Questions tagged [atoms]

Smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. It consists of a small nucleus charged positively, carrying almost all of the atom's mass, with electrons surrounding it. This tag should be applied to questions that specifically concern atoms or their properties. For the charged particles, please use [ions] instead. If your question is specifically about [protons], [neutrons], or [electrons], use those tags instead.

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Can an atom bond with any other atom?

I am designing a game for students which has a sandbox for atoms to create molecules like building blocks. I have the valance of each atom mapped and they can bond with other atoms based on their ...
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What happens inside the orbital when energy provided to electron is not sufficient for it to change orbitals?

While studying the chapter called Atomic Structure, we were introduced with Bohr's model of an Atom. Even though not all of his postulates were right, I believe some were. A doubt arose in the ...
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What are the Ionic Properties of Co-ordinate Covalent Bonds? [closed]

In my 10th grade book, it says that A coordinate bond has properties of both covalent and ionic bonds. Therefore, it is also called dative or co-ionic bonds. I understand that it has properties of ...
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Shielding effect is not constant across a period [closed]

Shielding effect stays constant across a period because number of inner electrons stays the same. Well, that's not true. It only works for the period =1,2,3 but in period 4, the number of inner ...
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A better understanding of the screening effect and how it works?

What I am taught- Inner shell electrons shield the outermost electrons from the attraction of nucleus. More closer the inner shell is to the nucleus, more its shielding effect. thus $n_s > n_p > ...
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Which atom is the smallest atom?

Is hydrogen or helium the smallest atom? My teacher said that the smallest atom is the helium atom, but I think that the smallest atom is the hydrogen atom. It has a single electron and a single ...
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2answers
91 views

Why is sulphur not written as S8 here [duplicate]

I learnt that sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide react to form sulfur and water. The reaction given was: $\ce{SO2 + 2 H2S -> 2 H2O + 3S}$ So why is the product sulfur written as $\ce{S}$ and not ...
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1answer
139 views

What is "gram atom of an element"? [duplicate]

I've seen so many answers on Quora that got me lost : 1st answer : The three are similar. Gram atom.... Take the atomic mass of an element and express it in grams (sodium for example atomic mass is 22....
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The necessary energy required to ionize 1g of potasium in its fundamental state if the ionization energy is given

The energy of ionization of the potassium is $\pu{6.94\cdot 10^{-19} J/atom}.$ Find the necessary energy to ionize $\pu{1 g}$ of potasium that is found on its fundamental state. Attempt. I really ...
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Comparing average radius of subshells for multielectron atoms

I recently came across a question comparing the average radius of subshells. A search on the internet gave the following result for single electron atoms: $$\langle r\rangle_{n,\,l}=\frac{a_0 n^2 \...
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181 views

How many atoms are there in single element? [closed]

Elements are chemical substances made up of the same types of atoms (atoms with the same proton number), whereas molecules are chemical compounds made up of atoms from two or more different elements. ...
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Why does increasing subshell cause ionization energy to decrease?

I know that increasing subshell decreases ionization energy; for example, going from Beryllium to Boron. I do not understand why this is. The answer my textbook (Chemistry 2e on OpenStax) gives is ...
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respective posistion of d and p orbitals in a multielectronic species

we write the electronic configuration of atoms as [noble gas core]4s2 3d10.that is that due to energy considerations(aufbau principle) in multielectronic species. what i want to know is whether the 4s ...
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Lother Mayer curve

While studying about atomic trends, I encountered the Lothar Meyer curve: Similar graph found on internet If the covalent radius decreases across a period, why is the graph of atomic volume ...
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1answer
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The ambiguity regarding aufbau principle

According to a Blog https://ericscerri.blogspot.com/2012/06/trouble-with-using-aufbau-to-find.html written by Dr.Eric Scerri, On moving from the $\ce{Sc^3+}$ ion to that of $\ce{Sc^2+}$ it is plain ...
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279 views

How to derive the number of spectral lines?

