for removing CuO in an inert environment

Common oxides (i.e., CuO or Al2O3) are capable of removal via NaOH solution. However, I am interested in removing a copper oxide layer inside an inert (Ar glovebox) environment. Thus, the traditional ...
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2answers
634 views

When 2-pentene reacts with HBr, what will be the major product?

If we consider the first step (formation of carbocation by the attack of the proton). A couple of textbooks I referred say that when the substituents on the $\ce{C=C}$ are different, the direction of ...
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Products of Redox Equations [duplicate]

I was just wondering how would you know the products of a redox equation, or if that could even be derived from just knowing the reactants. For example when Potassium permanganate reacts with a ...
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Rationale behind Barton's rules for catalytic hydrogenation

Organic Chemistry by Morrison and Boyd,Seventh Edition says - When cyclohexanones are used as substrates, the stereoselectivity of the reduction is found to be dependent on the acidity or the ...
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1answer
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Whether a combination reaction goes to completion

There is a sentence in my textbook: When a combination reaction results in a gas that is allowed to be released, a precipitate that drops to the bottom of the container, or a nonionizing ...
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1answer
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Preparation of sulfonyl chlorydes and mechanism of preparation of tosyl chloride

After searching about the preparation of sulfonyl chlorides, I couldn't find much. I found that for preparation of tosyl chloride, chlorosulfonic acid can be used, as in: Can chlorosulfonic acid be ...
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1answer
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Mechanism of burning of hydrogen [duplicate]

So I was curious regarding a simple chemical equation : $$\ce{2 H2 + O2 -> 2 H2O}$$ You add heat to the system (i.e fire) and you get water vapor. I'm curious of understanding the mechanism, ...
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2answers
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Rate law of the reaction of propane with oxygen

In class, I have a demonstration where I light a bubble filled with propane. As I add oxygen, the bubbles combust faster and more quickly. I have already balanced out the chemical reaction like so: $$...
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1answer
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Distribution of polymer lengths

Suppose we have a chemical reaction where a linear chain can form (reversibly) from building blocks (e.g. atoms or molecules): $$\ce{X_$i$ + X_$k$ <=>[$k_\mathrm{fwd}$][$k_\mathrm{rev}$] X_$i$...
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1answer
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Role of zinc chloride in reaction of ether

I am trying to do a reaction between acetyl chloride $\ce{CH3COCl}$ with diethyl ether. I know that upon using anhydrous $\ce{ZnCl2}$ and heat, I'll get an ester and an alkyl chloride, but I'm not ...
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What reaction makes sodium silicate harden in CO2

I have looked all over the web, and I can only find information stating that it does happen. I don't doubt that I just can't figure out what is happening. Some sources state that an acid can cause the ...
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Where can I find equilibrium constants for a specific reaction? [duplicate]

I'm doing a project on the production of dap fertilizer, but I can not find a database with kinetics constants(reaction rate constant.) It's based on TVA Process for production of granular diammonium ...
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1answer
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Mechanism of Fritsch–Buttenberg–Wiechell rearrangement

The following reaction was given, which uses potassium t-butoxide. The solution to this problem was given as follows: Step 1 is the attack of strong base, t-butoxide, on the vinyl proton. Step 2 ...
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1answer
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When will acid-base reactions occur before substitution reaction

For example, given the reaction below: The substrate is secondary, the solvent is aprotic and it is to react with a strong bulky base. From this, I assumed that the reaction would be $\ce{E2}$. ...
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Why does the following “Battery” experiment work?

I did the following experiment: Experimental setup: Two electrodes (one made out of Iron,the other made out of Copper) are put into a (bluish) Copper(ii) sulfate lotion. Then, one connect a ...
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1answer
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How does hyperconjugation explain stability of partial positive charges?

Recently I was reading this answer to the question Why does boron add to the less substituted carbon in the hydroboration of an alkene?. See the transition state given in the above answer, and the ...
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2answers
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How would this reaction look like in a potential energy diagram? (SN1 Reaction)

My task is to explain, why molecule A reacts in a SN1-reaction faster than molecule B. (I would do this by comparing their potential energy diagrams) My idea is to have a closer look at the reaction ...
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Does a non-chiral substrate (2-bromo-2-methylpropane) also form two products via an SN1 mechanism?

If I have an alkyl halide, in which its tertiary carbon is non-chiral (for example 2-bromobutane), which reacts via an SN1 mechanism does it also produce 2 products? I am asking because I know that ...
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1answer
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Methyl Orange Indicator-Reason for small amount of NaOH [closed]

I used methyl orange as my indicator to titrate a weak acid: At first, I added 3 drops of methyl orange to a solution of the weak acid, $\ce{CH3COOH}$, and the solution turned red. Then, after ...
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0answers
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Why does the reaction with copper and nitric acid change with concentration? [duplicate]

Depending on the concentration of nitric acid, copper undergoes two distinct reactions. For dilute concentrations of nitric acid, the reaction is $$3\text{Cu}+8\text{HNO}_3\rightarrow 3\text{Cu(NO}_3\...
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Reaction Mechanism with a Rate Determining Step

Just a quick question on how to deal with multiple intermediaries in a proposed reaction mechanism. Here is the overall reaction: $$\ce{I-(aq) + OCl-(aq) -> IO-(aq) + Cl-(aq)}$$ Here is the ...
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First order reaction

I am little bit confuse about relating the half life time period of a first order reaction something like $$\ce{2A -> B + C}$$ Here the rate of reaction will be half of the rate at which $\ce{A}$ ...