Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Mechanism of acid-catalyzed Robinson annulation?

My professor posed my organic chemistry class a challenge problem for bonus points and I've been racking my brain over the last three days trying to work it out and I want to know if my solution is ...
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What is the chemical equation for phytate breakdown? [closed]

Need some confirmation on this one. I’ve looked up papers and believe I have a grasp on it, but I am getting variation in the equation with different reactions being shown and I could use some help ...
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How to draw a reaction coordinate diagram for SN1 mechanism?

How would you draw a reaction coordinate diagram for an SN1 mechanism with the following conditions? each step in the mechanism (there are 2 steps) is favorable the second step of the mechanism is ...
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How to find out equivalent to about 2 mg of sodium in sodium metabisulphite? [closed]

How to find out equivalent to 2mg of sodium in sodium metabisulphite? Please help to find out this problem.
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In what case would water attack the least substituted carbon in an oxymercuration–demercuration reaction?

I understand that oxymercuration–demercuration is textbook Markovnikov. However, in a case like this, where the $\ce{OH}$ is formed on the least substituted carbon (secondary) rather than the most ...
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What happens if you use quaternary ammonium compounds to clean a cast iron weight plate and then rinse it out with water and soap afterwards? [closed]

I used a Clorox Disinfecting wipe to clean a dirty old iron plate I found in my garage. It got super sticky afterwards, so I went to rinse it off with soap and water before I wiped it dry. What ...
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Reaction mechanism involving nitration and the addition of a base [closed]

I know the first reaction is likely a nitration with nitrite at the ortho position, but I can't figure out what comes next with the base.
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1answer
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Reaction of Alkane RCOOH with KOH [closed]

The question is as follows: As much as 4.4 g of organic acid RCOOH is precisely neutralized by 200mL KOH 0.125 M.The molecular formula for the organic acid and the name of the acid compound with one ...
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Prevention of sulphur oxidation [closed]

Assuming an unavoidable situation of an object being heated/burned that contains a lot sulfur, is there a chemical that could be applied that would specifically stop the sulfur oxidizing or at least ...
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How to choose a nucleophile [closed]

In a nucleophilic reaction $C(CH_3)_3Cl$+$ROH$ I found there could be possible 2 products of the reaction wach depending upon how $ROH$ breaks . R represents alkyl group if it breaks as OR- tye ...
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How does the Benedicts Test work? [duplicate]

What exactly is the mechanism by which Benedict’s test works for reducing sugars? As I understand it the free hemiacetal groups on reducing sugars opens up and an aldehyde is formed, this is then ...
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1answer
46 views

Why would the following reaction not proceed through SN2 reaction? [closed]

I made a guess that the OH- group cannot do a backside attack on the carbon because the C double bond with O and the 5 carbon ring may act as steric hindrance and prevent it from forming a bond but I'...
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What is the mechanism of amination of aryl halide using cuprous oxide catalyst? [closed]

The simplified version of the reaction is $$\ce{Ph-Cl + 2 NH3 + Cu2O ->[\pu{200 °C}, \pu{150 atm}] Ph-NH2 + CuCl2 + H2O}.$$ I want to know its mechanism and the role of copper catalysis, and also ...
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How come the reaction with glycerol and formic acid to form glycerol formates is not as probable as with acetic acid to yield glycerol acetates

I come across various literature when searching for the esterification reaction between glycerol and acetic acid to yield three glycerol acetates as in the image below. Essentially, each OH- group of ...
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1answer
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About spontaneous combustion of methane

I heard that spontaneous reaction happens if $\Delta G=\Delta H-T\Delta S$ is negative. For combustion of methane, according to Chemguide: $\Delta H=\pu{-891.1 kJ K^{-1} mol^{-1}}$ $\Delta S=\pu{-0....
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Extracting the exact equation of the evolution of a second order rate elementary reaction

let $A,B,C,D$ be chemical elements, such as $A$ and $B$ are the reactants and $C$ and $D$ are the products. Let their coefficients be $\alpha,\beta,\gamma,\delta$ such as $$\alpha A+\beta B \...
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1answer
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Resonance involving carbanion

