Questions tagged [solvents]

A liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature.

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43 views

How to model a molecule of benzene surrounded by 100 molecules of water with molecular dynamics?

I have experience calculating molecular properties (mostly DFT). However, I would like to spend some time on molecular dynamics methods. I would like to ask your advice to direct me towards a program ...
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How can the activity of ions be more than 1 if the activity of water is 1?

Now, I am quoting Chemlibretexts when they give the activity coefficient of $\ce{LiCl}$ to be $\pu{1.026}$ at the molality of $\pu{2.5 mol kg-1}$ For simplicity, assuming this is aqueous, I'll just ...
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In an equilibrium with solvent in reaction, when we want to determine the reaction direction, do we account for the 55.6 mol/L of water? [duplicate]

Usually when we calculate the equilibrium of a reaction with a solvent, the solvent is ignored whether it is a reactant or a product. For example when $$\ce{CH3COOH +C2H5OH <=> CH3COOC2H5 +H2O}$$...
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Salt solubility and solvent dissociation

A textbook, describing a qualitative test for the $\ce{Al^3+}$ cation in which you use $\ce{NH4Cl}$ and $\ce{NH4OH}$ to precipitate $\ce{Al(OH)3}$, mentioned that the solubility of this precipitate ...
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64 views

Hydration vs Dissolution

While revising Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry from revision material published by Arihant publications I encountered the following mentioned statement. During dissolution, the physical state of ...
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110 views

Finding mass percent through molality of potassium nitrate solution

Question An aqueous $\ce{KNO3}$ solution has a molality of $\pu{4.16 m}$ and a density of $\pu{1.08 g/mL}$. Calculate the percentage by mass $\ce{KNO3}$ of the solution. My Approach I know that ...
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Are there any tests which distinguish between triglycerides and polar lipids/impurities that can be conducted in a high school setting?

I am currently writing a research essay about using a mixed polar (methanol) and non-polar (heptane) solvent system to extract oil from mango seed kernels. One of the difficulties of using polar ...
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47 views

Calculation of concentration at equilibrium for extraction

The equation for equilibrium of solvent-solvent extraction is: $$\ce{PhOH(toluene) <=> PhOH (aq)}$$ An aqueous solution contain $\pu{1.5 \times 10^{-2} M}$ phenol and is shaken with the same ...
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Why is isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol) used in rubbing alcohol instead of 'regular' propanol?

Is isopropanol (or 2-propanol) a better solvent than ordinary propanol (or n-propanol, or 1-propanol)? This is strongly implied, from what I have read, but I can't seem to find a place that distinctly ...
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Will the amount of solute change if the solution evaporates? Will the solvent carry the solute with it if it evaporates?

If a solution of dissolved metals in aqua regia is heated in an open container and left to dry overnight, will the dissolved metal ions be carried by the evaporated solution or will it stay in the ...
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254 views

How to prepare a 10% alcoholic KOH solution? [closed]

I am confused actually. A 10% alcoholic KOH solution means that there is 10g of KOH in 100 ml of ethanol, or 10g KOH in 100 g of ethanol or something entirely different? Also, I understand that the ...
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Confusion on the Finkelstein reaction(AKA halogen exhange reaction)

So in the Finkelstein reaction, the iodide ion is supposed to replace another halogen(say chlorine) through SN2 mechanism. But here, Acetone is used, which is a polar aprotic solvent. And in acetone, ...
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Advice for a good solvent for fragrance

Hi any suggestions for a solvent for aroma oils, that has low evaporation and high diffusivity (low molecular weight and hence spreads well in the air). The solvent should also be soluble in water and ...
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2answers
132 views

When does Alcohol act as Solvent and as a Nucleophile?

I was recently solving problems related to Alcohol. and its solution is My doubt is why methanol act as a nucleophile here and when does alcohol acts as a nucleophile and as a Solvent?
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492 views

Chemical to dissolve rubber/latex glove

I seem to have a drain pipe in my flat blocked by what seems to be a latex/rubber glove. I am unable to pull it out — is there a chemical that can reliably dissolve the glove and at the same time not ...
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1answer
64 views

What can be used as substitute to dichloromethane for breaking optical cement bonds?

