Questions tagged [atomic-structure]

For questions about the various atomic structure theories, including the Bohr theory. Not to be confused with the actual arrangement of atoms in macroscopic solids ([solid-state-chemistry]) or newer quantum concepts ([quantum-chemistry])

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atomic structure - why only hydrogen be separately written in periodic table [duplicate]

The other exception is hydrogen. It has only one s-electron and hence can be placed in group 1 (alkali metals). It can also gain an electron to achieve a noble gas arrangement and hence it can behave ...
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1answer
96 views

Could a positron be made to stably orbit an atom? [closed]

Suppose you have a single atom of neon, argon or some other noble gas of your choice. While the entire atom is electrically neutral a nearby positron would probably be more strongly attracted to the ...
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What is Rutherford model? [closed]

New atomic model explanation This video is talking about What led to the new atomic model. The big idea that the atom...
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0answers
22 views

Lattice points of a hexagonal close packed structure

I understand that there are 2 atoms per unit cell for hcp, but also that hcp itself is not a lattice. If the underlying lattice is hexagonal primitive, does that mean there is only 1 lattice point per ...
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30 views

What is the relationship between packing factor, ductility and strength? And does high ductility also means high flexibility? (Material Science) [closed]

Im quite confused on how to explain about why less packed atoms are less ductile and how to relate it with strength and flexibility based on these questions. Attached picture is the questions and my ...
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3answers
76 views

Where are orbitals located in an atom? [closed]

I am having trouble understanding what are the orbitals. Till now what I have understood, I have depicted in this diagram. Is the diagram correct?? If not, what should be the corrections?
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30 views

Why are HOMO and LUMO energies invariant under spin-flip?

Atomic theory says singlet and triplet energies for the same orbital differ because of exchange interaction. However, molecular orbital (MO) theory describes the energy between the HOMO (highest ...
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A better understanding of the screening effect and how it works?

What I am taught- Inner shell electrons shield the outermost electrons from the attraction of nucleus. More closer the inner shell is to the nucleus, more its shielding effect. thus $n_s > n_p > ...
2
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3answers
700 views

Which atom is the smallest atom?

Is hydrogen or helium the smallest atom? My teacher said that the smallest atom is the helium atom, but I think that the smallest atom is the hydrogen atom. It has a single electron and a single ...
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0answers
74 views

The necessary energy required to ionize 1g of potasium in its fundamental state if the ionization energy is given

The energy of ionization of the potassium is $\pu{6.94\cdot 10^{-19} J/atom}.$ Find the necessary energy to ionize $\pu{1 g}$ of potasium that is found on its fundamental state. Attempt. I really ...
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45 views

Comparing average radius of subshells for multielectron atoms

I recently came across a question comparing the average radius of subshells. A search on the internet gave the following result for single electron atoms: $$\langle r\rangle_{n,\,l}=\frac{a_0 n^2 \...
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23 views

respective posistion of d and p orbitals in a multielectronic species

we write the electronic configuration of atoms as [noble gas core]4s2 3d10.that is that due to energy considerations(aufbau principle) in multielectronic species. what i want to know is whether the 4s ...
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1answer
84 views

Comparing strengths of σ-bonds formed by $\mathrm d_{z^2}$ and $\mathrm p_z$ orbitals

According to my professor $\mathrm d_{z^2}–\mathrm d_{z^2}$ σ-bond is stronger than $\mathrm p_z–\mathrm p_z$ σ-bond as the extent of overlapping is greater in $\mathrm d_{z^2}–\mathrm d_{z^2}$ ...
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1answer
128 views

Lother Mayer curve

While studying about atomic trends, I encountered the Lothar Meyer curve: Similar graph found on internet If the covalent radius decreases across a period, why is the graph of atomic volume ...
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1answer
56 views

Which electron should be considered the last one?

Today I came across a problem which asked some quantum number informations regarding the last electron of Zinc. Now as far as I have studied 4s subshell is filled in preference to 3d subshell bcos of ...
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35 views

Calculating electrons emitted when quantum yield is given

In a problem, the wavelength $\lambda$ of a monochromatic light, power $P$ of the source, and work function $\phi$ of the metal on which the light is shown is given. Quantum yield is $n$. I have to ...
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1answer
237 views

What is the average distance between electron 'shells' in an atom? Or between the innermost shell and the nucleus? [closed]

Somehow, I've never come across any mention of the actual, physical distances between, say the 1s and 2s shells in an atom, whether large or small.... I know that p, d and f (and g?) shells are oddly ...
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1answer
59 views

