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The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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What is the purpose of tetrazole in oligonucleotide synthesis?

The ATDBio book on nucleic acids describes tetrazole as an activator required to couple nucleotides. The diisopropylamino group of the nucleoside phosphoramidite is protonated by the activator, ...
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In ozone addition to alkene, why middle oxygen with formal charge one does not react? [duplicate]

In the addition of ozone to alkene, why c-c double bond breaks to form a bond with O atom( with 0 formal charge), but not to form a bond with O atom (with 1+ formal charge)?
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1answer
21 views

Reaction between HCl and NaHCO3 [duplicate]

I want to know why in the reaction between HCl and NaHCO3, we have CO2 and H2O instead of H2CO3 ?
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1answer
36 views

Why do nonmetal oxides react with water to form acidic compounds? [on hold]

I am confused about the molecular basis by which nonmetal oxides react with water to form acidic compounds. For example, I understand that sulfur trioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid as ...
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13 views

What could cause the reaction between borax and super glue? [on hold]

If you make a borax solution, and squirt very low viscosity super glue into the solution, the glue instantly polymerizes and solidifies into a rather brittle but stiff white solid. I'm writing a ...
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1answer
49 views

Regioselectivity in Diels Alder reaction

Since $\ce{-CN}$ shows strong $\ce{-I}$ effect, there will be $\delta +ve$ charge on the carbon adjacent to it. Similarly, $\ce{-NO2}$ shows strong $\ce{-I}$ and $\ce{-M}$ effects. So I this is my ...
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4 views

Epoxy Resin Systems [closed]

How to formulate an epoxy resin system that only activates by specific temperature? How can I alter the activation temperature?
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21 views

Will the reaction proceed via E1 or E2

1-bromo-4-methylcyclohexane. Will the elimination reaction be E1 or E2 when treated with sodium ethoxide as the base, in ethanol solvent.
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32 views

Why are reactions between alkali metals and water exothermic? [closed]

Why are reactions between alkali metals and water exothermic, if work is required to ionize the metal to turn it into a cation?
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1answer
57 views
+50

Alcohol protection with ethers

Various ethers are used for hydroxyl protection. My question is about their removal. I know that there are various methods but I want to specify on the use of acids. Certain groups are removed easily ...
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12 views

Possibility of a lower-barrier concerted reaction

I am doing computational analysis of a two-step reaction of two molecules merging. The steps are the following: An sp3 carbon of one molecule loses a hydrogen. Dft-level NEB calculation gives me a ...
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2answers
29 views

Acetal Formation Mechanism

In this example, why is there is a ring formation with the attack of the OH from the intermediate itself rather than a continuation of addition? I know my proposed product is wrong, however I just ...
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20 views

Dioxane reaction with hydroiodic acid

My text says that 1,4-dioxane reacts with excess HI and heat to form 2 equivalents of ethyl iodide. No explanation is given as to why this happens. Now if we follow the ether cleavage by strong acid ...
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Please explain the reason why E2 mechanism occurs

I known as that when the weak bases are reacting with 2° alcohol, E1 mechanism occurs. But, in the picture, E2 mechanism is occurred. Why E2 mechanism occurred? In step [3] Weak base : pyridine Did ...
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1answer
105 views

Optimum pH range for formation of Schiff bases

What is the optimum range of pH for the formation of Schiff Bases by the addition of hydroxylamine to an aldehyde or a ketone? According to Peter Sykes' A Guidebook to Mechanisms in Organic Chemistry,...
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2answers
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Aldol condensation in acidic medium

Attempt: I did aldol condensation in acidic medium followed by $\ce{E1cB}$ to get 1,3-diphenylbut-2-enone but the answer given is: I am unable to devise a mechanism to reach the above product from ...
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How to calculate the ammount of gas in a liquid [on hold]

just to start off I'm not a scientist so I apologise if this is the most remedial question. I've had an idea about using a product that is already available for a particular market that reduces the ...
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37 views

How did Zyklon hold and release HCN?

