Questions tagged [atomic-structure]

For questions about the various atomic structure theories, including the Bohr theory. Not to be confused with the actual arrangement of atoms in macroscopic solids ([solid-state-chemistry]) or newer quantum concepts ([quantum-chemistry])

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1
vote
2answers
62 views

Atoms visualisation [closed]

In 7th class I was been taught that in an atom, electrons revolve around shells and the electrons with higher energy level are placed likewise in the shell above of that electron: In 11th class I ...
-3
votes
0answers
45 views

Do atoms gain or lose all the electrons at once or one by one? [closed]

We all know atoms gain or lose electrons to attain stability. So, my question is: Do they lose or gain all the electrons(to be donated or gained) at once or step by step i.e, one by one? For example: ...
-3
votes
0answers
33 views

Diagrams for the wave functions [closed]

I came across a question in one of the papers of JEE Advanced, which i didn't understand. The question is as follows: $P$ is the probability of finding the $\mathrm{1s}$ electron of hydrogen atom in ...
-3
votes
0answers
37 views

Does f orbital participate in bonding? [closed]

It is known this question has been asked before but the is no satisfactory answer. Can anyone explain why there are no hybrid f orbitals? Clarifying, the question is wether f orbitals can participate ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Electron configuration of iron(I) cation

What is the electron configuration of $\ce{Fe+}$ cation? \begin{align} \ce{Fe+} &\!:~ [\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{(3d)^6(4s)^1}\label{chm:1}\tag{1}\\ \ce{Fe+} &\!:~ [\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{(3d)^7(4s)^0}\label{...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Reason for needing multiple radii for the same atom [duplicate]

Why do we need different types of atomic radii? Why can't there be just one radii for an atom?
4
votes
1answer
89 views

How do we get g and E values for various levels to calculate electronic partition function

When we calculate electronic partition function using the formula: $$q_\mathrm{elec}=\sum^\infty_{n=1}g_ne^{-E_n/k_BT}$$ How can I get the $g_n$ value and $E_n$ values for $n=0,1,2,3...$ levels? I ...
-2
votes
3answers
66 views

Does the 4s orbital really have a higher energy level compared to 3d? [duplicate]

For writing the electronic configuration of the $\ce{Fe^2+}$ ion, you need to remove two electrons (as it is an ion) which are from the highest energy level. Apparently, this would be $\mathrm{4s}$ ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

How to calculate electric force on valence electron?

In order to understand the periodic trends more fully, I wanted to calculate the net force exerted on the electron (with the highest principal quantum number and azimuthal quantum number) of an atom. ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Determining electronic configuration [closed]

One writes the electronic configuration in terms of shells, spdf subshells, orbitals, and spin of electrons. There are exceptions to principles we know. How does one confirm that the way of writing is ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Reason for same frequency of spectral line in infrared and visible region

I encountered this question while trying to understand the basics of spectroscopy and atomic structure. Which electronic transition in Balmer series of hydrogen atom has same frequency as that of n=6 ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Quantum mechanics electron probability [closed]

Schrödinger's equation yields us the solutions of 90% probability of presence of electrons in orbitals. Hence, the electrons in theory should be able to exist elsewhere in space as well. In that case, ...
3
votes
2answers
114 views

Why do subshells and orbitals exist? [closed]

I'm just a curious high school student. Sorry if this sounds dumb. How exactly did the concept of atomic subshells and orbitals come about? And why exactly are there n-1 subshells and 2l+1 orbitals? ...
-3
votes
1answer
44 views

Lanthanum Electronic Configuration [duplicate]

Lanthanum has electronic configuration [$\ce{Xe}$] $4\mathrm{f}^0$ $5\mathrm{d}^1$ $6\mathrm{s}^2$. Why is the $4\mathrm f$ sub-shell not filled even though we know that $4\mathrm f$ is filled before $...
0
votes
1answer
77 views

Is Na$^+$ more stable than Na? [duplicate]

I had a question in my textbook:- Na -> Na$^+$ + e$^-$ Cl + e$^-$ -> Cl$^-$ But Na$^+$ and Cl$^-$ have a stable electronic configuration. So, why do they react to form NaCl? So, this is my ...
0
votes
2answers
78 views

Azimuthal Quantum Number and Magnetic Quantum Number

I know that azimuthal quantum numbers and magnetic quantum numbers are used to find the no. of and the orientation of subshells respectively, but why do they have to be called so? I reckon that ...
0
votes
2answers
68 views

How to compare size of subshells?

