Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions and acid-base equilibria.

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0answers
13 views

Calculating the concentration of ammonia solution [closed]

If 20gm of ammonia gas is dissolved in 1 liter water, then what will be the concentration of the solution?
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80 views

Why is hydrogen peroxide acidic in aqueous solution?

This seemed like a trivial question to me... until I began to think about it. The "usual" criteria for greater acidity are larger sizes of the atom attached to the acidic proton within the ...
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1answer
69 views

Is this true for conductivity of mixture of two solutions equal to the sum of conductivities of each solution?

Suppose $\ce{Na2SO4}$ has a conductivity $\pu{2.6 \times 10^{-4} S cm-1}$ and on mixing $\ce{CaSO4}$ to saturation, the conductivity becomes $\pu{7.0 \times 10^{-4} S cm-1}$. So, Is the conductivity ...
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43 views

Would para-aminobenzoic acid exist as a zwitterion or non-ionized at pH 4?

The two $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ values for p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) are: $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a1} = 2.50$ and $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a2} = 4.8$. My thought was that at a $\mathrm{pH}$ of 4, the ...
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1answer
24 views

Will Sodium Polyacrylate (SAP) absorb the gas from liquid ammonia?

I'm considering using sodium polyacrylate grains to absorb spills of a relatively strong Ammonium Hydroxide solution. Will the SAP (super absorbent polymer) only absorb the water, and in effect make ...
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93 views

Numerically solving chemical equilibrium equations

Here are chemical equilibrium equations: $\begin{cases} \mathbf{N}^\text{T}\mathbf{X}+\mathbf{C}=\mathbf{Y}\\ \mathbf{N}\ln\mathbf{Y}=\ln\mathbf{K} \end{cases}$ Here $\mathbf{C}=\begin{pmatrix}c_1\\...
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57 views

How exactly does a buffer made up of a weak acid and its conjugate base work upon addition of hydroxide ions? [duplicate]

Consider a buffer solution containing a weak acid and its conjugate base ($c_\mathrm{total} = \pu{0.1 mol L-1}$): $$\ce{HA <=> H^+ + A^-}$$ When $\ce{H+}$ ions are added (from a strong acid), ...
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1answer
54 views

Calculating molarity of iodine solution after reaction

I made an iodine solution referring to the methodology provided in this link: https://www.thoughtco.com/vitamin-c-determination-by-iodine-titration-606322 $$\ce{KIO3 + 5KI + 3H2SO4->3I2 + 3H2O + ...
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2answers
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How do you achieve phase separation of a methanol / chloroform solution?

If I'm washing a methanol solution with chloroform, can I just add water in a 1:1 mixture with the methanol and expect it to break? Do I need to do anything else to cause the aqueous phase to separate ...
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1answer
91 views

Calculating pH of aqueous ammonium hydrogen sulfide solution

I was doing the following question yesterday: Calculate the pH of a $\pu{0.1 M}$ solution of $\ce{NH4HS}$, given $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{b}$ of $\ce{NH3}$ is $4.74$, and $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a1}$ and $\...
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340 views

Looking for caffeine partition coefficients

As part of a project, I'm looking to carry out a liquid-liquid extraction of caffeine from an aqueous phase to an organic phase, using dichloromethane or ethyl acetate. So I'm looking for the ...
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1answer
35 views

Understanding the Osmotic Pressure formula

$$\Pi = iMRT$$ Can this be rewritten as $\Pi = ORT$ where $O =$ osmolarity? The only reason I ask is because my book doesn’t talk about the relationship between osmolarity and molarity, but I came ...
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1answer
722 views

Why does the graph of the electrical conductivity of sulfuric acid/water solutions have this knee in the ~85%-~92% range?

This answer to an earlier question regarding the electrical conductivity of sulfuric acid provides a graph showing the conductivity of sulfuric acid/water mixtures ranging from 0% to 100% sulfuric ...
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1answer
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pH meter mechanism - connecting potential differences

This question was asked here: pH probe bulb - what is happening within the glass? and How does a pH glass electrode work?. But, the mechanism remains unanswered. How does a potential difference ...
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1answer
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Definition of dissolve and the state label (aq) in chemical equations

I am confused with the meaning of "(aq)" in chemical equations, and the meaning of "dissolved". What is the actual meaning it is supposed to convey? For instance, in the document &...
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Is “Sulfuric acid… makes a poor electrolyte… very little of it will dissociate into ions” really true? What does that actually mean?

While researching chromate conversion coating for edits to this answer in Space Exploration SE, I came upon the following passage in Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel to Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric ...
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1answer
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How are acids in aqueous solution able to react again after reacting with water?