An optics supply company recommends using a dichloromethane solution to break bonds between optical elements joined with its UV-cured optical cement.1 The page mentions that dichloromethane-based ...
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1answer
50 views

When titrating to find the concentration of a dissolved acid, does the volume of solvent matter?

I am conducting a titration to find the mass of aspirin present in tablets. I will be dissolving the aspirin tablet into a solution of ethanol and distilled water to dissolve it. But, does the volume ...
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What is the mechanism of endothermic dissolution?

My real question is in fact "How can dissolution happen if it's endothermic?" However, there have been many questions regarding this exact topic and the answers about Gibbs free energy ...
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1answer
41 views

Can you make n-Hexane a supercritical fluid? [closed]

When making aerogel using supercritical fluids the liquid in the gel is replaced by a gas. Can this be achieved using n-Hexane as the supercritical fluid? What would the resulting gas be? Would it be ...
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“Nivea Sun protect & refresh” melted my tub

I stupidly applied spray sunscreen on my children inside our white, acrylic bathtub and the floor ended up with a white, very sticky residue that rubs off on things, but will not wash away with ...
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Permanent ink from urethane, 99% IPA, and pigment?

I’m an artist and I started working with recycled plastic bottles as a material recently. I want to paint the plastic and retain its transparency, but acrylic paint won’t stick without priming and ...
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1answer
324 views

Performing an SN1 reaction in a polar aprotic solvent

Straightforward question What would be the outcome of having an SN1 reaction carried out in a polar aprotic solvent? I have found this question approached scarcely and with unsatisfactory answers. ...
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In what solvents does ionic association occur?

When a ionic compound like $\ce{NaCl}$ dissolves, it doesn't always full dissociate due to ionic pairing. This is measured by the van 't Hoff factor. Now, this is what I'm looking at for my chem ...
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2answers
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Polar protic solvents with melting point between between 0 °C and 25 °C [closed]

Need a solvent for a freezing point depression experiment. Acetic acid is the only one I know of, but it is not ideal due to the low freezing point depression constant. Any suggestions?
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Powdered Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether [closed]

Entrepreneur here, background in electronics, so thank you in advance for your patience with me. Question: Is Dipropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether available as a powder? If not, is there a powdered ...
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519 views

Pyridine: Protic or Aprotic

I know pyridine is a polar aprotic solvent (owing to a permanent dipole generated), but if acidified it forms pyridinium cation. So, does it then function as polar protic solvent?
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Zinc salt with a very high relative aqueous solubility?

Zinc bromide, iodide, and chloride are highly soluble in water, both in absolute terms, and relative to other metals. I think however that there is a zinc compound with even higher relative aqueous ...
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138 views

Controlled burn with colored flames (Gender Reveal) [closed]

Is there a single solvent that can dissolve chemicals/elements that when burned, will produce the color of its respective chemical/element? If so, what chemical/element can be dissolved in this ...
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Choise of solvent for extraction

In the synthesis of (S)-Diphenyl(pyrrolidine-2yl)methanol, I need to extract the product using an organic solvent and water. Which organic solvent is the most suitable in this case? Ethyl acetate: I ...
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What is the enthalpy change of solution of oxygen and water? [closed]

What is the enthalpy change of solution of oxygen dissolved into water?
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Plasticisers and other impurities from polyethylene laboratory bottles?

Does polyethylene (PE), widely used for wash/squirt bottles in labs, contain soluble compounds such as plasticizers that can accumulate in organic solvents (e.g. alcohols, acetone) after prolonged ...
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90 views

How do you separate microcrystalline cellulose from amino acids in a powder mixture?

I am looking to separate out the microcrystalline cellulose that has been mixed in with amino acids in a powder mixture. I have tried suspending the powder mixture in water and then filtering out the ...
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1answer
207 views

Leaving group ability and solvent's effect

Regarding leaving groups and solvent effects (SN1 and SN2 reactions), I would like to ask some questions. As the nucleophilic character is also influenced by the solvents, there is some indication (to ...
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Will toluene vapors damage a mirror made from PETG?

