Questions tagged [redox]

Redox is the portmanteau of reduction and oxidation. This tag should be used in questions where both the reduction and the oxidation process are under focus. This tag is not limited to inorganic chemistry. If the question is specifically about either reduction or oxidation (not both) of an organic compound, use [organic-reduction] or [organic-oxidation] instead.

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Water Electrolysis Equation [closed]

Why can’t we perform an electrolysis process on just one molecule of water? In a balanced water electrolysis reaction, there will always be two molecules of water!
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What is the standard reduction potential of nascent oxygen [closed]

I was searching the list of all oxidizing agents in the order of their oxidizing strength or reduction potential. Nascent oxygen was at top but I could not find its reduction potential anywhere on ...
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Oxidation Reactions/Reactivity of Manganese Metal in Air and Water

I am planning on doing some reactions that lead to Manganese metal and a neutral solution containing $\ce{Mn^{2+}}$ as by-products, and I wanted to try some things out with the Manganese as well. ...
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2 votes
3 answers
302 views

Why do we sometimes change the sign for standard electrode potentials?

Question: In this cell, the copper is oxidized and $E_{cell} = \pu{+1.15 V}$. $$\begin{align} \ce{Cu^2+(aq) + 2e− -> Cu(s)} & &(E &= \pu{+0.34 V})\\ \ce{Mn^3+(aq) + e− -> Mn^2+(aq)} ...
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How do you determine the charge of the metal ion in a single replacement reaction? [closed]

Say we have a simple single replacement reaction between a salt and a metal $$\ce{2 AgNO3 + Cu -> Cu(NO3)2 + 2 Ag}$$ We know in normal circumstances, silver always has a $+1$ charge, and in normal ...
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Does the reaction of solid Sodium Chlorate and Hydrochloric acid generate Chlorine Dioxide?

I did this reaction on a very small scale, swirled it around to mix and react, and saw a yellow green gas come out, as Chlorine gas is one of the products. However, based on what I found online about ...
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3 votes
3 answers
262 views

Why chlorate(V) is one of the primary products of disproportionation reaction between chlorine gas and hot concentrated NaOH?

Cold diluted $\ce{NaOH}$ reacts with $\ce{Cl2}$ producing hypochlorite: $$\ce{2 NaOH(aq, dil, cold) + Cl2(g) -> NaClO(aq) + NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)},\tag{R1}$$ whereas hot concentrated $\ce{NaOH}$ yields ...
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Reduction potential of water [closed]

I can't understand what is meant by the reduction potential of water. In Electrolysis of water decomposition of water takes place as a result of which $H+$ and $OH-$ are furnished. They migrate ...
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How does the redox reaction in a voltaic battery pile start?

From the Wikipedia article, the redox reaction for a voltaic pile is: \begin{align} \text{Oxidation:} && \ce{Zn &-> Zn^{2+} + 2e^-}\\ \text{Reduction:} && \ce{2H^+ + 2e^- &-&...
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What is the black sticky residue after heating copper hypophosphite?

I am experimenting with double sided PCB (printed circuit board) via (connections from one side to the other) holes activation. The activation is the process of making the walls of holes electrically ...
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How is 1 mole hypochlorite ion equivalent to 1 mole chlorine gas?

According to my book, 1 mole ClO- is equivalent to 1 mole Cl2. How is that even possible? 1 mole ClO- contains 1 mole Cl atoms. On the contrary, 1 mole Cl2 gas contains 2 mole Cl atoms. So, how are ...
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Should I write formula for oxalate or oxalic acid while balancing a redox reaction using the ion-electron method?

Problem: Balance the following reaction using the ion-electron method: $$\ce{H2C2O4 + KMnO4 + H2SO4 -> CO2 + MnSO4 + K2SO4 + H2O}$$ My book's solution: Oxidation half-reaction: $$\ce{C2O4^2- -> ...
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Why did my book write S2- if hydrogen sulfide isn't ionic?

Problem: Balance the following reaction using the ion-electron method: $$\ce{KMnO4 + H2SO4 + H2S -> MnSO4 + S + K2SO4 +H2O}$$ My book's solution: Oxidation half-reaction: $$\ce{S^{2-}->S + 2e^{-}...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is potassium permanganate an oxidizing agent or is the permanganate ion the oxidizing agent?

I have seen both potassium permanganate and the permanganate ion being called the oxidizing agent. Isn't it more appropriate, however, to call the permanganate ion the oxidizing agent only as the ...
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Is haloform reaction considered to be disproportionation? [duplicate]

A question in an exam listed a number of compounds and the task was to find the number of compounds which will undergo disproportionation in conc. $\ce{NaOH}$. One of the compounds was $\ce{CCl3CHO}$, ...
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Why does copper(II) sulfate solution turn black on addition of excess sodium borohydride?