For the same principal quantum number, on increasing the value of the azimuthal quantum number does the average radius of the subshell increase or decrease? In other words, which out of, say, 3s, 3p, ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Are atomic mass unit (amu), unified mass unit (u) and Dalton (Da) the same unit but with different names? [duplicate]

I recently read up on some chemistry and found these units of mass: atomic mass unit (amu) unified atomic mass unit (u) Dalton (Da) Are they all the same unit but just with different names or are ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Is the given statement regarding Radial Probability Distribution Function correct or not?

Radial Distribution Function $(4πr^2R^2(r))$ gives the probability of the electron being present at a distance $r$ from the nucleus. Answer: The given statement is correct. My Query: According to me, ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Atomic shielding 2s to 1s

How much is the effecting shielding of the 1s electrons from the 2s electrons? . Because the 2s subshell overlaps with the 1s subshell this will cause the 1s electrons to 'feel' less charge than the ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Why does the oxides that form change down the alkali metals? [duplicate]

Why does Li2O primarily form when Li has reacted with O2 but the Na2O2 forms for sodium? Moreover, the primary product for the other alkali metals are superoxides instead of oxides and peroxides. How ...
-1
votes
3answers
72 views

$\psi$ Represents amplitude of electron wave and $\psi^2$ represents electron density in a given space. How?

The $\psi$ represents amplitude of electron wave. So it's dimension should be $\left[L\right] $. But $\psi^2$ represents density of electrons in a given space. So it's dimension should be $\left[ML^{-...
2
votes
0answers
50 views

The true shape of p orbitals

I'm trying to model $\mathrm{p}$ orbitals using a 3D program. What confuses me is that there are 2 shapes of $\mathrm{p}$ orbitals. I'm not sure which one is the accurate model. And what is the ...
-1
votes
1answer
53 views

absorption spectrum of hydrogen atom [closed]

In absorption spectrum of hydrogen atom, only one electron is present in its one atom which is in ground state, so it means that all electrons can only absorb energy of photon of wavelength which lies ...
0
votes
2answers
66 views

Why is atomic orbital one electron wave function? Why distance from centre is proportional to angular wave function?

Consider the following statements: An atomic orbital is one electron wave function $\psi(r,\theta,\varphi)$ obtained from the solution to the Schrödinger equation. There two electrons in an atomic ...
1
vote
1answer
217 views

Magnetic moment of trivalent lanthanide cations

The effective magnetic moment $\mu_{\mathrm{eff}}$ of tripositive rare earth elements, is calculated by $$\mu_{\mathrm{eff}}=g_J\sqrt{J(J+1)}\mu_\mathrm{B}$$ Why can't we use normal formula as $\sqrt{...
5
votes
1answer
56 views

Notation in atomic structure

In the book, The theory of atomic structure and spectra, Robert D. Cowan says that the allowed terms of $p^2$ are $^1S$, $^1D$, $^3P$ and so the possible terms of $p^2 + p\quad$ (obtained by using the ...
-2
votes
1answer
26 views

How value of energy of elecron becomes more negative and radius of orbit decreases with increase in the value of atomic number? [closed]

I know how energy of elecron and radius of orbit depends upon principal quantum number......But how it depends upon atomic number?
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Angular Momentum of an orbital and orbit [closed]

While pursuing forth in Atomic Structure, I encountered the following concepts... According to Bohr, the angular momentum of an orbit remains quantized, i.e $\displaystyle mvr = n\hbar .$ But he ...
-1
votes
1answer
53 views

What element did Rutherford use to obtain alpha particles in his experiment of gold foil? [closed]

What element did Rutherford use to obtain alpha particles in his experiment of gold foil?
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Conversion factor for chemical to physical scale of atomic masses

Before the 1960s chemists and physicists used to have different atomic mass tables. The main difference was that the physicists assigned the $^{16}$O as the O=16 from mass spectrometry. Chemists on ...
5
votes
0answers
63 views

Why does exchange integral 1s2p not vanish for Helium excited state?

