Questions tagged [solvents]

A liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature.

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Is liquid carbon tetraflouride a good solvent? [closed]

At temperatures of of -180 to -130 Celcius, where carbon tetraflouride is in a liquid state, is it a good solvent?
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Will the amount of the salute needed to produce a saturated solution be the same for different solutes [closed]

this type of question is a question in natural science and technology subject. It's about solvents solutes particles soluble and Solutions (as in a mixture).
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My NMP is developing a color

I got an aqueous Mother liquor of NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) from some reaction I was running and when I redistilled it under vacuum, it came out colorless but turned yellow the next day. I am ...
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Is there an acid (or other solvent) that dissolves nickel but not brass?

Preferrably one that is common or easy to make using common chemicals. My application is to remove nickel plating from brass parts. Right now the best solution I have is to scrape and chip it off, but ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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What solvent dissolves calcium nitrate but not ammonium nitrate?

I am experimenting with a precipitation reaction between ammonium sulfate solution and calcium nitrate. Calcium sulfate precipitates and can be filtered out easily. I am wondering if there's a way I ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What factors influence the upper size limit of micelle's?

Is there an inherent size at which micelle's cannot grow larger in volume? I have been trying to find a quantifiable method of measuring a size limit with all the variables that affect micelle ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Why is instant coffee powder not as dark as the coffee resulting from it?

Instant coffee granules generally are of a light brown colour, while coffee made from it is a deep black. Pigments are far more concentrated in the dry form, to add water is to dilute them. Still, ...
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Isopropyl Alcohol Resistant Paint

Which paint binders are most resilient to IPA? Background: I'm looking for an IPA-resistant spray paint to coat a 3D printed model composed of a high-performance stereolithography resin MSDS. "...
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What should be done to decrease the pressure of the HPLC column?

After using an HPLC (C18) Column for several times, now it doesn't do what it has to do, when ever we want to do a research by a substance, the machine shows a every high pressure on the column and ...
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1 answer
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Is acetone an effective solvent for bitumen?

Japanning is an age old process of protecting metal surfaces by applying several successive layers of a syrup-like black coating and then baking it to a hard and durable finish. It was often applied ...
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Which single parameter can tell about the absolute as well as relative position of a solvent wrt a specific polymer in Hansen Space?

I am trying to represent solutions of a specific polymer (let's say PVDF) dissolved in various solvents using a single parameter. By various solvents I mean single solvent (e.g. DMF) or solvent blends ...
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Overtreatment of vintage rubber parts with Wintergreen oil

I have read in many places that treating old rubber parts with wintergreen (methyl salicylate) will soften the rubber again. The method I chose was on this website . I have seen many ways to do the ...
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Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA): Solubility in ethanol

How much CBGA and CBDA can be dissolved in a given amount of ethanol at room temperature? I did a bit of research but could not find any source on solubility of these substances in ethanol. For ...
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Relationship of oxygen dissolved in water with bubble time and temperature

I'm using the Winkler method to calculate oxygen dissolved in water. This is at the temperatures 20, 30, 40, and $\pu{50 ^\circ{}C}$ and I bubbled a controlled amount of oxygen in through the reaction ...
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Optimal lipophilic solvent for washing PEEK-lined reversed-phase HPLC columns

What would be the reasonable strategy for washing a reversed-phase (RP) octadecylsilyl (ODS) C18 HPLC columns from lipids and other non-polar residues? The columns are used for biochemical analysis of ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Are there any cold temperature reactions in liquid where ice forms as a precipitate?

The title asks the entire question, but I'll elaborate: Precipitates form in aqueous reactions when some product is insoluble in water. Is there a reaction in some other solvent where solid water ...
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Organic solvent that won’t attack either PET or butyl rubber?

