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Questions tagged [atomic-structure]

For questions about the various atomic structure theories, including the Bohr theory. Not to be confused with the actual arrangement of atoms in macroscopic solids ([solid-state-chemistry]) or newer quantum concepts ([quantum-chemistry])

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Explanation of periodic gaps in STEM image of tungsten selenide

I was reading this article on Khan Academy, and there's this picture there: The picture is taken using a scanning transmission electron microscope, and shows the structure of tungsten selenide. ...
archthegreat's user avatar
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56 views

Unconventional Chemical Bonding [closed]

How do hypothetical exotic elements with extremely high atomic numbers, beyond the current known periodic table, interact chemically with existing elements, and what novel bonding phenomena might ...
Yatharth Shrivastava's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
91 views

How does an electron's distance from the nucleus depend on angular quantum number?

My school teacher told us this and I couldn't get his reason: The average distance of an electron (belonging to the same orbit) from the nucleus decreases with the increase in the value of angular ...
Rishikesh's user avatar
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0 answers
41 views

How do we determine the local symmetry of anatase TiO2?

In this physical review B paper, the authors mentioned that the local symmetry of anatase TiO2 is D2d point group. Also, in this applied physics letters paper, the authors mentioned that the symmetry ...
meTchaikovsky's user avatar
-3 votes
1 answer
47 views

Question from J. D. Lee about Quantum Numbers

There's this question in J. D. Lee: Concise Inorganic Chemistry, which I haven't understood exactly. Which of the following may have the same set of quantum numbers? The last electron of scandium and ...
Schrödinger's Cat's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
33 views

Perforated Cathode in Anode Ray Experiment

While studying about the anode ray experiment (E. Goldstein), I had a doubt pop up in my head. In the experiment, a perforated cathode has been used. What is the exact reason behind that? Upon ...
entropy's user avatar
  • 53
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2 answers
108 views

What does "predicted" mean in an electronic configuration?

I've noticed the term "(predicted)" appearing at the end of electron configurations for heavier elements. Could you explain what it signifies and the reason behind it? I haven't been able to ...
uggupuggu's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
227 views

Replacement of a nucleus with electrons by an effective nucleus

This question was asked in my test: In a lithium atom the outer electron is in the second orbit. The interaction of this outer electron with two inner electrons can be accounted for by assuming that ...
KeShAw's user avatar
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1 answer
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Find element atomic mass from compound

I bought a 1962 Nuclear Power Engineering by EL-Wakil There is an exercise that reads: Four compounds of one element contain 90.3, 16.5, 26.4, 22.87 per cent of that element by mass. The corresponding ...
RNC's user avatar
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-2 votes
0 answers
35 views

Why is the concept of penetration power only applied to Be and B, and not to Be and C, N, O, F?

In my book, it is stated that the ionization energy of Be is greater than that of B because the electron removed in Be is in the 2s orbital, while the electron removed in B is in the 2p orbital. This ...
Peter swift's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
159 views

Wave function in Schrodinger's model

I am trying to wrap my head around the Schrodinger's quantum mechanical model of an atom. According to the NCERT$^1$, the Schrodinger's equation is given by: $$\hat{H}\Psi=E\Psi$$ where $\hat{H}$ is ...
Harikrishnan M's user avatar
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The existence of a principal quantum level or energy shell after the loss of an electron from the outer shell of an atom

With the loss of an electron from $\ce{Li}$ ($\mathrm{1s^2\ 2s^1}$), we get $\ce{Li+}$ ($\mathrm{1s^2}$), then the 2nd shell where the electron had been revolving in $\ce{Li}$ will get disappeared or ...
Shreya Murasing's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
102 views

Can certain spectral lines be common between two spectrums

I have studied regarding atomic spectroscopy in my class and the Rydberg's formula. Suppose if I take $\ce{H}$ and $\ce{He+}$ and an electron jumps from from 2nd to 1st shell in $\ce{H}$ and from 4th ...
Aditya Pandey's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
85 views