In my laboratory experiment, I was supposed to reduce copper(II) sulfate to copper by means of $\ce{NaBH4}$, an indication of which was supposed to be a colour change from blue (copper(II) sulfate) to ...
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Gold cyanidation process

My chemistry book says the following: In the metallurgy of silver and gold , the respective metal is leached with a dilute solution of $\ce{NaCN}$ in presence of $\ce{O2}$ as a result of which the ...
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Does the length of a salt bridge effect the voltage of a voltaic cell?

I am doing a Chemistry Lab in which it is completely student run. In this experiment, I basically set out the same exact voltaic cell, and used varying lengths of salt bridges as my independent ...
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Products formed on the reduction of KMnO4 in aqueous solution

The Latimer diagram for $\ce{MnO^-_4}$ is given below: $$ \ce{MnO^{-}_4 ->[0.56V] MnO^{2-}_4 ->[2.26V] MnO_2 ->[0.95V] Mn^{3+} ->[1.51V] Mn^{2+} ->[-1.18V] Mn}$$ Then I have calculated ...
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Does hypochlorous acid oxidize hydrogen peroxide?

The following reaction is from https://ncert.nic.in/textbook/pdf/kech202.pdf, p. 11: $$\ce{H2O2 + HOCl -> H3O+ + Cl- + O2}$$ I have to find if $\ce{H2O2}$ is acting like a reducing agent or an ...
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Can metal displacement reactions happen with insoluable salts?

I know how normal metal displacement reactions work. If one metal is more reactive than the other, they will displace. For example, normally for this reaction: $$\ce{Fe_{(s)} + 2AgCl_{(aq)} -> Fe^{+...
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Reaction rate of 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O

I am interested in the kinetics of the reactions: $$ \begin{align} \ce{2 H2 + O2 &-> H2O}\tag{R1}\\ \ce{2 CO + O2 &-> 2 CO2}\tag{R2}\\ \end{align} $$ I looked at the NIST website hoping ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Does hot potassium permanganate break benzene rings?

Benzene rings are broken during ozonolysis, and alkenes treated with hot $\ce{KMnO4}$ undergo oxidative ozonolysis. So does that mean that the double bonds of benzene also are broken by hot $\ce{...
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2 votes
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Why doesn't XeF6 displace oxygen from water?

Consider the following reactions (unbalanced): $$ \begin{align} \ce{XeF2 + H2O &→ Xe + HF + O2} \tag{a} \\ \ce{XeF4 + H2O &→ XeO3 + Xe + O2 + HF} \tag{b} \\ \ce{XeF6 + H2O &→ XeO3 + HF} \...
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Excess of OH- ions in electrolysis of sodium chloride solution

In the electrolysis of dilute or concentrated sodium chloride solution, at the cathode as hydrogen ions discharge and cause an excess of hydroxide ions, why doesn't the negativity of the cathode repel ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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What would happen to the cell potential if two half cells of a galvanic cell were at different temperatures?

I'm doing an experiment where I'm investigating the effect of temperature of the galvanic cell on the cell potential. But during the experiment, I noticed that the two half cells were at different ...
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Definition of Oxidation [duplicate]

Most textbooks define "Gain of Oxygen" as oxidation. Why the gain of Fluorine is not included as part of the definitions since Fluorine is more electronegative than Oxygen?
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1 answer
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Reaction between concentrated sulfuric acid and sodium bromide

What are the products of the reaction between sodium bromide and concentrated sulfuric acid? I did the question like this: $$ \begin{align} \ce{2Br- &-> Br2 + 2e-} \tag{R1.1} \\ \ce{SO4^2- 4H+ ...
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2 votes
0 answers
188 views

Sodium dithionite reduction of nitro group to amine

I've recently come across the synthesis of 3-aminopthalhydrazine from 3-nitropthalhydrazine where the reducing agent used was sodium dithionite ($\ce{Na2S2O4}$). I wanted to know what the mechanism of ...
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Will Lithium displace a sodium salt?

This question is based on a discrepancy I have observed in my limited knowledge about the reactivity and electrochemical series. In the reactivity series it is mentioned that Na>Li in reactivity ...
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1 vote
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How to promote oxidation of copper(I) chloride to copper(II) chloride with oxygen in solution?

I recently discovered that copper(I) chloride in hydrochloric acid can react at about 80 °C with bubbled-in oxygen gas and oxidize into copper(II) chloride. I found almost no documentation on the web, ...
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1 vote
1 answer
77 views

Balancing a chemical reaction with oxidation numbers

We have been teached how to balance chemical reactions with oxidation numbers in school, but somehow I can't understand it. This is the equation to balance $$\ce{Cu(s) + NO3−(aq) + H+(aq) -> Cu^2+(...
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In the complete combustion of methane, is it methane or carbon that is oxidised?