How is most probable radius in quantum mechanical model equal to Bohr's radius in hydrogen atom

Most probable radius in 1s orbital for hydrogen electron is $\pu{0.529E-10 m}$ which is Bohr radius. But energy of electron in hydrogen atom is proportional to mean radial distance in atom. In this ...
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2answers
114 views

What would happen if the alpha particles directly hit the electrons in the gold foil in Rutherford's experiment? [closed]

What would happen if the alpha particles directly hit the electrons in the gold foil in Rutherford's experiment? Would it get ionized or is there no probability of such a thing happening ?
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1answer
146 views

What is the radial probability distribution function and what is its significance? [duplicate]

Below I have given three graphs for the $\ce{1s}$ orbital. $R(r)$ is the radial part of the wave function of the electron. $R^2(r)$ is the radial part of the wave function of the electron multiplied ...
5
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2answers
254 views

Why is potassium less dense than sodium?

Potassium has a density of $\pu{0.86g/cm3}$ and sodium has a density of $\pu{0.97g/cm3}$,even though potassium is below sodium and one might expect the alkali metals to exhibit monotonously increasing ...
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0answers
33 views

molecular orbital theory and crystal field theory confusions

I am a high school student and I am very confused in Molecular orbital theory, it says that when two orbitals overlaps in the same phase, they form antibonding orbitals and when they overlap in ...
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2answers
164 views

What does Bohr's model predict if the mass of an electron becomes 10 times its actual mass? [closed]

If the mass of an electron becomes 10 times its actual mass, which of the following statements is correct regarding Bohr's model: Velocity of electron increases by 10 times. Orbit radius decreases by ...
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2answers
58 views

Will a Crooke's Tube stop working after sometime? [closed]

A Crooke's Tube is a cold-cathode tube, wherein electrons are released from the cathode when ionised gas particles strike it with speed. Following a chain reaction, other gas particles also get ...
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1answer
37 views

Practical to measure topography of a large area (mm-scale) with scanning probe microscopy (SPM)?

I'm currently very new to nanotechnology. I do understand that it is possible to achieve an excellent topography image of a sample by SPM. However, is it possible to do SPM over a large area (for ...
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1answer
29 views

what is the use of finding out the radius of an atom [closed]

I happen to come across this, but what is the radius of an atom, velocity, KE, PE, etc.. actually used for? like the formula r=0.529n^2/z and so on
3
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1answer
145 views

Why is strontium(II) ion bigger than krypton atom?

$\ce{Sr^2+}$ is exactly the same as $\ce{Kr}$, in terms of electrons and orbitals. The only difference between the two, is that $\ce{Sr^2+}$ has a couple of extra protons in the nucleus (and probably ...
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0answers
72 views

Why are electrons filled in fourth shell before the third shell is filled?

I am a beginner and am learning about atomic structure and I am getting confusions regarding the aufbau principle. It is said that the electrons will be filled first in lowest available energy level. ...
3
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1answer
62 views

Is the effective nuclear charge only defined for valence electrons?

I've just been taught about the effective nuclear charge and screening effect in school. I'd like to ask and confirm if the effective nuclear charge is only defined for valence electrons. If not then ...
6
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1answer
148 views

Basics of wave-mechanical model of atom

Why is it that for the $\mathrm{d}$ subshell we have $\ \ \mathrm{d}_{xy}, \ \ \mathrm{d}_{yz}, \ \ \mathrm{d}_{xz}, \ \ \mathrm{d}_{x^{2}-y^{2}},$ and $\mathrm{d}_{z^{2}}$ orbitals only? Why aren't ...
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1answer
99 views

Excitation of electron in Niels Bohr's atomic model

Professor taught us that an electron gains or looses only those energies which are equal to difference in two energy levels. That is $E_1 + \Delta E = E_2$ or $E_1 + \Delta E = E_3.$ What if we give, ...
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2answers
161 views

Why can't the energy of an electron exceed 0 eV?

Today we were learning about atomic structure, our teacher introduced the mathematics of the 'Niels Bohr Model of Atom', and calculated the value of total energy $\frac{-13.6z^2}{n^2} \pu{eV}$. He ...
15
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1answer
3k views

Why does hydrogen burn with a pale blue flame while its emission spectral lines are red in colour?

I was studying oxidising flames and realized that sodium burns with a bright yellow flame the wavelength of which is around 588 nm. Then I searched for emission spectra of sodium and found that the ...
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47 views

Why is atomic mass unit/unified atomic mass defined against Carbon 12?