I am looking for a suitable organic solvent for dissolving dried-on polyurethane adhesive on a substrate of nylon/butyl/polyester. Acetone is ruled out because it attacks polyester (PET) and Toluene ...
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Solvent choice in imine formation from quercetin and poly(allylamine)

I am trying to react quercetin and poly(allylamine) to form imine on the repeating units. Poly(allylamine) is dissolved in water. The problem is the choice of solvent. Poly(allylamine) is soluble in ...
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Total number of Isomers of [Co(NH3)5(NO2)](NO3)2 [closed]

I encountered this question in my country's Chemistry textbook of class 12. No solutions are published, but the answer given at the back states - "There are 10 possible isomers. (Hint: There are ...
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2 votes
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DEG monobutyl ether pH change

We are using DEG monobutyl ether (CAS 112-34-5) in our production. Normally it is pH neutral, however suddenly we noticed that it has shifted to being acidic (pH=3.4). What has changed in the material?...
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Waste management of hazardous solvents

How should one safely dispose of chemicals like dichloromethane, toluene or acetone that were mixed with water? Is the water contaminated to a degree that it needs also treatment? For example ...
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By what chemical process does shellac in alcohol degrade over time?

It is well established that shellac dissolved in alcohol ('liquid shellac') has a limited shelf life. The actual shelf life is highly variable, depending on the source, manufacture, storage. But after ...
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Reaction of 3-chloro-2,2-dimethylbutane with sodium ethanolate in EtOH, which mechanism?

When we let 3-chloro-2,2-dimethylbutane react with sodium ethanolate in EtOH, which reaction do we expect? SN2, E2, E1 or SN1? I would say it's an SN2 reaction because ethanolate is not that strong of ...
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1 answer
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How much solvent do you add for a 1:20 dilution, and why is it called 1 to 20? [closed]

A 1:20 dilution implies that you take 1 part of stock solution and add 19 parts of water to get a total volume of diluted solution equal to 20 times that of the stock solution So is ...
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How do dielectric molecules in a liquid phase align when polarized?

As seen in the diagram, when a dielectric material becomes electrically polarized, the molecules align themselves in a manner where the respective charges are parallel to each other horizontally. ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Why can covalent compounds dissolve in organic solvents? [closed]

Why can covalent compounds dissolve in organic solvents? I researched about it a little and I found an article which said: "Mostly all organic compounds are non-polar in nature. Also, covalent ...
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1 vote
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Is there a easy way to estimate how quickly something will dissolve depending on its surface area?

How exactly does the surface area of a solid for example a cube of sugar, affect the speed of its solvation. I guess everyone has observed that a batch of fine grounded sugar or salt dissolves much ...
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4 votes
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2-Iodoxybenzoic acid oxidation reaction

I was thinking about using 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid to selectively oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes. I've found papers using various solvents like acetone/water mixture1, 2-methyl-2-propanol2, DMSO ...
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Why do different products form when alkali halide reacts with zinc in polar protic and aprotic solvents?

Let's take an alkali halide such as $\ce{CH3CH2Cl}$ the two reactions in polar protic and aprotic solvents are as follows: $$ \begin{align} \ce{CH3CH2Cl &->[Zn, CH3OH] CH3CH3}\tag{R1} \\ \ce{...
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Miscibility gap of heptane-methanol mixture

To explain my question a bit better: I added heptane and methanol together in equal ratios (1:1) and observed a separation in phase where there appeared to be an oily layer sitting on top of the other ...
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Why is oil solubility improved in solvents at higher temperatures?

This is in the case of extracting plant oil using a solvent extraction method for the purposes of biodiesel production. In a paper, it is stated that increased oil yield may be due to the 'increase in ...
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3 votes
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In solvent extraction from plant cells, what is the static organic solvent film formed?

I am researching the mechanisms behind solvent extraction of oil from microalgal cells, and it is stated in one paper that in the process of transferring the lipid out of the cell, the solvent-lipid ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Why do polar solvents seem to be of lesser viscosity than non-polar ones? [closed]

For instance, in Russian there is an adjective "oily", which means a liquid of high viscosity. Is this assertion even true in general or statistically?
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How to model a molecule of benzene surrounded by 100 molecules of water with molecular dynamics?

I have experience calculating molecular properties (mostly DFT). However, I would like to spend some time on molecular dynamics methods. I would like to ask your advice to direct me towards a program ...
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3 votes
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How can the activity of ions be more than 1 if the activity of water is 1?