$\ce{HCN}$ is notoriously unstable: It boils at room temperature, and it tends to polymerize when concentrated in unbuffered liquid form. Yet $\ce{HCN}$ was for decades widely used as a fumigant ...
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31 views

Mechanism of oxidation of phenol to quinone by chromium(VI)

In the supplementary information for Org. Lett. 2005, 7 (19), 4297–4300, the following experimental method for the synthesis of 2-bromo-6-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione is given: To a ...
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Are there any known reactions between Anhydrous Ammonia and Lead?

I am looking for a refrigerant for a reactor for direct chilling and Anhydrous Ammonia seems to be the best choice for it, but the current refrigerant is being sent through lead lined/bonded coils and ...
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0answers
18 views

Reaction mechanism/rate law for acid-base reactions

What would the reaction mechanism/rate law of an acid-base reaction look like? It could probably be done experimentally, but is there information about the reactions somewhere? From brief research, ...
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1answer
57 views

Possible mechanism for thermal decomposition of potassium permangante

Recently, I came across this reaction: I was wondering if there is any logical way to propose a mechanism for this, preferably an arrow-pushing one?
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1answer
72 views

Why cyclohexane-1,4-dicarbaldehyde does not give aldol condensation?

I was recently came to know as a fact that cyclohexane-1,4-dicarbaldehyde does not give the aldol condensation reaction in spite of possessing α-hydrogens. I was told that this is due to steric ...
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1answer
33 views

Soda mixed with lemon juice [closed]

I mixed 1 tbsp of soda and 1 squeeze of lemon juice in a glass. There was strong reaction with a lot of foam. What caused such a reaction?
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Does alkali metal salts of poly carboxylic polymer have less reactivity than hydrogen forms?

Does the metal-cation bond in sodium hyaluronan make the carboxyl group less reactive than the hydrogen form in hyaluronic acid? I am researching HA coatings for microfluidic surfaces and in ...
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1answer
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Stability order of methy benzyl cations?

I know that meta position shown no resonance effect and hyperconjugation effect . So According to the order given I guess Hyperconjugating effect is taken into account as -CH3 has no Resonance effects....
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Mesomeric vs Resonance effect? [duplicate]

Is there any actual difference between mesomeric and resonance effect ? Most of the books I have show that both of them are same , only in one description it said that - Mesomeric effect only ...
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1answer
40 views

Oxymercuration demercuration, PCC, NaCN/HCl reaction

In this reaction of the alkene, the correct answer is below but I don't understand why it goes to that. This is my thought process - reagents 1 and 2 do oxymercuration demercuration and makes a ...
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Major product of isomerization reaction

I am trying to come up with a logical mechanism for the following transformation, where 2-methylenecyclobutan-1-ol is converted to cyclopentanone under acidic conditions: What I have tried to do was ...
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Reversing a reaction [duplicate]

It is well know that if one put HCl and NaOH togeter one get at the end water and common salt. What I have to do in order to reverse the reaction? I suppose that one have to add energy to the reaction ...
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23 views

Easiest way to detect Hexavalent Chromium?

I'd like to know about the spot test method to determine traces of hexavalent chromium present in the treated Industrial trade effluent of chrome plating industry
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42 views

Selectivity of aldol in base catalysed medium

Now this question has troubled me for quite some time. I know about the reason B is formed in acid catalysed medium. But why is A major in base catalysed medium? According to me with weak bases like $...
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47 views

Observed activation energy of parallel and sequential reactions

I saw this sentence in a test: Observed activation energy, $E_\mathrm{obs}$, increases with increasing temperature for parallel reactions and decreases with increasing temperature for sequential ...
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1answer
29 views

Can we interpret the “extent of reaction” as the number of reactions that happened?

Consider this reaction: $$\ce{\alpha\ A + \beta\ B -> \omega\ C + \delta\ D}$$ Where $\ce A$ and $\ce B$ are the reactants, $\ce C$ and $\ce D$ are the products, and $ \alpha, \beta, \omega, \...
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How to identify whether an electrophile will attack benzene ring when a deactivating group is attached to it?