I'm working on a project for work and trying to avoid using an acrylic mirror because I know that doesn't hold up well against toluene, but I'm wondering if a mirror made out of PETG would?
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Can a solvent be a solid?

Can a solvent be a solid? I do not think so. But is it possible for a solvent to be a solid?
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Determining solvent and solute [closed]

On which conditions does determining solvent depend on? 1. the higher boiling indicates the solvent the material with the higher concentration is the solvent the solvent is kept first in a pot. ...
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2k views

Can a solvent be a gas?

A solvent is an element which dissolves something, basically the solute. Normally, all the solvents we encounter are in liquid phase. So, I was wondering if there could be any solvent in a gaseous ...
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Does the amount of solvent interaction energy depend on the absolute gas phase energy?

I've been performing Gaussian 16 DFT optimization and single-point energy calculations on different conformers of a rather large organic molecule. My first series of calculations was without solvent ...
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Covering conformers in a molecular modelling; consider them as a static entity or work with modelling shifts as well?

I am currently working with a molecular docking project, examining potential affinities of a solvent on a protein in an assay to evaluate potential error margin. The solvent is cyclohexanol (referred ...
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1answer
96 views

How is carbon-halogen bond broken during Finkelstein reaction?

Finkelstein reaction is a halogen exchange reaction between haloalkane and a salt of a different halogenide: $$\ce{R−CH2−Cl + KI -> R−CH2−I + KCl}$$ From an answer of a previous question: As ...
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297 views

Why do azeotropes boil at constant temperature? [closed]

As given in the Wikipedia page, An azeotrope (/əˈziːəˌtroʊp/) or a constant boiling point mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered or changed by simple ...
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450 views

What is the relationship between dipole moment and solubility?

I thought a large dipole moment meant the substance was polar, so I'm confused by the following statement (from Wikipedia) that "With a dipole moment of 3.92 D, acetonitrile dissolves a wide range of ...
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Do aprotic solvents “slow down” SN1 reactions?

SOLVENT EFFECTS. Predict if using the polar, non-protic, solvent N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF, $\ce{Me2NC(=O)H})$ will speed up or slow down the following reactions and BRIEFLY justify your answers. a) ...
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Could metal hydride storage tanks for hydrogen store helium as well, given their repective atomic radii? [closed]

With atomic radii very similar, could helium dissolve into metallic foam about as well as hydrogen, thus making metal hydrite hydrogen tanks suitable for helium as well?
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Solubility of alcohols in non-polar solvents

The solubility of an alcohol in a non-polar solvent (like hexane) increases with size of the alcohol, as the non-polar chain increases. However, as the chain keeps increasing, will the solubility ...
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1answer
100 views

Decarboxylation of THCA during CO2 Extraction of Cannabis

We have a strange problem. We are performing CO2 extraction on cannabis and we are seeing considerable decarboxylation of THCA to THC. We have high quality temperature sensors at the heat exchangers, ...
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Suspension liquid for ferrofluid that makes it float [closed]

I am currently devising a project to create a kinetic sculpture, similar to Sachiko Kodama. Does anyone know any suspension liquids that when applied, the ferrofluid floats on top?
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What are common solvent removal methods?

In a laboratory setting, the most common solvent removal method is rotary vacuum distillation. This is something I have performed many times, starting in organic chemistry labs. However, I am ...
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170 views

Molarity of two solutions

Question: Two solutions of ethanol marked as X and Y are labeled as 25% ethanol by mass and 25% ethanol by volume respectively. If the density of solution Y is 0.789 g/mL and that of solution X is 0....
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How will the dielectric constant of water change when ethyl acetate is added?

How will the dielectric constant of water change when ethyl acetate is added? The $\mathrm{p}K_a$ value of weak acids in aprotic solvents will be lower than in protic solvents because the dielectric ...

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