I have searched the web all over this question and I have not really found an answer to my satisfaction. From my understanding of the topic so far, I understand that reason why concept of unified ...
0
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1answer
27 views

When is the n+l rule followed when working with energy of different orbitals?

While going through my book, I came across a problem which gave some options about the order of energy of 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals of hydrogen atom. The correct answer was given as: 3s, 3p and 3d ...
3
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0answers
55 views

How would one separate a mixture of isotopes (different nuclear spins) at temperatures near 0 Kelvin?

Suppose we have two isotopes of the same element. For example, isotope A could have a nuclear spin I = 0, isotope B could have nuclear spin I = 3/2. Let us say we have a compound where this element is ...
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0answers
44 views

Origin of the D1 line of sodium

According to the fine structure formula for exact energies (Sommerfield formula) $$E_{jn} = -m_\mathrm{e}c^2\left[1 - \left(1 + \left[\frac{\alpha}{n - j - \frac 1 2 + \sqrt{\left(j + \frac 1 2\right)^...
4
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1answer
288 views

Flame Test of Alkali Metals and Alkaline Earth Metals

The flame test colors for alkali metal and alkaline earth metal salts are well known, but what about the metals themselves? Do they also give rise to the same colors (eg, brick red for Ca, pale green ...
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1answer
70 views

I am confused with intensity of spectral lines ...? [closed]

Example : FOR BALMER SERIES . HOW ? For (n2 to n1) : (2 to 1) > (3to1) > (4to 1) > (5 to 1) .....so on ......? please help me , I am unable to get that how the intensity of spectral lines ...
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0answers
38 views

Diatomic molecule under pressure

If we put a diatomic molecule under pressure the interatomic distance will be decreased and according to this graph the potential energy of the bonding molecular orbital will be increased. What will ...
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1answer
58 views

If electrons absorb photons to reach higher energy levels in Bohr's atom, why do they have lesser kinetic energy?

In Bohr's atomic model, an electron can jump to a higher energy level by absorbing a photon with energy equal to the difference in energy between 2 energy levels. This should mean that the electron ...
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1answer
89 views

How does an electron identify whether to absorb a photon of a certain wavelength or not in absorption spectrum? [closed]

How would an electron identify the specific photons of a certain wavelength which are to be absorbed in a Hydrogen atom while creating an absorption spectrum? Well, I was thinking of it like this- Way-...
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1answer
1k views

Why is it that protons and electrons undergo the same amount of deflection in an electric field if they have the same energy?

The question I have is with respect to this diagram. Which depicts a stream of protons and electrons entering a proton field with equal energy. Why is it that in the case where the energy of protons ...
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0answers
146 views

Why does titanium have lower affinity than scandium?

Electron affinity of atoms in the same row usually increases with the atomic number until the shell or half-shell gets full, and then it drops down. Some transition metals are exceptions from the rule,...
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1answer
109 views

Why does boron have a lower affinity than oxygen? [closed]

Electron affinity of oxygen is 141 kJ/mol and electron affinity of boron is 27 kJ/mol. I suspect it is because boron nucleus is much better shielded than oxygen nucleus (in the p-shell), but I am not ...
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2answers
138 views

Relationship between Quantum Numbers and the Wave-function

I recently started learning about quantum mechanics and its applciations in atomic structure in chemistry. In this inorganic textbook Inorganic Chemistry, it describes "Each of the wavefunctions ...
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0answers
44 views

Why does dissolved oxygen concentration decrease with increasing atomic number of metals?

I am looking at how metal ions ($\ce{Fe^2+}$, $\ce{Ni^2+}$, $\ce{Cu^2+}$, $\ce{Zn^2+}$, and $\ce{Ag+}$) affect the biochemical oxygen demand in water and used the Winkler's method to find out the ...
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1answer
53 views

Rutherford's Alpha Ray Scattering Experiment & Plum-Pudding Model

My teacher said, "Rutherford thought that all the Alpha particles would directly go through the gold foil without any collision if the plum pudding model was right. Because, as said in plum ...
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1answer
133 views

Schrodinger's Equation and Wave Function

So I understand that there exists the shrodinger's equation, which on solving,gives the wave function of an electron. The wave function as I understand, gives all possible information about an ...
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1answer
40 views

How to explain the relation between atomic number and energy of orbitals? [closed]

I came across a certain line in my textbook that says: "As the atomic number increases the energy of orbitals decreases" Can someone please explain how this happens? My explanation is: As ...