Questions tagged [atomic-structure]

For questions about the various atomic structure theories, including the Bohr theory. Not to be confused with the actual arrangement of atoms in macroscopic solids ([solid-state-chemistry]) or newer quantum concepts ([quantum-chemistry])

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28 views

Why Exchange Integral 1s2p does not vanish in Helium Excited States?

I'm studying the First Order Perturbation applied to the first excited states of Helium. And I'm facing with the following problem: I understand that the Couloumb Integral for all 2p function will ...
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27 views

WHICH ORBITAL IS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR ATOMIC RADi [closed]

I'm confused on this topic as different sources have different information and moreover atomic orbital which should be considered for atomic radius there are many factors which are more logical than ...
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1answer
53 views

True muonium energy levels [closed]

In a true muniom(muon-antimuon atom) do the energy levels match with that of the hydrogen's? The core is lighter for about 100 times but the muon is 100 times heavier than the electron so it would ...
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44 views

Term symbols for excited nitrogen (2s2p^4 configuration)

Looking at the NIST levels listing for neutral nitrogen atom, one of the excited configuration is $2s2p^4$ configuration. https://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/ASD/energy1.pl?encodedlist=XXT2&de=0&...
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1answer
24 views

Can you determine when the orbtials of an atom will hybridize?

We know that when it comes to C its orbitals hybridize (they become sp3 , sp2 or sp) and the energy levels of an hybridized orbital of this kind is lower than that of the p orbital that formed it but ...
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25 views

Does phosphate anion have coordinate covalent bond or not? [duplicate]

My guess is it does not. I tried to use formal charge on its Lewis diagram and find out that the three extra electrons are distributed to three oxygen atoms of $\ce{PO4^3-}$ which shows there isn't ...
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50 views

Why does ψ^2 ( square of orbital wave function ψ) give the probability of an electron in a given region? [duplicate]

Today I was introduced to the Orbital Wave Function for electrons. $\Psi$ is a mathematical function for coordinate of electrons and has no physical meaning. But $\Psi^2$ gives probability of an ...
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103 views

What is d-orbital collapse?

When I was perusing the works of Schwarz on atomic structure, I came across the unfamiliar term of d-orbital collapse. He describes it as a variation in energetic sequence from group 1 to 3 elements ...
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1answer
293 views

Electron pairing in atoms

A question asks: This question refers to isolated gaseous atoms. In which atom are all electrons paired? Ba, Br, S or Si? I thought it was Ba as its electron configuration is [Xe] 6s2. However, ...
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21 views

Does it exist a transgression to Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity principle in this given electron box notation?

The following question arises from a set of statements from which I'm asked to state whether they are true or false. This is as follows: Indicate which of the following statements are true or ...
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2answers
113 views

Effective nuclear charge and electron repulsion

To the best of my knowledge, the effective nuclear charge $Z_\mathrm{eff}$ is usually defined such that the potential energy of an electron in an atom, $\langle V \rangle$, can be expressed as $$\...
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58 views

Why is there a big jump in first ionisation energy between sodium and potassium?

I know the trend in group 1 is that ionisation energy decreases down the group due to an increase in atomic radius and more energy levels are added so more shielding, but I'm not sure why there's such ...
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1answer
158 views

What is more stable, Na+ or Na? [closed]

As per noble gas configuration $\ce{Na+}$ should be more stable than $\ce{Na}$. But at the same time $\ce{Na+}$ has a positive charge so it will be easily attracted by negative charge while $\ce{Na}$ ...
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1answer
86 views

Atomic Orbital and Wave Function

I was reading about the atomic orbital in my chemistry textbook. It says that the atomic orbital (psi) is a mathematical wave function that depends on the coordinates of the electron. It is also ...
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1answer
237 views

Empirical Evidence and Assignment of Orbital Energies (Electron Filling)

I see a lot of questions on electron configurations from students at various levels here. Students mechanically remember how to fill orbitals and sorry to say many teachers do the same. Not a single ...
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1answer
36 views

Size of atomic shells

Is the distance of some $n^{th}$ shell ($n$ $\neq$ outermost shell) from the nucleus of an atom different for different elements? If so, then how much is the difference or how could we calculate it?
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Why $ns^2np^6$configuration so stable? [duplicate]

