Questions tagged [solvents]

A liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature.

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31 views

Waste management of hazardous solvents

How should one safely dispose of chemicals like dichloromethane, toluene or acetone that were mixed with water? Is the water contaminated to a degree that it needs also treatment? For example ...
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Why do gases generally dissolve better in cold water, while solids dissolve better in hot water? [closed]

I have noticed this since I was a little kid, yet have never come across a satisfactory answer....
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By what chemical process does shellac in alcohol degrade over time?

It is well established that shellac dissolved in alcohol ('liquid shellac') has a limited shelf life. The actual shelf life is highly variable, depending on the source, manufacture, storage. But after ...
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Reaction of 3-chloro-2,2-dimethylbutane with sodium ethanolate in EtOH, which mechanism?

When we let 3-chloro-2,2-dimethylbutane react with sodium ethanolate in EtOH, which reaction do we expect? SN2, E2, E1 or SN1? I would say it's an SN2 reaction because ethanolate is not that strong of ...
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How much solvent do you add for a 1:20 dilution, and why is it called 1 to 20? [closed]

A 1:20 dilution implies that you take 1 part of stock solution and add 19 parts of water to get a total volume of diluted solution equal to 20 times that of the stock solution So is ...
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How do dielectric molecules in a liquid phase align when polarized?

As seen in the diagram, when a dielectric material becomes electrically polarized, the molecules align themselves in a manner where the respective charges are parallel to each other horizontally. ...
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Why can covalent compounds dissolve in organic solvents? [closed]

Why can covalent compounds dissolve in organic solvents? I researched about it a little and I found an article which said: "Mostly all organic compounds are non-polar in nature. Also, covalent ...
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Is there a easy way to estimate how quickly something will dissolve depending on its surface area?

How exactly does the surface area of a solid for example a cube of sugar, affect the speed of its solvation. I guess everyone has observed that a batch of fine grounded sugar or salt dissolves much ...
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2-Iodoxybenzoic acid oxidation reaction

I was thinking about using 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid to selectively oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes. I've found papers using various solvents like acetone/water mixture1, 2-methyl-2-propanol2, DMSO ...
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Why do different products form when alkali halide reacts with zinc in polar protic and aprotic solvents?

Let's take an alkali halide such as $\ce{CH3CH2Cl}$ the two reactions in polar protic and aprotic solvents are as follows: $$ \begin{align} \ce{CH3CH2Cl &->[Zn, CH3OH] CH3CH3}\tag{R1} \\ \ce{...
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Miscibility gap of heptane-methanol mixture

To explain my question a bit better: I added heptane and methanol together in equal ratios (1:1) and observed a separation in phase where there appeared to be an oily layer sitting on top of the other ...
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Why is oil solubility improved in solvents at higher temperatures?

This is in the case of extracting plant oil using a solvent extraction method for the purposes of biodiesel production. In a paper, it is stated that increased oil yield may be due to the 'increase in ...
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In solvent extraction from plant cells, what is the static organic solvent film formed?

I am researching the mechanisms behind solvent extraction of oil from microalgal cells, and it is stated in one paper that in the process of transferring the lipid out of the cell, the solvent-lipid ...
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Why do polar solvents seem to be of lesser viscosity than non-polar ones? [closed]

For instance, in Russian there is an adjective "oily", which means a liquid of high viscosity. Is this assertion even true in general or statistically?
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How to model a molecule of benzene surrounded by 100 molecules of water with molecular dynamics?

I have experience calculating molecular properties (mostly DFT). However, I would like to spend some time on molecular dynamics methods. I would like to ask your advice to direct me towards a program ...
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How can the activity of ions be more than 1 if the activity of water is 1?

