Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions and acid-base equilibria.

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23 views

Gas/solid to aqueous reactions [closed]

In my homework I have seen reactions like HCl(g) -> HCl(aq) or AlCl3(s) -> AlCl3(aq) How does this work? Shouldn't there be some source of water in the reactants to form an aqueous compound?
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Solubility of nitrogen dioxide in sodium hydroxide

I know $\ce{NaOH}$ can absorb $\ce{NO2}$, but I could not find any data of solubility of $\ce{NO2}$ in $\ce{NaOH}$ at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. I am trying to figure out how much NaOH ...
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Reaction between hydrobromic acid and sodium borate

Write the reaction for a a sodium borate solution being titrated by hydrobromic acid, assuming sodium borate is represented by $\ce{Na3BO3(aq)}$. I think this is a simple double replacement reaction: ...
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How can one measure instantaneous ionisation ratio of a weak electrolyte? [closed]

Trying to get information about ionization ratio of weak electrolyte, led me to a few page with information about how to calculate it, but this will give me a static equilibrium answer. I'd like to ...
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how dilute should the solution be for a noticeable enough colligative property such as relative lowering in vapor pressure?

I was mixing soup powder with boiling water today and noticed the vapors coming from the water suddenly vanish; seemed like the powder being non volatile decreased the mole fraction of water in the ...
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Why do we assume that the successive deprotonation of a polyprotic acid happens when only the previous deprotonation has reached equilibrium?

The steps for finding the concentration of the species at the equilibrium of polyprotic acid are as given in this book in section $10.16$ and illustrated on the next page. I have three questions, but ...
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1answer
25 views

Is a diluted aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite more stable than a concentrated solution, all else being equal?

On the Clorox website, they recommend that you dilute bleach (NaOCl) in water prior to use for disinfection. They say that you should make a fresh solution each time you need to use it, adding: “Don’t ...
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How is formula for mean ionic activity derived from its constituent activities?

I spent hours in order to understand the following - but without success: At many places the mean ionic activity coefficient for the reaction $$\ldots \rightarrow \nu_A A^{z_A+} + \nu_B B^{z_B-}$$ ...
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1answer
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How much salt in a cup of water would it take to neither hydrate nor dehydrate the average person? [closed]

I don't know a lot about chemistry, and this question came up during lunch with my friend. I was interested in this question so I thought I could ask here. Sorry if I didn't use the right tags.
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Maintaining our supersaturated oceans

Supersaturates solutions can be unstable and decay beautifully once a seed crystal is introduced. Our oceans near the surface are supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate. This map shows the ...
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2answers
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What might cause overestimated measured pH value of sodium hydroxide solution pumped with carbon dioxide?

I tried an experiment at home where I had a $\ce{CO2}$ tank pumping $\ce{CO2}$ into a solution of $\pu{28 g}$ sodium hydroxide in $\pu{200 ml}$ water. The initial $\mathrm{pH}$ was $11.24.$ I expected ...
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62 views

Mixing hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide doesn't lead to sodium peroxide anymore [closed]

I've been using same bottle of hydrogen peroxide and same bottle of 50 % of sodium hydroxide to make sodium peroxide for a month now. You could see the presence of sodium peroxide in the solution ...
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1answer
66 views

Predict whether a reaction is likely to occur. If so, write a net ionic equation [closed]

a) $\ce{AgNO3(aq) + CuCl2(aq) -> }$ So the first step is to combine the inners and outers. So I have $\ce{AgCl}$ and $\ce{CuNO3}$ I know $\ce{NO^-_3}$ has a -1 charge so then wouldn't $\ce{Cu}$ ...
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1answer
57 views

Hydrated electrons produced by radiation vs electrons from electrostatic charge: are they equally reactive?

One of the species generated in water or aqueous solutions by the ionizing radiations are free electrons that quickly become "hydrated" or "aqueous electrons" (see for example this ...
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Waste management of hazardous solvents

How should one safely dispose of chemicals like dichloromethane, toluene or acetone that were mixed with water? Is the water contaminated to a degree that it needs also treatment? For example ...
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How to prepare a solution of Ferrous Iron?

I need to prepare a solution of Ferrous Iron (Fe2+). This solution will be used to test a water filtration system by simulating the Ferrous Iron that is sometimes present in well water. The system is ...
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1answer
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Why is the enthalpy of solution of hydrated calcium chloride positive?

My book says that the enthalpy of solution of anhydrous calcium chloride is negative because it produces hydrated calcium chloride. But when hydrated calcium chloride is dissolved in water, the ...
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Do coordination complexes with stronger ligands form more stable complexes?