I hope to clear up some confusion I have about acid-base reactions in aqueous solution. Based on the Bronsted-Lowry definition of acids, I know acids donate protons. In water, a strong acid should ...
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1answer
67 views

How to determine the equivalents of OH- in a titration curve

How does one go about determining the equivalents of $\ce{OH-}$ needed for the titration of a weak acid. For example here is the titration curve for Aspartate: Why is the equivalents for $\mathrm{p}...
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48 views

Which method has the highest yield of calcium sulfate?

I'm not sure which of following two methods will give better yields for $\ce{CaSO4}$: A. Add dilute $\ce{HNO3}$ to $\ce{CaCO3}$, followed by dilute $\ce{H2SO4}$; or B. Titrate aqeuous calcium ...
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1answer
69 views

Why does acetate ion react with water? [closed]

When NaCl is added to water, it dissociates into $\rm{Na^+}$ and $\rm{Cl^-}$. The newly formed $\rm{Na^+}$ and $\rm{Cl^-}$ do not react with water. When $\rm{CH_3COONa}$ (sodium acetate) is added to ...
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1answer
37 views

Microfiltration for saturated solutions of highly hygroscopic compounds?

Is it possible to pass saturated solutions of compounds with very high solubility through filters with small pores (e.g. passing a saturated aqueous ZnCl2 solution at 90C through a 2mcm glassfiber ...
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1answer
168 views

Do azeotropic mixtures evaporate proportionally?

Do azeotropes evaporate, without boiling, in proportionate amounts, or does this property describe their behaviour only at boiling point? Concretely, if 91% isopropyl alcohol/water (by volume, i.e. an ...
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2answers
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will splitting a solution will keep the concentration values (and moles) the same? [closed]

I have this exercise from my H.W: and I am asked: if we split the solution into 3 different containers equally - how many moles will the solution have in each container? will the Cl- concentration ...
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1answer
113 views

What is the dissociation percentage of a polybasic organic acid at a certain pH?

For my Master's Thesis I am working with the dicarboxylic acid muconic acid $(\ce{H2MA},$ $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a1} = 2.9,$ $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a2} = 4.0).$ It thus dissociates into $\ce{HMA-}$ and $\...
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1answer
42 views

Effect of side reactions on galvanic cell using iron rod as anode and sodium chloride as salt bridge

We just made a galvanic cell on a chemistry lesson using iron, iron sulfate , copper and copper sulfate. We used a sponge soaked in $\ce{NaCl}$ solution as the salt bridge. The issue is that we ...
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1answer
40 views

Phenolphthalein + sodium carbonate and phenolphthalein + sodium bicarbonate [closed]

What would the word equations be for the following two situations? Initially $\ce{Na2CO3}$ and $\ce{NaHCO3}$ were present as 2 unknown powders, dissolved in water, and phenolphthalein was added to ...
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1answer
65 views

Hydration vs Dissolution

While revising Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry from revision material published by Arihant publications I encountered the following mentioned statement. During dissolution, the physical state of ...
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1answer
201 views

Why is the aqueous solution of KMnO4 slightly basic?

This is in the context of the various changes in oxidation state the permangananate ion can undergo with the variation of the pH of the medium. Besides the cases of strongly basic and strongly acidic ...
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1answer
46 views

What are counterion effects?

I was reading the following article on wikipedia about Hydroponics Unlike most nutrients, plants can tolerate a high concentration of the $\ce{SO4^2−}$, selectively absorbing the nutrient as needed. ...
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1answer
146 views

Why is Maleic Acid more soluble in water than its trans isomer Fumaric Acid?

My teacher taught me that compounds having intramolecular H-Bonding are relatively less soluble in water as they will not involve in H-Bonding with water appreciably while those able to do ...
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36 views

Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Solution

The osmotic pressure of an aqueous solution at $25$ Celsius is $92.0$ $kPa$. Calculate the boiling point of the solution. (Assume that the density of the solution is $1.0$ $g/mL$, ignore the mass of ...
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1answer
51 views

Phase of reaction between glucose and potassium cyanide to form amygdalin

I'm trying to write a detective-fiction novel, and I was wondering if potassium cyanide reacts with sugar only if the glucose for the amygdalin to form is dissolved in liquid or does it react even if ...
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1answer
26 views

Methanol-water mix freezing points - clarify contradictory online data > 60% w/w?