Now, I am quoting Chemlibretexts when they give the activity coefficient of $\ce{LiCl}$ to be $\pu{1.026}$ at the molality of $\pu{2.5 mol kg-1}$ For simplicity, assuming this is aqueous, I'll just ...
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In an equilibrium with solvent in reaction, when we want to determine the reaction direction, do we account for the 55.6 mol/L of water? [duplicate]

Usually when we calculate the equilibrium of a reaction with a solvent, the solvent is ignored whether it is a reactant or a product. For example when $$\ce{CH3COOH +C2H5OH <=> CH3COOC2H5 +H2O}$$...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Salt solubility and solvent dissociation

A textbook, describing a qualitative test for the $\ce{Al^3+}$ cation in which you use $\ce{NH4Cl}$ and $\ce{NH4OH}$ to precipitate $\ce{Al(OH)3}$, mentioned that the solubility of this precipitate ...
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Hydration vs Dissolution

While revising Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry from revision material published by Arihant publications I encountered the following mentioned statement. During dissolution, the physical state of ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Finding mass percent through molality of potassium nitrate solution

Question An aqueous $\ce{KNO3}$ solution has a molality of $\pu{4.16 m}$ and a density of $\pu{1.08 g/mL}$. Calculate the percentage by mass $\ce{KNO3}$ of the solution. My Approach I know that ...
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1 vote
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Are there any tests which distinguish between triglycerides and polar lipids/impurities that can be conducted in a high school setting?

I am currently writing a research essay about using a mixed polar (methanol) and non-polar (heptane) solvent system to extract oil from mango seed kernels. One of the difficulties of using polar ...
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Calculation of concentration at equilibrium for extraction

The equation for equilibrium of solvent-solvent extraction is: $$\ce{PhOH(toluene) <=> PhOH (aq)}$$ An aqueous solution contain $\pu{1.5 \times 10^{-2} M}$ phenol and is shaken with the same ...
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Why is isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) used in rubbing alcohol instead of 'regular' propanol?

Is isopropanol (or 2-propanol) a better solvent than ordinary propanol (or n-propanol, or 1-propanol)? This is strongly implied, from what I have read, but I can't seem to find a place that distinctly ...
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Will the amount of solute change if the solution evaporates? Will the solvent carry the solute with it if it evaporates?

If a solution of dissolved metals in aqua regia is heated in an open container and left to dry overnight, will the dissolved metal ions be carried by the evaporated solution or will it stay in the ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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How to prepare a 10% alcoholic KOH solution? [closed]

I am confused actually. A 10% alcoholic KOH solution means that there is 10g of KOH in 100 ml of ethanol, or 10g KOH in 100 g of ethanol or something entirely different? Also, I understand that the ...
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Confusion on the Finkelstein reaction(AKA halogen exhange reaction)

So in the Finkelstein reaction, the iodide ion is supposed to replace another halogen(say chlorine) through SN2 mechanism. But here, Acetone is used, which is a polar aprotic solvent. And in acetone, ...
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Advice for a good solvent for fragrance

Hi any suggestions for a solvent for aroma oils, that has low evaporation and high diffusivity (low molecular weight and hence spreads well in the air). The solvent should also be soluble in water and ...
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When does Alcohol act as Solvent and as a Nucleophile?

I was recently solving problems related to Alcohol. and its solution is My doubt is why methanol act as a nucleophile here and when does alcohol acts as a nucleophile and as a Solvent?
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Chemical to dissolve rubber/latex glove

I seem to have a drain pipe in my flat blocked by what seems to be a latex/rubber glove. I am unable to pull it out — is there a chemical that can reliably dissolve the glove and at the same time not ...
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What can be used as substitute to dichloromethane for breaking optical cement bonds?

An optics supply company recommends using a dichloromethane solution to break bonds between optical elements joined with its UV-cured optical cement.1 The page mentions that dichloromethane-based ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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When titrating to find the concentration of a dissolved acid, does the volume of solvent matter?

I am conducting a titration to find the mass of aspirin present in tablets. I will be dissolving the aspirin tablet into a solution of ethanol and distilled water to dissolve it. But, does the volume ...
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