I read that chelate complexes generally are more stable than monodentate complexes. However, I noticed that in the case of $\ce{[Fe(CN)6]^3-}$ and $\ce{[Fe(en)3]^3+}$, this is not observed as the ...
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1answer
114 views

Method to remove impurities from acetaminophen synthesis experiment

I'd like to know about impurities from acetaminophen synthesis experiment. Are there any impurities produced by oxidation of p-aminophenol? If there is any impurity produced by oxidation of p-...
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Copper powder from aqueous copper sulfate solution help

I’ve been wanting to make copper powder for some homemade pyrotechnics. When placing an iron object in a copper sulfate solution, copper powder is produced. However, sooner or later, the reaction ...
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Can Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHG) be used for disinfection of medical device (e.g. of polyethylene material)? [closed]

Chlorhexidine is commonly used as a skin antiseptic, hand disinfectant, endodontic irrigant etc. It possess antibacterial and antifungal properties, and is considered low toxicity when used in low ...
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Dextrose equivalent values (DE) of the most common sugars

What are the dextrose equivalent values (DE) of lactose, and other common sugars? Some data like the values for sucrose (0), maltodextrin (x<20), maltose (52), and glucose (100) can be found at ...
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Aqueous glucose solution concentration computation

The question in my worksheet is as follows: You dissolve $\pu{1.451 mol}$ of glucose in water to a volume of $\pu{250 mL}$. The mass of the glucose is $\pu{261 g}$ and the molecular weight $\pu{180....
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Acid dissociation constant calculated from the ionization percentage

The question goes like this: An acid (HX) is 25% dissociated in water. If the equilibrium concentration of HX is $\pu{0.30 M}$, calculate the value of $K_\mathrm{a}$. So I tried as follows: if I ...
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How do two species from the same buffer system have different pKa values? [closed]

$$ \begin{array}{lr} \hline \text{Reagent}~(\pu{0.1 M}~\text{solutions}) & \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a} \\ \hline \text{Ammonia} & 9.25 \\ \text{Acetic acid} & 4.75 \\ \text{Ammonium chloride} &...
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If a company advertises a solution as 20% on their web-site, will it be 20% w/w?

I am trying to buy some ammonia solution from a company and I have found the product I want but the product particulars just tell me it's 20%. They don't say if it's 20% w/w or w/v? Their technical ...
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1answer
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Relation between standard silver-silver chloride electrode potential and solubility product of silver chloride

I learned that $E^\circ_\ce{Cl^-|Ag,AgCl}, E^\circ_\ce{Ag^+|Ag}$ and $K_\mathrm{sp}$ of $\ce{AgCl}$ are related as $$\boxed{E^\circ_\ce{Cl^-|Ag,AgCl} = E^\circ_\ce{Ag^+|Ag} + \frac{RT}{F}\ln K_\mathrm{...
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1answer
119 views

Why is hydrogen peroxide acidic in aqueous solution?

This seemed like a trivial question to me... until I began to think about it. The "usual" criteria for greater acidity are larger sizes of the atom attached to the acidic proton within the ...
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1answer
84 views

Is this true for conductivity of mixture of two solutions equal to the sum of conductivities of each solution?

Suppose $\ce{Na2SO4}$ has a conductivity $\pu{2.6 \times 10^{-4} S cm-1}$ and on mixing $\ce{CaSO4}$ to saturation, the conductivity becomes $\pu{7.0 \times 10^{-4} S cm-1}$. So, Is the conductivity ...
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1answer
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Will Sodium Polyacrylate (SAP) absorb the gas from liquid ammonia?

I'm considering using sodium polyacrylate grains to absorb spills of a relatively strong Ammonium Hydroxide solution. Will the SAP (super absorbent polymer) only absorb the water, and in effect make ...
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Numerically solving chemical equilibrium equations

Here are chemical equilibrium equations: $\begin{cases} \mathbf{N}^\text{T}\mathbf{X}+\mathbf{C}=\mathbf{Y}\\ \mathbf{N}\ln\mathbf{Y}=\ln\mathbf{K} \end{cases}$ Here $\mathbf{C}=\begin{pmatrix}c_1\\...
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1answer
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How exactly does a buffer made up of a weak acid and its conjugate base work upon addition of hydroxide ions? [duplicate]

Consider a buffer solution containing a weak acid and its conjugate base ($c_\mathrm{total} = \pu{0.1 mol L-1}$): $$\ce{HA <=> H^+ + A^-}$$ When $\ce{H+}$ ions are added (from a strong acid), ...
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Calculating molarity of iodine solution after reaction

I made an iodine solution referring to the methodology provided in this link: https://www.thoughtco.com/vitamin-c-determination-by-iodine-titration-606322 $$\ce{KIO3 + 5KI + 3H2SO4->3I2 + 3H2O + ...
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2answers
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How do you achieve phase separation of a methanol / chloroform solution?