Extending an exploration of windshield washer-fluid choices to freezing points of methanol-water mixes, all web-sources located agreed to within a couple of degrees from 0-60% w/w, yet above this ...
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1answer
129 views

Finding mass percent through molality of potassium nitrate solution

Question An aqueous $\ce{KNO3}$ solution has a molality of $\pu{4.16 m}$ and a density of $\pu{1.08 g/mL}$. Calculate the percentage by mass $\ce{KNO3}$ of the solution. My Approach I know that ...
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1answer
204 views

pH of an aqueous solution with acetic acid and sodium acetate

An aqueous solution of $\pu{1L}$ contains $\pu{0.2 mol}$ of acetic acid and $\pu{0.2 mol}$ of sodium acetate ($K_\mathrm{a} = 1.8 \times 10^{-5}$). Compute the $\mathrm{pH}$ . I'm trying to help my ...
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3answers
49 views

When an aqueous extract of a substance is said to be administered at a certain quantity, is the quoted mass analogous to one as original substance?

I'm trying to read studies about the possible toxicity of the leaves of some plant often said to possess positive medicinal properties. In the studies, performed on rats, it is usually said that an ...
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Is it the solution energy or the reduction potentials (or both) that drives a galvanic cell?

I have received conflicting explanations for why the redox reaction in a galvanic cell occurs. Explanation 1: Some say that it occurs because the anodic metal dissolves more easily than the cathodic ...
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2answers
325 views

Balancing reaction between copper and nitric acid given the ratio of formed nitrogen oxides

Problem $\ce{Cu}$ reacts with $\ce{HNO3}$ according to the equation $$\ce{Cu + HNO3 -> Cu(NO3)2 + NO + NO2 + H2O}$$ If $\ce{NO}$ and $\ce{NO2}$ are formed in 2:3 ratio, what is coefficient of $\ce{...
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1answer
115 views

Balancing redox reaction of zinc and hot diluted nitric acid

I need to balance the following reaction: $$\ce{Zn + HNO3 -> Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + H2O}$$ I assigned all oxidation numbers: $$\ce{\overset{0}{Zn} + \overset{+1}{H}\overset{+5}{N}\overset{-2}{O_3}\...
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Total concentration conversion

when dealing with waste water and the total values of P, N, C are given in ppm units, what molecular weight is used for converting from ppm to molar? for Example- what will be 12 ppm of P(T) in Molar ...
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1answer
34 views

More ions form pairs when concentration of acid increases, does that decrease the speed of reaction?

Electrical conductivity decreases as an acid becomes more concentrated because more ions form pairs. However, does that affect the speed of reaction of the acid as there is a smaller concentration of ...
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How to make silicic acid, potassium silicate or calcium silicate?

I am a student of tropical agriculture. I am taking the class of agronomic chemistry and plant nutrition. I want to make use of silicate source I have at home for e.g. zeolite, wood ashes, ...
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Substituting K2CO3 for KOH in Soap

Wood water obtained by running water through hardwood ashes has a high quantity of $\ce{K2CO3}$, historicaly this was called lye. Yet soap recipes today seem to use $\ce{KOH}$ or $\ce{NaOH}$ as lye. $...
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Notation for inclusion of water in a dissolution equation

Earlier I had a student come by wanting to know how to show the dissolution of $\ce{NH4OH}$ in water. I would think we would just write it: $$\ce{NH4OH(aq) <=> NH3(aq) + H2O(l)}$$ I say this as $...
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Calculate concentrations of ions after acid-base reaction given volumes and concentrations

A $\pu{35.0 mL}$ of $\pu{4000 ppm}$ $\ce{HCl}$ solution is mixed with $\pu{45.0 mL}$ of $\pu{0.1025M}$ $\ce{NaOH}$ solution. Assume volumes are additive. $$\ce{NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) -> NaCl(aq) + H2O(...
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1answer
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Can you meassure a negative pH value with a pH meter?

I was checking the $\mathrm{pH}$ of $\pu{1 M}$ chromic acid solution, and I got its $\mathrm{pH}$ around -1.7. Yet, $\mathrm{pH}$ of $\pu{0.4 M}$ solution was around -0.6. Could these values be ...
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What is an effective coagulant/flocculant for an acidic solution?

The acidic solution is a mixture of dissolved ammonium sulfate and mono-ammonium phosphate (pH about 4.5-4.8) along with an inorganic sludge with a similar consistency to clay I am looking to remove ...
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Equilibrium of zinc ion with ammonia

In my chemistry lab, we are testing the amphoteric properties of this metal. I understand zink can react with an acid or a base to form different compounds in solution based on pH. In one part of the ...
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2answers
51 views

How to model 98% ethanol solution concentration graph over time

İ want to plot a graph of ethanol solution concentration over time .So we know that alcohol evaporates quickly in open air but is there a time when the rate of evaporation mathces that of water and ...
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1answer
29 views

Would ionic conduction be halted by shielding at the electrodes?

I've done this experiment myself and seen it front of my eyes. Set up a basic circuit with a battery, an LED, and connect the circuit with a salt-water solution and copper wire. The LED lights up. If ...

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