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What does (sol) in a chemical equation mean?

I'm reading Shrivers Inorganic Chemistry book and some of the equations have a (sol) state on them. I'm sure the book has already defined this but I cannot find where. Examples: \begin{align} \ce{[...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

How can there be concentration and pressure terms simultaneously in the Nernst equation?

In the Nernst equation we are taught that the reaction quotient can have pressure terms and concentration terms simultaneously. According to my knowledge this does not happen anywhere else, so why can ...
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

Which one of these products is the most stable? [closed]

Which one of these products is the most stable, and why?
6
votes
1answer
44 views

Can density functional approximations including dispersion correction perform worse than without it?

I am trying correlate some experimental properties of a molecule to its calculated equilibrium geometry. To do so, I calculated the geometry and energy of some conformers. Now, I obtain mixed results ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Only valence shell electrons participate in bonding then how is Cr in H2CrO4 forming 6 covalent bonds although it has only 1 valence electron?

The structure of $\ce{H2CrO4}$ is as follows: Shell configuration of chromium is 2,8,13,1 i.e. it has only 1 valence electron and only valence electron participate in bonding but Chromium in the ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Understanding the gaff2.dat proper dihedral parameters

I have a project where I'm trying to program my own force field, and I decided to use the AMBER gaff2.dat force field parameters. However, I am really struggling parsing the gaff2.dat file when it ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

CuS+HCl is it a reduction or oxidation reaction

How do we identify whether a reaction is oxidation or reduction and please let me know whether the equation given above is oxidation or reduction.
-3
votes
1answer
35 views

Chain isomers of hexane [closed]

Why does hexane just have 5 chain isomers when I can think of more, like 2,2,3-trimethylbutane? That's just one of the top of my head, I could think of more.
6
votes
2answers
181 views

Understanding reason behind existence of chemical equilibrium

Many chemistry reactions are reversible in nature. In such reactions initially reactants react to form products but after some time products also react to give reactants back again. And an equilibrium ...
0
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0answers
17 views

To understand reason behind large difference between melting points of carbon and nitrogen [closed]

Carbon is group 14 element having melting point above 3000°C while its adjacent element nitrogen has very low melting point i.e. -210°C . Why do they differ in their melting points upto such a large ...
-1
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0answers
28 views

What to look for when buying a water purifying equipment? Where to start researching about it? [closed]

I am looking for a water purifier equipment to purify the tap water ( most people do not trust the tap water in my city). The tap water always have a soft but noticable metallic and oily taste. Will ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Confusion in the mechanism [closed]

I am confused what reaction would be this as I thought this should be MPVR or Meerwein–Ponndorf–Verley reduction. But there we need an alcohol,which is not available here. Can someone say what ...
-2
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0answers
21 views

How to count electrons for a bridging alkylidene ligand

How many valence electrons does this complex have? How do you count electrons for a bridging alkylidene ligand?
1
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0answers
24 views

energy vs reaction coordinate diagram [closed]

To know the energy values-marked as ? and the coordinates-x,y for a given reaction ...
-2
votes
1answer
39 views

Why is t-butyl chloride favored over t-butanol at 0°C? [closed]

To make t-butyl chloride from t-butanol, you need to bubble HCl gas into a 0°C ether solution of t-butanol. To make t-butanol from t-butyl chloride, you can dissolve t-butyl chloride into water (not ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Why is freezing point depression greater than boiling point elevation for equimolar substances?

I know that the freezing point depression and boiling point elevation are given by the formulas $\Delta\mathrm{T}_{b}=ib\mathrm{K}_{eb}$ and $\Delta\mathrm{T}_{f}=ib\mathrm{K}_{F}.$ It seems that when ...
7
votes
1answer
567 views

Why is iso-octane different from other iso-s?