Suppose a carbanion is involved in resonance and thus its electrons conjugate with unhybridised p orbital of the nearby sp2 hybridised carbon and a pi bond is formed. Since carbanions are sp3 ...
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Modeling activation energy function

I'm quite new to the field, and actually am a mathematician. I was wondering if there is a way to model (find the equation of) the reaction progress (more specifically, the activation energy functions)...
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Inputting liquid species in chemkin pro

I have been trying to model various species decomposition/combustion in Chemkin Pro. Chemkin only lets you to allow to input gas phase and surface site solid species in your input files, but I have ...
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1answer
48 views

Understanding transition state theory

Let's say we have standard chemical reaction given by $$A-B + C \leftrightharpoons [A\cdot\cdot B\cdot\cdot C]^{\dagger} \rightarrow A +B-C$$ I want to estimate the pre-exponential factor of this ...
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1answer
64 views

Intramolecular Claisen-Condensation [closed]

My task was to do an intramolecular Claisen condensation with this molecule. I already draw the product to the reaction, but I'm not sure, if I did it right. Could anyone help me out or confirm the ...
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2answers
137 views

Why is density of chloroform greater than water? [closed]

Hydrocarbons (i.e., molecules containing carbon and hydrogen only) are generally less dense than water. Yet chloroform, which is a halogenated hydrocarbon, is more dense. Why is this? I know water ...
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Mechanism for oxidative workup of ozonide

Oxidative workup of ozonide produces ketone (in case both the substituents of carbon are alkyl groups) or carboxylic acid (in case one of the substituents is hydrogen), depending on the alkene. I have ...
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Major product of Crossed-Cannizzaro Reaction between benzaldehyde and formaldehyde [duplicate]

I came across a question: Predict the major product when conc. $\ce{NaOH}$ is added to a mixture of $\ce{PhCHO}$ and $\ce{HCHO}$. According to me, as $\ce{HCHO}$ is less hindered and $\ce{>C=O}$ ...
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Oxygen depriving gas/compound

A scene from the movie TENET made me think of a question. In the scene a gas is released into a room that is filled with precious artwork. The gas is used to rid of all oxygen in the room so fire ...
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1answer
84 views

Retrosynthesis suggestion [closed]

Am I even close to solve this problem or it is a complete disaster?
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1answer
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Hydrogen and Hydrogen ion

Is it correct that a hydrogen atom only has 1 electron and 1 proton since the atomic mass is 1? Also, is the hydrogen ion composed of a single proton and no electrons? In an ionization process we know ...
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2answers
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Real life examples of chemical reactions [closed]

For my upcoming lab report, I want to look at exactly how a simple variable, such as heat or surface area, affects a reaction. But I'm having trouble finding a reaction to test this on, as my results ...
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1answer
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Organic chem mechanism [closed]

I don’t understand how the reaction produces this product. In the starting material, there is an $\ce{-OH}$ group attached to carbon 5 but where did the $\ce{-OH}$ group go in the product?
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1answer
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Finding reactants in a azo-coupling reaction whose product is given [closed]

Find the reactants of the following azo-coupling reaction: My solution would look like this: My reason for the above answer The amino Group is more activating than the nitro group and therefore the ...
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Mechanism of reaction of alcohol with NaBr + H2SO4

My teacher told that the mechanism for reaction of alcohol with $\ce{NaBr + H2SO4}$ follows SN1 when alcohol is 2°/3° and SN2 when it is primary or methanol. He told that the reactivity of alcohol ...
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1answer
69 views

How does Al-Hg react with carbonyl in presence of concentrated HCl?

In Clemmensen reduction, $\ce{Zn-Hg}$/ $\ce{ conc. HCl}$ reduces the carbonyl $\ce{>C=O}$ to $\ce{>CH2}$, by the following mechanism(?): What happens to the carbonyl group if we replace Zinc ...
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1answer
68 views

Mechanism of reaction of benzenediazonium chloride with ethanol to form benzene and acetaldehyde

In my textbook, all that was told was that ethanol is a mild reducing agent and hence reduces BDC while oxidising itself. Is there any mechanism or am I just supposed to remember this like a redox ...
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3answers
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Isomerization reaction involving carboxylic acid derivatives