In my chemistry textbook it is said that noble gases have stable configuration because they have achieved the maximum outermost shell configuration, which corresponds to the $ns^2np^6$ configuration. ...
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2answers
223 views

Why is atomic number unique? [closed]

We all know that atomic number of an atom is "unique" just like fingerprint. And no two elements can have same atomic number. But how can we be So sure that no two elements can have same atomic number?...
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1answer
175 views

Diamagnetic vs Paramagnetic

As far as I know, to know whether a substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic, we check if that particular species has got unpaired electron or not. But my textbook lists- Examples of Diamagnetic ...
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3answers
259 views

Photoelectric effect (AP Chemistry question)

Which of the following postulates regarding the photoelectric effect is considered to be INCORRECT according to the quantum mechanical model we currently understand? (A) Increasing the intensity ...
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1answer
66 views

Bohr's postulate of quantisation of angular momentum

The Bohr's postulate of quantisation of angular momentum can be written in a formula as $mvr = nh/(2π)$ where $m$ is mass of electron $v$ is its velocity $r$ is the radius of that shell $h$ is ...
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1answer
116 views

To move one electron in one H atom from the ground state to the second excited state, 12.084 eV are needed

How much energy is needed to cause 1 mole of H atoms to undergo this transition Assume Bohr's model of quantisation The energy for transition is $$1312\left(\frac{1}{n_1^2}-\frac{1}{n_2^2}\right)$$ ...
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2answers
266 views

Terminology of atomic spectroscopy: Difference Among Term, States and Level

In A Primer on Quantum Numbers and Spectroscopic Notation Contents, the concept of a term and level is described as a) The level is the set of 2J+1 states with specific values of L, S, and J. ...
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1answer
90 views

Do different oxidation states of the same element have the same emission spectrum?

I looked at the flames of copper (I) chloride and of copper (II) chloride through a spectroscope and they looked the same. The flame colour is the same too. But since they have different oxidation ...
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1answer
106 views

Molecular dynamics (Mac OSX user): what software can I use to plot RDFs for NPT simulations? VMD only works for NVT (constant volume)

I would be very grateful if someone could recommend a way to plot RDFs for NPT ensemble molecular dynamics simulation results. I use CP2K to run NVT simulations and usually use VMD to process ...
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1answer
175 views

Who came up with the box and arrow diagrams for electron configurations?

In general chemistry texts, the electron configurations are sometimes shown in boxes with up and down arrows to show the concept of paired spins. My impression for years was that Hund used such ...
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37 views

Ratio of Total energy to Kinetic energy in hydrogen atom when the reference is changed

If in the hydrogen atom Potential Energy at $\infty$ is chosen to be $13.6$eV then the ratio of total energy and kinetic energy (with the sign) for $1$st Bohr Orbit is? My Attempt I just simply gave ...
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1answer
77 views

Doubt in a question related to electronic transitions in Bohr's orbits

Question In Bohr series of lines of hydrogen spectrum, the third line from the red end corresponds to which one of the following inner-orbit jumps of the electron for Bohr orbits in an atom of ...
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1answer
54 views

Why potential energy is neglected in this problem for calculating the energy difference between two stationary Bohr Orbits? [closed]

Question An electron in a hydrogen like atom makes a transition from a state in which its de-Broglie wavelength is $\lambda_1$ to a state in which its de-Broglie wavelength is $\lambda_2$, then ...
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40 views

How did Thomson calculate the momentum of electron when he didn't know the mass of electron?

"This was proven in 1903 by J. J. Thomson who calculated that the momentum of the electrons hitting the paddle wheel would only be sufficient to turn the wheel one revolution per minute." This is a ...
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57 views

Are Slater’s rule and lanthanide contraction contradictory?

According to most textbook and the Wikipedia page of lanthanide contraction, the phenomenon is due to poor shielding of nuclear charge by 4f electrons. However, the σ value of 4f electrons to 6s is 1....
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1answer
154 views

Why does zinc sulfide glow when hit by electrons? [duplicate]

In cathode ray tube experiment in order to check the direction of flow of electrons a hole was made in a note and behind it phosphorescent material zinc sulfide it was coated. Why does zinc sulfide ...
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66 views

What will happen if electron as a wave undergo destructive interference while travelling in its Orbit?