While learning nomenclature of organic compounds I found the common names to be a bit difficult to learn than the IUPAC ones. One of these common name stuff is the iso-,neo-, sec-, etc. So I searched ...
6
votes
3answers
821 views

Do metals form covalent bonds besides ionic and cordinate bond? [closed]

My chemistry textbook says that metals form ionic or cordinate bonds whereas non metals form covalent bonds. But in another textbook I read that Lithium, Beryllium, Aluminium, Chromium, Manganese etc, ...
0
votes
1answer
92 views

Is there a way to create natural Red food coloring from Turmeric in the house kitchen? [closed]

As a non chemist I have read in the Wikipedia article Curcumin that: Curcumin becomes bright red when it interacts electrostatically with phospholipid film. This text appeared without source ...
-2
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0answers
32 views

Alc KOH vs Aq KOH [duplicate]

Why does alc KOH prefers elimination reactions while aqueous KOH prefers substitution reactions in organic chemistry? I dont think so there must be any difference in the medium as the elimination just ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

which kind of common stainless steel grade is corrosion resistant for evaporating water from ammonium chloride solution [closed]

I want to know would 316L and 317L grade stainless steel resist corrosion for evaporating water from ammonium chloride solution
-2
votes
0answers
21 views

Acid Value Analysis using Sodium Hydroxide instead of Potassium Hydroxide [closed]

I would like to ask about the acid value analysis using sodium hydroxide instead of the usual potassium hydroxide. If I use sodium hydroxide, do I use the relative molecular mass of sodium hydroxide ...
5
votes
3answers
408 views

Am I understanding buffering capacity against strong acid/base correctly?

I just want to make sure I'm understanding buffering capacity correctly. I've been working on this problem: Suppose you have an acetic acid buffer, $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a} = 4.74$, at the ...
6
votes
1answer
98 views

Enantioselectivity of Noyori Asymmetric Hydrogenation

I'm unable to understand the enantioselectivity of Noyori's hydrogenation reaction, and would appreciate any help with the same: Here's a mechanism I found on Wikipedia: but, to my disappointment, ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Why aren't all bonds in cyclobutadiene not equal? [duplicate]

Cyclobutadiene is like benzene in that it has alternating single and double bonds in a ring. However, it's bonds are not the same length, the double bonds being shorter than single bonds. The molecule ...
2
votes
3answers
62 views

Are there other carbon free gasses that can be used for energy transport, apart from hydrogen? [closed]

Various gasses are currently used to transport and store energy for heating and electricity generation. Most of them contain carbon: Methane, propane, butane, carbon monoxide and natural gas. It ...
-1
votes
2answers
55 views

Remove carbon dioxide from solution [closed]

What solution could I add to a solution of water with dissolved carbon dioxide in order to get the carbon to precipitate out? I believe the ions are H+ and HCO3- Thanks, Jerid
-2
votes
0answers
31 views

Radius of atoms

I know that by definition when talking about the radius of an atom in a crystalline structure the radius is the half of the distance between the centers of the adjacent atoms . And I read about ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Suspension liquid for ferrofluid that makes it float [closed]

I am currently devising a project to create a kinetic sculpture, similar to Sachiko Kodama. Does anyone know any suspension liquids that when applied, the ferrofluid floats on top?
-2
votes
0answers
24 views

Thermodynamic changes in Hemoglobin binding [closed]

I am currently taking biochem and while studying the hemoglobin binding and conversion from T to R configurations I was curious about the thermodynamic changes that accrue during that transformation (...
-2
votes
0answers
47 views

Reaction Mechanism of a ring contraction [closed]

I found this question in an IIT JEE paper from a few years back. It is a vicinal diketone on a cyclohexane ring contracting to a cyclopentane ring with an alcoholic substituent group and an ester ...
-2
votes
0answers
37 views

Search for a chemical database [closed]

I'm looking for a Chemical database that Can be used to maintain health and safety within the university That is perhaps open source, but doesn't need to be. Maintained and up to date. Is has a ...
-6
votes
1answer
34 views

URGENT Concentration of Vinegar | Titration? [closed]

Example of acid base titration
-3
votes
2answers
84 views

The hydration energy of NaCl is −774.3 kJ. Then why are we not able to harness that energy and run machines just by mixing salt in water? [closed]

The hydration energy of NaCl is −774.3 kJ. Then why are we not able to harness that energy and run machines just by mixing salt in water? Where does all the energy go which is released when we mix ...
7
votes
2answers
167 views

Do isotopic groups cause optical activity?