I realise this is a rather pedantic question, but I'm wondering which application of terminology is more correct here. I know that, in the complete combustion of methane, methane is the reducing agent....
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1 answer
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Voltaic cell equilibrium confusion

In a voltaic cell, taking one with $\ce{Zn}$ and $\ce{Cu }$ electrodes for an example, an EMF is formed because the equilibria at the $\ce{Zn}$ electrode is shifted more towards the $\ce{Zn^2+ + 2e-}$ ...
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2 answers
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How is MnS + 2HCl -> MnCl2 + H2S a redox reaction, in terms of electron transfer?

$$\ce{MnS + 2HCl -> MnCl2 + H2S}$$ If oxidation and reduction is taken to be the loss of hydrogen and the gain of hydrogen respectively, then I can see how the aforementioned reaction is redox — $\...
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Incompatibility of Helmholtz Double Layer and Redox electrochemistry

In an electric double layer capacitor(EDLC) (or any situation with a Helmholtz double layer) what prevents the ions from being reduced or oxidized like the ions in an electrochemical cell? If it is ...
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Simultaneous electrolysis on applying a suitable amount of potential difference

This question was asked in the JEE in 2020: $\pu{250 mL}$ of a waste solution obtained from the workshop of a goldsmith contains $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{AgNO3}$ and $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{AuCl}.$ The solution ...
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2 votes
3 answers
163 views

Do molecules containing enough oxygen to burn themselves exist?

Is there a molecule with enough oxygen in it (for example, something like $\ce{HCOOOH}$) such that it can undergo complete combustion without requiring any additional oxygen? For example the above ...
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9 votes
1 answer
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How does cyclopentadienyl anion act as reducing agent?

I am a second year university student, so I'm afraid my chemistry isn't great. I am looking for an explanation of how the $\ce{Cp-}$ anion acts as a reducing agent. To contextualise - in a simple ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Balancing OH- reduction to H2 [closed]

I have to balance the following redox equation: $\ce{B + NaOH -> NaBO2 + H2 + Na2O}$ Here I identified B as the species which undrgoes oxidation and wrote the oxidation half-reaction: $\ce{4OH- + B ...
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7 votes
2 answers
366 views

Converting pyrite to iron sulfate

I was reading a Jules Verne book recently, in which the following chemical reaction was done: He placed a layer of branches and chopped wood, on which were piled some pieces of shistose pyrites ... ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Oxidation of sulfuric acid to Marshall's acid and its half cell reaction

$\ce{H2O2}$ can be prepared by successive reactions: $\ce{2NH4HSO4 -> H2 + (NH4)2S2O8}$ $\ce{(NH4)2S2O8 + 2H2O -> 2NH4HSO4 + H2O2}$ The first reaction is an electrolytic reaction and second is ...
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0 votes
3 answers
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Can oxidation and reduction be described in terms of transfer of oxygen in the following way?

After reading and thinking about oxidation and reduction a bit, I tried to come up with a way to explain it to myself… Could someone verify if this is technically correct? Consider 2 elements A and B ...
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1 answer
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Can a salt bridge run out and become a regular bridge? [duplicate]

The goal of a salt bridge is to maintain electroneutrality in both of the half-cells. At the anode half-cell, the anode is oxidized. The resulting electrons travel up the wire to the load while the ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Specifically how does the presence of moisture and oxygen affect the yield of ferrocene? [closed]

In a lab this week at uni we made ferrocene (I'm a second year Chemistry student). This was done by reacting nBuLi with cyclopentadiene (kept in freezer) to create the Cp anion in-situ. To this ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What happens with electric charges in a salt water battery?

When building a simple salt water battery, consisting of a zinc-anode, copper-cathode and an NaCl-solution, I noticed the following: When closing the circuit, the current decreases over time. (No ...
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7 votes
3 answers
562 views

Why do diluted sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide etch copper only when chloride ions are present?

I've mixed 30 ml 10% sulfuric acid with 20 ml 3% hydrogen peroxide and put a drop of this solution onto copper foil. The solution quickly removed the oxide layer from the copper but did not dissolve ...
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2 votes
3 answers
187 views

How can one determine if a chemical reaction is impossible to balance?

I asked this question on Math Stackexchange, but thought I'd get a more chemical view: https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/4326904/determining-whether-or-not-a-system-of-equations-has-nonzero-...
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0 votes
2 answers
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How to calculate/estimate the contamination rate of ultra pure water (UPW) in the presence of metals?

Metals are known to release ions into ultra pure water. Do any equations or empirical data sets exist for estimating the rate of contamination with different metals? I don't need a specific solution; ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Equilvalence point in redox Titration of Fe(II) and Fe(III) with Reinhardt-Zimmermann solution

In the lab at university, we need to conduct a simultaneous determination of iron(II) and iron (III) ions using potassium permanganate solution. In the first step, we just fill up our given sample ...
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