Today I came across a justification of Bohr's angular momentum quantization using the De- Broglie's hypothesis. The justification said that since the electrons are having wave nature also then while ...
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2answers
87 views

Finding atomic number given energies of emitted photons

A hydrogen-like atom (atomic number $Z$) is in a higher excited state of quantum number $n$. This excited atom can make a transition to the first excited state by successively emitting two photons of ...
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1answer
541 views

How does de Broglie actually prove Bohr's postulates?

We know Bohr said that the angular momentum of an electron is an integral multiple of $nh/(2π).$ And in de Broglie's wave equation, he said the circumference of the path of the electron traveling as a ...
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1answer
610 views

Radial Probability Distribution Curve versus ψ² versus r curve for 1s orbitals

My question is basic, but I have already referred to a couple of books. This is an excerpt from Linus Pauling's book: the most probable distance of the electron from the nucleus, which is the ...
5
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1answer
220 views

Why the term 'unified' in “unified mass unit”? [closed]

Why different unit symbols - amu, u and dalton are used for representing atomic mass? And what does the term 'unified' mean in "unified mass unit"? Thank you.
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32 views

How did Planck reach the conclusion that energy comes in packets based on black body curves? [closed]

I understand that if wavelength continues to decrease energy emitted by an atom would get to infinite, but how does the max wavelength at a particular temperature translate to discrete energy packets. ...
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3answers
113 views

Bohr's model of an atom

This question is not very mighty. But I'm having a problem wrapping my head around the Bohr's atomic structure. The textbook says electrons revolve around the nucleus in fixed energy shells, with each ...
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2answers
253 views

What does Brightness/ intensity of spectral lines depend on?

My book states that it depends upon "The number of photons of same frequency or wavelength ABSORBED or EMITTED" From what I understood, if many hydrogen atoms within the discharge tube EMIT the same ...
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1answer
151 views

What is the unit of the Rydberg Constant? [duplicate]

In the image, the Rydberg constant seems to have two units. How is that possible?
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1answer
120 views

What are orbitals actually? [closed]

If s, p, d and f subshells have these kinds of boundary surface diagram, then why don't they include the probability of finding electrons in their preceding shells? As in, if d subshells have ...
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1answer
311 views

Cause of uniform glow in cathode ray tubes

I got the following extract from a chemistry book (emphasis mine): It is observed that current does not flow through the gas at ordinary pressure even at high voltage of 5000 volts. When the ...
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81 views

How can the potential energy at the infinite energy level in an atom be zero?

I have recently learnt about atomic structure and the Bohr model of the atom and have observed a discrepancy between it and my previous knowledge based on physics. For simplicity, assume the atom is ...
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0answers
32 views

Strongest overlap among s–s, p–p, s–p [duplicate]

So, I was wondering, when overlap of orbitals takes place, among s–s, s–p, p–p which type of overlapping is stronger? Because in s–s more volume is being used in overlap, but the electron density is ...
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2answers
490 views

How is the potential energy between two atoms measured?

In class, we learned about the interatomic potential graph. How does one actually measure the potential energy between two atoms experimentally to ensure the graph is correct? What device is used?
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1answer
283 views

Which principle goes against the concept of Bohr's fixed orbits? [closed]

Can you also state the principle which goes against it?
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1answer
125 views

Maximum number of atoms in the ground state

I was given the following question. A sample contains $100$ identical and hypothetical $H$-like atoms ( $Z$ may be fractional). Out of the given atoms, some are in the ground state, while others ...
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1answer
257 views

Electronic configuration of the actinides

I was reading about actinides and I need some help in understanding this paragraph from Concise Inorganic Chemistry by JD Lee - The electronic structures of the actinides do not follow the simple ...
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1answer
53 views

Deducing the shell when transition occurs such that two photons are discharged

Find $n$ (quantum number) corresponding to the excited state of $\ce{He+}$ ion if on transition to ground state the ion emits two photons in succession with wavelengths $\pu{108.5 nm}$ and $\pu{30.4 ...