I understood the simplified reason for optical activity of a compound based on the difference in the angular velocities of counter-rotating circularly polarized light. The difference is due to the ...
3
votes
1answer
35 views

Description of a van't Hoff apparatus

A "van't Hoff apparatus" is mentioned as a means of performing a reaction involving gases in a reversible manner, for instance here. Unfortunately I have been unable to find a description of such a ...
3
votes
2answers
151 views

Do metals react with ammonia gas (not liquid phase)?

In my chemistry notes I have two chemical equations as follows: $$ \begin{align} \ce{2 NH3(g) + 6 Li(s) &-> 2 Li3N(s) + 3 H2(g)}\tag{R1} \\ \ce{2 NH3(g) + 2 Na(s) &-> 2 NaNH2 + H2(g)}\...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Why is it not practical for insoluble salts to be prepared from other insoluble salts? [closed]

My textbook says that it is not practically feasible to make insoluble salts (say PbSO4) from other insoluble salts (say PbO), without explicitly mentioning the reason for the same. My guess is: if ...
-3
votes
2answers
38 views

Activation energy vs temperature [closed]

We know that activation energy is independent of temperature. But during the dehydration of alcohol or any reaction, activation reaction can be increased by following the thermodynamically controlled ...
0
votes
0answers
46 views

Oxidation states the elements in nitrosyl chloride

I have read that $\ce{NOCl}$ dissociates to $\ce{NO+}$ and $\ce{Cl-},$ and the various reasons stated as such seem fine. But what I don't get is this: if we follow the actual rules of assigning ...
-1
votes
1answer
49 views

Raoult and Henry's law

According to my textbook, for Raoult's law, we have: $$μ_i(\mathrm{vap}) = μ_i^* (p_i^*,T) + RT \ln⁡ x_i$$ where $μ_i^* (p_i^*,T)$ is the chemical potential at $T$ and $p_i^*$, the pressure of pure $...
-2
votes
0answers
35 views

Looking for papers using pump-probe spectroscopy [closed]

I am working on a project explaining the pump-probe spectroscopy, and I need to explain several papers which utilize this technique. Are there any papers that you would recommend, which are ...
3
votes
2answers
87 views

Why isn't ΔH = TΔS in ΔG = ΔH - TΔS?

Applying a Legendre transformation on $U = q - w$ we get the familiar $G = H - TS$. Making an innocent approximation delivers $\Delta G = \Delta H - T\,\Delta S$. When one wants to predict the ...
-4
votes
0answers
38 views

Stability of butene

Why is isobutene (2-methylprop-1-ene) more stable than cis-2-butene ((2⁠Z)-but-2-ene)? I can't find a reason as both of them have the same number of alpha hydrogens.
0
votes
0answers
17 views

What is a good substitue for monoethanolamine in creating conductive silver nanoparticles?

In this paper (https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2017/ra/c7ra05125e) and a few others, chemists create PAA-coated silver nanoparticles in a colloidal conductive ink. (Mods - I cant seem to ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

Fractional index in a chemical formula of metal oxide

I have just read an article in which they used $\ce{WO3}$ and $\ce{WO_{2.9}}$ as precursors, whose objective was to form $\ce{WS2}$, in an atmosphere of argon by CVD. In one boat there is the powder ...
-1
votes
0answers
45 views

How can the rate of reaction between thiosulfate ion and acid be calculated as v = 1 M/Δt? [closed]

The experiment is done in the following way: Sodium thiosulfate is added in a beaker (the concentration is noted). Acid is added (the same amount each time). Time is taken till the reaction reaches ...
-3
votes
1answer
34 views

Why conjugate base/acid needed in buffer solution? [closed]

If I talk about the CH3COOH,CH3COONa acidic buffer solution , CH3COOH --> CH3COO- + H+ Why the conjugate salt is needed ?? Why it can't be like that the addition of extra H+/OH- neutralizes by ...
-2
votes
1answer
36 views

UV of product vs UV of reactant for a diels alder reaction [closed]

I am really stuck on how to interpret the change in wavelength and absorbance of my synthesized product and comparing it to the given UV of the reactant. I am supposed to include the shift in ...
-2
votes
0answers
34 views

Charge and Discharge of a Battery [closed]

I'm a student who majors Chemical Engineering. I just have a question shown as below. First of all, I don't understand the answers of both 1) and 2). In my opinion, the answers should be switched. ...

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