I am studying first-order perturbation theory applied to the first excited state of Helium. I am facing the following problem: I understand that the Coulomb integral for all 2p functions will not be $...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

True muonium energy levels [closed]

In a true muniom(muon-antimuon atom) do the energy levels match with that of the hydrogen's? The core is lighter for about 100 times but the muon is 100 times heavier than the electron so it would ...
0
votes
0answers
55 views

Term symbols for excited nitrogen (2s2p^4 configuration)

Looking at the NIST levels listing for neutral nitrogen atom, one of the excited configuration is $2s2p^4$ configuration. https://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/ASD/energy1.pl?encodedlist=XXT2&de=0&...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Can you determine when the orbtials of an atom will hybridize?

We know that when it comes to C its orbitals hybridize (they become sp3 , sp2 or sp) and the energy levels of an hybridized orbital of this kind is lower than that of the p orbital that formed it but ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

Why does ψ^2 ( square of orbital wave function ψ) give the probability of an electron in a given region? [duplicate]

Today I was introduced to the Orbital Wave Function for electrons. $\Psi$ is a mathematical function for coordinate of electrons and has no physical meaning. But $\Psi^2$ gives probability of an ...
10
votes
0answers
191 views

What is d-orbital collapse?

When I was perusing the works of Schwarz on atomic structure, I came across the unfamiliar term of d-orbital collapse. He describes it as a variation in energetic sequence from group 1 to 3 elements ...
2
votes
1answer
473 views

Electron pairing in atoms

A question asks: This question refers to isolated gaseous atoms. In which atom are all electrons paired? Ba, Br, S or Si? I thought it was Ba as its electron configuration is [Xe] 6s2. However, ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Does it exist a transgression to Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity principle in this given electron box notation?

The following question arises from a set of statements from which I'm asked to state whether they are true or false. This is as follows: Indicate which of the following statements are true or ...
1
vote
2answers
135 views

Effective nuclear charge and electron repulsion

To the best of my knowledge, the effective nuclear charge $Z_\mathrm{eff}$ is usually defined such that the potential energy of an electron in an atom, $\langle V \rangle$, can be expressed as $$\...
1
vote
0answers
136 views

Why is there a big jump in first ionisation energy between sodium and potassium?

I know the trend in group 1 is that ionisation energy decreases down the group due to an increase in atomic radius and more energy levels are added so more shielding, but I'm not sure why there's such ...
-2
votes
1answer
453 views

What is more stable, Na+ or Na? [closed]

As per noble gas configuration $\ce{Na+}$ should be more stable than $\ce{Na}$. But at the same time $\ce{Na+}$ has a positive charge so it will be easily attracted by negative charge while $\ce{Na}$ ...
1
vote
1answer
249 views

Atomic Orbital and Wave Function

I was reading about the atomic orbital in my chemistry textbook. It says that the atomic orbital (psi) is a mathematical wave function that depends on the coordinates of the electron. It is also ...
8
votes
1answer
245 views

Empirical Evidence and Assignment of Orbital Energies (Electron Filling)

I see a lot of questions on electron configurations from students at various levels here. Students mechanically remember how to fill orbitals and sorry to say many teachers do the same. Not a single ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Size of atomic shells

Is the distance of some $n^{th}$ shell ($n$ $\neq$ outermost shell) from the nucleus of an atom different for different elements? If so, then how much is the difference or how could we calculate it?
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Why $ns^2np^6$configuration so stable? [duplicate]

In my chemistry textbook it is said that noble gases have stable configuration because they have achieved the maximum outermost shell configuration, which corresponds to the $ns^2np^6$ configuration. ...
-6
votes
2answers
271 views

Why is atomic number unique? [closed]

We all know that atomic number of an atom is "unique" just like fingerprint. And no two elements can have same atomic number. But how can we be So sure that no two elements can have same atomic number?...
0
votes
1answer
219 views

Diamagnetic vs Paramagnetic

As far as I know, to know whether a substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic, we check if that particular species has got unpaired electron or not. But my textbook lists- Examples of Diamagnetic ...
1
vote
3answers
330 views

Photoelectric effect (AP Chemistry question)

Which of the following postulates regarding the photoelectric effect is considered to be INCORRECT according to the quantum mechanical model we currently understand? (A) Increasing the intensity of ...
-1
votes
1answer
74 views

Bohr's postulate of quantisation of angular momentum

The Bohr's postulate of quantisation of angular momentum can be written in a formula as $mvr = nh/(2π)$ where $m$ is mass of electron $v$ is its velocity $r$ is the radius of that shell $h$ is ...