I have tried searching for what type of organic reaction this is in my textbooks and ended up with nothing. Thus, I could not fully understand and refer to the mechanisms that the solution has ...
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2answers
209 views

Étard Reaction of Ethylbenzene

What is the major product when the following compound undergoes Étard reaction? Is it acetophenone or a terminal aldehyde. The mechanism discussed in Mechanism for an Étard reaction (chromium complex)...
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The main difference between using AlCl3 and FeCl3 in Friedel-Crafts alkylation

What is the main difference between using $\ce{AlCl3}$ and $\ce{FeCl3}$ in Friedel-Crafts alkylation? Is that $\ce{FeCl3}$ disfavors carbocation rearrangement in Friedel-Crafts alkylation?
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Meaning of Partial Half-Life for Two Parallel Reactions

Consider two parallel reactions: $$\ce{A -> B }\tag1$$ and $$\ce{A -> C}\tag2$$ What is the meaning of partial half life of the equation $(1)$ and that of equation $(2)$ with respect to ...
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Aldol Condensation Product selection

It is known that the enol form double bond tends to attack the electrophilic carbon centre in an aldol reaction. But what will be the majour product in this reaction. The latter one may be enol attack ...
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1answer
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How to Choose if a reaction will go elimination of substitution? [closed]

I want to know how to choose if a given reaction will prefer going substitution mechanism or elimination mechanism.Both elimination and substitution reactions have types like Sn1 ,Sn2 ,SnNGP,Sni and ...
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1answer
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Aromatisation of a ring which includes nitrogen

Question Complete the following reaction sequence: Answer My solution I was able to complete all the steps except for the last one. This is what I ended up with: What I'm not getting is how the $\...
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How is elimination reaction (E1) possible without base and in presence of acid?

When learning about E1 we were taught that three things are important factors to judge if the reaction is E1 or E2 Substrate ( 3,2,1 favours E2 but only 3 favours E1 ) Base ( Stronger Base favours E2 ...
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Formation of methane using Kolbe's electrolysis reaction

I have read in my book that methane cannot be formed using Kolbe's reaction (mechanism — Organic Chemistry Portal). And honestly, I kinda think I get where they are coming from: that two radicals are ...
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Why can't methyl glycosides mutarotate?

I found this link trying to explain it: Why pyranosides do not mutarotate? however, I don't understand a step of the reasoning. Why is it that acetalisation needs a stronger acid than for hemi-...
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1answer
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What mechanism is this? [closed]

I was solving problems in Organic Chemistry related to Substitution and Elimination. This was a question asked in JEE 2019 This was the solution for above. At last of solution, It has been mentioned ...
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1answer
66 views

How are diazonium salts prepared without self coupling

While preparing diazonium salts, what prevents the freshly formed diazonium salt from reacting with the still unreacted amines left in the solution and perform diazo coupling? If this happened then ...
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2answers
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Inconsistency in Elementary Bi-Molecular Reaction Rate Expressions

Assume the following bi-molecular reaction is elementary as written with rate constant $k_\mathrm{f}$: $$\ce{A + A -> P}$$ This review, suggests to express the rate in terms of the production of ...
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Comparing nucleophilicity of oxygen and nitrogen in acetylation of 4-aminophenol

Here, the answer has $\ce{N}$ acting as a nucleophile making the answer (C). I thought that $\ce{O}$ would be more nucleophilic, considering the fact that $\ce{O}$ has two lone pairs, one in ...
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Why can't Grignard reagents react like Organolithium does (with acids)?

I'd read yesterday that Grignard reagents can't give ketones on reaction with carboxylic acids. It is because of the fact that Grignard reagent is a "super-base", and it will deprotonate the ...
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1answer
123 views

How to determine rate law for a reaction?

I am having trouble understanding this problem. A proposed mechanism for the decomposition of $\ce{N2O5}$ is as follows \begin{align} \ce{N2O5 &->[$k_1$]NO2 + NO3} &&\text{(...
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Reaction of a cyclic tertiary alcohol with chromic acid

We know that $\ce{H2CrO4}$ cannot oxidize tertiary alcohols. The mechanism is: Now the ${\alpha}$ carbon does not have any hydrogen to proceed to next step. Therefore, this reaction would not occur. ...

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