Recently, I found that when electrons in an atomic sample de-excite from a higher energy level ($n_2$) to a lower energy level ($n_1$), the number of spectral lines observed in the spectrum is $$\frac{...
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Does the Atomic Mass listed for each element on the periodic table reflect the relative abundances of their isotopes on Earth? Or in the Universe? [duplicate]

Somehow, I cannot find a site or book or paper explaining exactly how the average atomic masses for the elements on the periodic table are weighted.... I posted a question either here or on Physics S....
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How is the molar weight of C-12 equal to 12 gram ? Why is "g" not considered while calculating molar weight? [closed]

So, I was just pretty confused about how we simply multiply the "mass" of total nucleons in Carbon by the Avogadro Constant, to get the molar "weight" as 12 grams, shouldn't it be ...
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1answer
63 views

How is most probable radius in quantum mechanical model equal to Bohr's radius in hydrogen atom

Most probable radius in 1s orbital for hydrogen electron is $\pu{0.529E-10 m}$ which is Bohr radius. But energy of electron in hydrogen atom is proportional to mean radial distance in atom. In this ...
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1answer
65 views

what does it mean to say oxygen in a given context?

My textbook "chemistry by Julia" says the following When it comes to expressing the molar mass of elements such as oxygen and hydrogen, we have to be careful to specify what form of the ...
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2answers
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What would happen if the alpha particles directly hit the electrons in the gold foil in Rutherford's experiment? [closed]

What would happen if the alpha particles directly hit the electrons in the gold foil in Rutherford's experiment? Would it get ionized or is there no probability of such a thing happening ?
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Why are electrons filled in fourth shell before the third shell is filled?

I am a beginner and am learning about atomic structure and I am getting confusions regarding the aufbau principle. It is said that the electrons will be filled first in lowest available energy level. ...
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If an atom had 200 protons, how much neutrons would it need to have to be most likely stable and why?

I know there is a specific proton/neutron ratio but i'm unaware if it applies to atoms with 86 protons and beyond.
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Why is atomic mass unit/unified atomic mass defined against Carbon 12?

I have searched the web all over this question and I have not really found an answer to my satisfaction. From my understanding of the topic so far, I understand that reason why concept of unified ...
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1answer
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When is the n+l rule followed when working with energy of different orbitals?

While going through my book, I came across a problem which gave some options about the order of energy of 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals of hydrogen atom. The correct answer was given as: 3s, 3p and 3d ...
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D block elements electronic configuration

We have found the electronic configuration of d block elements.As we move from left to right in the periodic table the energy of the 3d subshell is decreased and it becomes smaller than the energy of ...
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1answer
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Atoms vs molecule when talking about the avogadro's number? [duplicate]

By far, my understanding is that a molecule is made up of atoms bonded together. For example, a molecule of water ($\ce{H2O}$) has 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. However, when it comes to ...
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2answers
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Why electrons do not distribute evenly among the atoms in a molecule? [closed]

I was wondering why the state where electrons are evenly (or the closest to being evenly) distributed among the atoms in a molecule is not the lowest energy state? For example, in a water molecule it ...
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1answer
54 views

Rutherford's Alpha Ray Scattering Experiment & Plum-Pudding Model

My teacher said, "Rutherford thought that all the Alpha particles would directly go through the gold foil without any collision if the plum pudding model was right. Because, as said in plum ...
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1answer
149 views

Schrodinger's Equation and Wave Function

So I understand that there exists the shrodinger's equation, which on solving,gives the wave function of an electron. The wave function as I understand, gives all possible information about an ...
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1answer
220 views

Is this bond Ionic or Covalent, and why? AlBr [closed]

We know a compound could form between NaCl because they are +1 and -1 ions which make them both into a complete valence set. Could a compound form between Al and Br, for example, and what type of bond ...
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Does the electron in a neutral hydrogen atom ever exist in the p, d or f sublevels?

I learned that the electron in a neutral hydrogen atom can be excited to higher levels. But there are different sublevels in the levels. For example s, p, d and f. Does the electron only jump from s ...
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Why do electrons jump back after absorbing energy and moving to a higher energy level?

Electrons in a shell absorb energy and move to higher energy levels, but they release their energy and jump back to the shell they originally were in. Why do they jump back? Why can they not keep ...
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1answer
271 views

Why is the ionic radius of hydride so large?