If I'm washing a methanol solution with chloroform, can I just add water in a 1:1 mixture with the methanol and expect it to break? Do I need to do anything else to cause the aqueous phase to separate ...
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1answer
111 views

Calculating pH of aqueous ammonium hydrogen sulfide solution

I was doing the following question yesterday: Calculate the pH of a $\pu{0.1 M}$ solution of $\ce{NH4HS}$, given $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{b}$ of $\ce{NH3}$ is $4.74$, and $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a1}$ and $\...
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Looking for caffeine partition coefficients

As part of a project, I'm looking to carry out a liquid-liquid extraction of caffeine from an aqueous phase to an organic phase, using dichloromethane or ethyl acetate. So I'm looking for the ...
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1answer
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Understanding the Osmotic Pressure formula

$$\Pi = iMRT$$ Can this be rewritten as $\Pi = ORT$ where $O =$ osmolarity? The only reason I ask is because my book doesn’t talk about the relationship between osmolarity and molarity, but I came ...
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Why does the graph of the electrical conductivity of sulfuric acid/water solutions have this knee in the ~85%-~92% range?

This answer to an earlier question regarding the electrical conductivity of sulfuric acid provides a graph showing the conductivity of sulfuric acid/water mixtures ranging from 0% to 100% sulfuric ...
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1answer
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pH meter mechanism - connecting potential differences

This question was asked here: pH probe bulb - what is happening within the glass? and How does a pH glass electrode work?. But, the mechanism remains unanswered. How does a potential difference ...
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1answer
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Definition of dissolve and the state label (aq) in chemical equations

I am confused with the meaning of "(aq)" in chemical equations, and the meaning of "dissolved". What is the actual meaning it is supposed to convey? For instance, in the document &...
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Is "Sulfuric acid... makes a poor electrolyte... very little of it will dissociate into ions" really true? What does that actually mean?

While researching chromate conversion coating for edits to this answer in Space Exploration SE, I came upon the following passage in Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel to Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric ...
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1answer
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How are acids in aqueous solution able to react again after reacting with water?

I hope to clear up some confusion I have about acid-base reactions in aqueous solution. Based on the Bronsted-Lowry definition of acids, I know acids donate protons. In water, a strong acid should ...
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1answer
163 views

How to determine the equivalents of OH- in a titration curve

How does one go about determining the equivalents of $\ce{OH-}$ needed for the titration of a weak acid. For example here is the titration curve for Aspartate: Why is the equivalents for $\mathrm{p}...
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Which method has the highest yield of calcium sulfate?

I'm not sure which of following two methods will give better yields for $\ce{CaSO4}$: A. Add dilute $\ce{HNO3}$ to $\ce{CaCO3}$, followed by dilute $\ce{H2SO4}$; or B. Titrate aqeuous calcium ...
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1answer
145 views

Why does acetate ion react with water? [closed]

When NaCl is added to water, it dissociates into $\rm{Na^+}$ and $\rm{Cl^-}$. The newly formed $\rm{Na^+}$ and $\rm{Cl^-}$ do not react with water. When $\rm{CH_3COONa}$ (sodium acetate) is added to ...
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1answer
38 views

Microfiltration for saturated solutions of highly hygroscopic compounds?

Is it possible to pass saturated solutions of compounds with very high solubility through filters with small pores (e.g. passing a saturated aqueous ZnCl2 solution at 90C through a 2mcm glassfiber ...
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1answer
190 views

Do azeotropic mixtures evaporate proportionally?

Do azeotropes evaporate, without boiling, in proportionate amounts, or does this property describe their behaviour only at boiling point? Concretely, if 91% isopropyl alcohol/water (by volume, i.e. an ...
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2answers
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will splitting a solution will keep the concentration values (and moles) the same? [closed]

I have this exercise from my H.W: and I am asked: if we split the solution into 3 different containers equally - how many moles will the solution have in each container? will the Cl- concentration ...
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1answer
116 views

What is the dissociation percentage of a polybasic organic acid at a certain pH?

For my Master's Thesis I am working with the dicarboxylic acid muconic acid $(\ce{H2MA},$ $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a1} = 2.9,$ $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a2} = 4.0).$ It thus dissociates into $\ce{HMA-}$ and $\...
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1answer
57 views

Effect of side reactions on galvanic cell using iron rod as anode and sodium chloride as salt bridge

We just made a galvanic cell on a chemistry lesson using iron, iron sulfate , copper and copper sulfate. We used a sponge soaked in $\ce{NaCl}$ solution as the salt bridge. The issue is that we ...

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