Now, I am quoting Chemlibretexts when they give the activity coefficient of $\ce{LiCl}$ to be $\pu{1.026}$ at the molality of $\pu{2.5 mol kg-1}$ For simplicity, assuming this is aqueous, I'll just ...
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In an equilibrium with solvent in reaction, when we want to determine the reaction direction, do we account for the 55.6 mol/L of water? [duplicate]

Usually when we calculate the equilibrium of a reaction with a solvent, the solvent is ignored whether it is a reactant or a product. For example when $$\ce{CH3COOH +C2H5OH <=> CH3COOC2H5 +H2O}$$...
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Salt solubility and solvent dissociation

A textbook, describing a qualitative test for the $\ce{Al^3+}$ cation in which you use $\ce{NH4Cl}$ and $\ce{NH4OH}$ to precipitate $\ce{Al(OH)3}$, mentioned that the solubility of this precipitate ...
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66 views

Hydration vs Dissolution

While revising Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry from revision material published by Arihant publications I encountered the following mentioned statement. During dissolution, the physical state of ...
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224 views

Finding mass percent through molality of potassium nitrate solution

Question An aqueous $\ce{KNO3}$ solution has a molality of $\pu{4.16 m}$ and a density of $\pu{1.08 g/mL}$. Calculate the percentage by mass $\ce{KNO3}$ of the solution. My Approach I know that ...
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Are there any tests which distinguish between triglycerides and polar lipids/impurities that can be conducted in a high school setting?

I am currently writing a research essay about using a mixed polar (methanol) and non-polar (heptane) solvent system to extract oil from mango seed kernels. One of the difficulties of using polar ...
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Calculation of concentration at equilibrium for extraction

The equation for equilibrium of solvent-solvent extraction is: $$\ce{PhOH(toluene) <=> PhOH (aq)}$$ An aqueous solution contain $\pu{1.5 \times 10^{-2} M}$ phenol and is shaken with the same ...
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Why is isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) used in rubbing alcohol instead of 'regular' propanol?

Is isopropanol (or 2-propanol) a better solvent than ordinary propanol (or n-propanol, or 1-propanol)? This is strongly implied, from what I have read, but I can't seem to find a place that distinctly ...
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Will the amount of solute change if the solution evaporates? Will the solvent carry the solute with it if it evaporates?

If a solution of dissolved metals in aqua regia is heated in an open container and left to dry overnight, will the dissolved metal ions be carried by the evaporated solution or will it stay in the ...
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443 views

How to prepare a 10% alcoholic KOH solution? [closed]

I am confused actually. A 10% alcoholic KOH solution means that there is 10g of KOH in 100 ml of ethanol, or 10g KOH in 100 g of ethanol or something entirely different? Also, I understand that the ...
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Confusion on the Finkelstein reaction(AKA halogen exhange reaction)

So in the Finkelstein reaction, the iodide ion is supposed to replace another halogen(say chlorine) through SN2 mechanism. But here, Acetone is used, which is a polar aprotic solvent. And in acetone, ...
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Advice for a good solvent for fragrance

Hi any suggestions for a solvent for aroma oils, that has low evaporation and high diffusivity (low molecular weight and hence spreads well in the air). The solvent should also be soluble in water and ...
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When does Alcohol act as Solvent and as a Nucleophile?

I was recently solving problems related to Alcohol. and its solution is My doubt is why methanol act as a nucleophile here and when does alcohol acts as a nucleophile and as a Solvent?
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Chemical to dissolve rubber/latex glove

I seem to have a drain pipe in my flat blocked by what seems to be a latex/rubber glove. I am unable to pull it out — is there a chemical that can reliably dissolve the glove and at the same time not ...
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97 views

What can be used as substitute to dichloromethane for breaking optical cement bonds?

An optics supply company recommends using a dichloromethane solution to break bonds between optical elements joined with its UV-cured optical cement.1 The page mentions that dichloromethane-based ...
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When titrating to find the concentration of a dissolved acid, does the volume of solvent matter?

I am conducting a titration to find the mass of aspirin present in tablets. I will be dissolving the aspirin tablet into a solution of ethanol and distilled water to dissolve it. But, does the volume ...
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What is the mechanism of endothermic dissolution?