I was asked to find out the major product formed when this molecule is subjected to nitration using $\ce{HNO3/H2SO4}$ mixture Here $\ce{NO2+}$ will be the electrophile. Lets call the benzene ring ...
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Reaction of phoshorus pentasulfide with ethers

Why does phosphorous pentasulfide on reaction with ethers give dialkyl sulfides? I searched for this reaction in my organic chemistry reference books and the internet but couldn't find it. What is ...
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1answer
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What is “mechanistic duality”?

I am doing a general overview of different kinds of dualities present in science. I am quite well versed with the dualities in physics and mathematics. I was searching for dualities in chemistry, ...
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Electrophilic addition of IBr to alkene

I would assume options A and B are possible products due to the $\ce{I+}$ electrophile attacking the alkene, and hence are ruled out. However, I am torn between options C and D. Both products are ...
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Show that this mechanism is consistent with the rate law - how to?

The problem is from Principles of general chemistry, 2nd edition by Silverberg, chapter 16 problem no.81: "Even when a mechanism is consistent with the rate law, later work may show it to be ...
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1answer
50 views

Why can't terminal alkynes take part in Birch reduction?

According to my book terminal alkynes are not observed in Birch reduction.Why is this so? The only property I know about them is that they are slightly acidic. Does this have something to do with it? ...
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Why can't a quaternary carbon product be obtained by alkane isomerization in presence of AlCl3 and HCl?

This question actually deals with the reaction in another question: Isomerisation of alkanes under Lewis acidic conditions. I have a further doubt, regarding this reaction my book says that a ...
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1answer
30 views

Formation of (Gamma) Methylparaconic acid

I came across this question recently, I tried to devise a mechanism but I'm struck here, My try - Moreover, I think my mechanism is somewhat inefficient because of formation of some byproducts, ...
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1answer
108 views

What is the mechanism of alkane combustion?

I understand that combustion of hydrocarbons (such as alkanes) produces energy by breaking bonds: $$\ce{C_nH_{2n} + $\frac{3n}{2}$ O2 -> nCO2 + n H2O}$$ And I can find dozens of explanations of ...
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How does Boudouard reaction influence the temperature?

I've a question that is giving me a lot of troubles: I'm depositing and gasifying Carbon by varying a flow rate of $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{CO2}$ and by using the Boudouard reaction ($\ce{2CO -> C + CO}$)...
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Do Sodium Alkynides react with esters in the same way that Grignard reagents do?

We know that Sodium alkynides react with aldehydes and ketones like Grignard reagents. But do they behave the same way with esters?
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1answer
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Organic chemistry. how to control the Friedel–Crafts alkylation rection to methylbenzene as the major product?

My question is due to a discrepancy I founnd in reactivity and organic conversions. In reactivity of organic compounds it has been established that an alkyl group activates the benzene ring and hence ...
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1answer
74 views

The reaction of iron with sulfur to produce Iron(II) sulfide is inconvenient (for me)

I am taking a lot of iron properties this semester, but I have found some contradicting piece of information about the reaction of iron with nonmetals illustrated with two cases \begin{align}\ce{ **...
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HOCl + ethyne reaction-hypochlorous acid with acetylene

What is the product of acetylene ($\ce{C2H2}$) and hypochlorous acid ($\ce{HOCl}$) reaction? I gathered that $\ce{Cl}$ acts as electrophile and so $\ce{HOCH=CHCl}$ is formed. Now two things can ...
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2answers
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Fischer-Speier Esterification: Sulfuric acid removal following creation of ester

I'm a beginning chemistry student, and I was wondering what the best way of removing sulfuric acid was following the creation of benzyl acetate. So far, I have that benzyl alcohol and glacial acetic ...
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1answer
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What side reactions are suppressed by the use of TMSCl in the acyloin condensation?

I was reading about the acyloin condensation and came across a statemant according to which, the use of TMSCl obviates competing reactions. My question is what kind of competing reaction would happen ...