The order of ionic radii for halides and hydride is apparently as follows: $$\ce{F-} < \ce{Cl-} < \ce{Br-} < \ce{H-} < \ce{I-}$$ Why is the hydride ion so large, even larger than bromide ...
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1answer
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What does orbital mean, exactly? [duplicate]

My teacher told me that orbital is the probability distribution data of the electron around nucleus which is amplitude data in a way. An example of how my teacher actually told what it means involves ...
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1answer
217 views

Why is the atomic mass unit less than the mass of both a neutron and a proton? [duplicate]

The atomic mass unit is $1.6605 \times 10^{-27}$ kg. This is less than the mean of the masses of 6 protons and 6 neutrons. How do we account for the lower mass ? My understanding is that some of the ...
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3answers
429 views

Does electron mass decrease when it changes its orbit?

I have studied this in my chapter atomic structure that when an electron changes its orbit from lower energy to higher energy state , it does not state in my book that it moves there but that it ...
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2answers
75 views

How is this possible in mole concept? [closed]

L = $6.022*10^{23}$ If I have one atom of oxygen , it has exactly L value. Now 2 atoms of a oxygen have 2L value.(Note that I mean 2O and not $O_2$here) Well , if we take a molecule made up of 2atoms ...
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1answer
100 views

What does Pauli’s exclusion principle mean in atomic or fundamental way? [closed]

It means is that no electron can have same n , l and $m_l$ but can have two different spin quantum number. I want to know why is this rule valid?Means there must be some other things happening also ...
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1answer
374 views

Is this diagram correct for difference between 2N and N2

There is 1 $\ce{N2}$ molecule formed with 2 atoms of nitrogen. 2N is 2 separate nitrogen atoms which have not formed any bond.Reasons could be that they didn’t get enough energy to form bond so they ...
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1answer
79 views

Why do Rydberg atoms have electrons that can transition above the first ionization energy?

Why do Rydberg atoms have electrons that can transition above the first ionization energy? This can only happen in a multi-electron system but I don't see how the Rydberg formula would even work for n ...
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Why hydrogen gas tube produce hydrogen atomic spectrum

To measure the atomic hydrogen spectrum people often uses hydrogen gas tubes as light source. Since the gas in the tube is the molecule $H_2$ , why we obtain the spectrum of atomic hydrogen? My guess ...
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1answer
110 views

Why does matter have spaces between them? [closed]

If you mix sugar Crystal in a glass of water and mix it well, the level of water will not rise.The reason they say is that matter have spaces between them.If matter have spaces between them , How ...
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1answer
106 views

"Isotopes" in a molecule?

I just learned that atoms of the same element can have different mass because of they are isotopes. If there are two isotopes in which each reacts to form the same thing. Would the mass differ in each ...
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1answer
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Hydrogen and Hydrogen ion

Is it correct that a hydrogen atom only has 1 electron and 1 proton since the atomic mass is 1? Also, is the hydrogen ion composed of a single proton and no electrons? In an ionization process we know ...
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Reason for needing multiple radii for the same atom [duplicate]

Why do we need different types of atomic radii? Why can't there be just one radii for an atom?
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1answer
213 views

In metallic bonding, what causes a metal to lose its outer electrons and become an ion? [duplicate]

In metallic bonding, what causes a metal to lose its outer electrons and become an ion? I am trying to understand metallic bonding, atoms and ions.
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1answer
57 views

Why does covalent bonding not break down if observer effect can be applied to atomic electrons? [closed]

The observer effect in quantum mechanics states that when unobserved, quantum particles such as electrons can simultaneously occupy two different states. In an atom of any element, where there are ...
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3answers
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Does the 4s orbital really have a higher energy level compared to 3d? [duplicate]

For writing the electronic configuration of the $\ce{Fe^2+}$ ion, you need to remove two electrons (as it is an ion) which are from the highest energy level. Apparently, this would be $\mathrm{4s}$ ...
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1answer
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Could observer effect cause electrons in one orbital to be found in another?

The observer effect states [1] that when unobserved, absolutely small particles like electrons can simultaneously be in two different states at the same time. If we look at an atom of any element, ...

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