My real question is in fact "How can dissolution happen if it's endothermic?" However, there have been many questions regarding this exact topic and the answers about Gibbs free energy ...
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Can you make n-Hexane a supercritical fluid? [closed]

When making aerogel using supercritical fluids the liquid in the gel is replaced by a gas. Can this be achieved using n-Hexane as the supercritical fluid? What would the resulting gas be? Would it be ...
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"Nivea Sun protect & refresh" melted my tub

I stupidly applied spray sunscreen on my children inside our white, acrylic bathtub and the floor ended up with a white, very sticky residue that rubs off on things, but will not wash away with ...
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Permanent ink from urethane, 99% IPA, and pigment?

I’m an artist and I started working with recycled plastic bottles as a material recently. I want to paint the plastic and retain its transparency, but acrylic paint won’t stick without priming and ...
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Performing an SN1 reaction in a polar aprotic solvent

Straightforward question What would be the outcome of having an SN1 reaction carried out in a polar aprotic solvent? I have found this question approached scarcely and with unsatisfactory answers. ...
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In what solvents does ionic association occur?

When a ionic compound like $\ce{NaCl}$ dissolves, it doesn't always full dissociate due to ionic pairing. This is measured by the van 't Hoff factor. Now, this is what I'm looking at for my chem ...
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Polar protic solvents with melting point between between 0 °C and 25 °C [closed]

Need a solvent for a freezing point depression experiment. Acetic acid is the only one I know of, but it is not ideal due to the low freezing point depression constant. Any suggestions?
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Powdered Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether [closed]

Entrepreneur here, background in electronics, so thank you in advance for your patience with me. Question: Is Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether available as a powder? If not, is there a powdered ...
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Pyridine: Protic or Aprotic

I know pyridine is a polar aprotic solvent (owing to a permanent dipole generated), but if acidified it forms pyridinium cation. So, does it then function as polar protic solvent?
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Controlled burn with colored flames (Gender Reveal) [closed]

Is there a single solvent that can dissolve chemicals/elements that when burned, will produce the color of its respective chemical/element? If so, what chemical/element can be dissolved in this ...
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Choise of solvent for extraction

In the synthesis of (S)-Diphenyl(pyrrolidine-2yl)methanol, I need to extract the product using an organic solvent and water. Which organic solvent is the most suitable in this case? Ethyl acetate: I ...
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What is the enthalpy change of solution of oxygen and water? [closed]

What is the enthalpy change of solution of oxygen dissolved into water?
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Plasticisers and other impurities from polyethylene laboratory bottles?

Does polyethylene (PE), widely used for wash/squirt bottles in labs, contain soluble compounds such as plasticizers that can accumulate in organic solvents (e.g. alcohols, acetone) after prolonged ...
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How do you separate microcrystalline cellulose from amino acids in a powder mixture?

I am looking to separate out the microcrystalline cellulose that has been mixed in with amino acids in a powder mixture. I have tried suspending the powder mixture in water and then filtering out the ...
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Leaving group ability and solvent's effect

Regarding leaving groups and solvent effects (SN1 and SN2 reactions), I would like to ask some questions. As the nucleophilic character is also influenced by the solvents, there is some indication (to ...
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Will toluene vapors damage a mirror made from PETG?

I'm working on a project for work and trying to avoid using an acrylic mirror because I know that doesn't hold up well against toluene, but I'm wondering if a mirror made out of PETG would?
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Can a solvent be a solid?

Can a solvent be a solid? I do not think so. But is it possible for a solvent to be a solid?
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Determining solvent and solute [closed]

On which conditions does determining solvent depend on? 1. the higher boiling indicates the solvent the material with the higher concentration is the solvent the solvent is kept first in a pot. ...
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Can a solvent be a gas?

A solvent is an element which dissolves something, basically the solute. Normally, all the solvents we encounter are in liquid phase. So, I was wondering if there could be any solvent in a gaseous ...

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