Electronic configuration and symmetry labels of 3d$^7$ ions

In 3d$^7$ ions, e.g. Co$^{2+}$, the ground state is $^4$F, and it contains different levels due to the crystal field, such as $^4T_{1g}$, $^4T_{2g}$ and $^4A_{2g}$. Can anyone tell me what exactly ...
Chris Bohr's user avatar
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1 answer
70 views

How does the concept of the electron shell (also called energy level) and the orbital coexist? [closed]

Running into a bit of confusion trying to understand the atomic structure and the root cause is mostly related to orbitals and energy levels. At a basic level, I was taught that electrons orbit the ...
7777's user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
41 views

Choosing energy levels for finding quantum numbers

When an element has multiple energy levels (i.e Titanium has $(Ar)3d^24s^2$), what energy level do we use to find the quantum numbers? Is it generally assumed the LAST energy level is used? or is it ...
Mathipulator's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
425 views

If charge is quantised, how can It delocalize?

As I was trying to understand resonance, I got to know that it was imaginary phenomenon and it is just a tool to explain mechanisms and structures that are unexplained by Lewis dot structures or ...
Dheeraj Gujrathi's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
140 views

Convergence limit of emission spectra for atoms with multiple electrons

In high school chemistry, students are taught that the convergence limit in the emission spectrum of an element can be used to determine the first ionization energy. However, what about the second, ...
Rafael's user avatar
  • 249
4 votes
1 answer
271 views

Eigenfunctions of total angular momenta as linear combinations of Slater-determinants

In the Hartree scheme for many-electron atoms, the approximated Hamiltonian (in a.u.) $$\hat{H} = \sum_{i=1}^Z \left(-\frac{1}{2} \nabla_i^2 -\frac{Z}{r_i} + V_\text{H}\left(r_i\right)\right)$$ is ...
Simone's user avatar
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1 answer
212 views

Graph of kinetic energy of ejected electron vs intensity

While studying photoelectric effect I got a doubt in the graph of kinetic energy of ejected electron vs the intensity of electromagnetic radiation. Everywhere this graph is given as But here for 0 ...
S K's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
87 views

Atomic terms and perturbation theory

I have a question about the derivation of the possible atomic terms of an atom. Consider an atom with $N$ electrons in the central-field approximation, with hamiltonian $$ H_{0} = \sum_{i=1}^{N} \left[...
AlfredV's user avatar
  • 461
2 votes
0 answers
72 views

Stark and Zeeman effects and their causes

In high school we are taught that Zeeman and Stark effect directly lead to the findings of further divisions of an electron's shell in an atom. What is exactly the reason that causes the spectral ...
Substitute_Y's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
288 views

Why hot iron turns from red to white and then blue? [closed]

While reading structure of atom chapter no. 2 from ncert class 11th chemistry part 1 book, I got a doubt. In the book it says on page 40 that: Hot objects emit electromagnetic radiations over a wide ...
S K's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
436 views

Distance of Orbitals from Nucleus relation with Energy level and penetration power

I have studied that according to Aufbau rule the energy of subshells is dependent on the sum of $ n $ and $l$ values. This would imply that the energy of subshells in a shell varies as $$ ns \lt np \...
bm27's user avatar
  • 25
-2 votes
1 answer
80 views

Can't the wavelength of an electron increase or decrease to "fit" the wave perfectly in any radius?

I was reading about how de Broglie's electron-wave theory explained the quantisation of energy in a Bohr atom. What I understand is as follows: If the wave is to be arranged in the form of a circle ...
Arham Jain's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
131 views

Are there compounds distance functions to define a compounds space metrics

Is there exist something like a distance function for compounds, computing a number for any two given molecules? Such a function would measure dissimilarity at the atomic structure and bonds levels, ...
nightcod3r's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
66 views

Can someone elaborate what it means when its said that electron shells do not exist in multi electron systems?

I'm an undergraduate student in chemistry. I'm trying to grapple with all the new stuff we're learning and making sense of it. Now I want to know if electron shells really "exist" in multi ...
Stu's user avatar
  • 29
1 vote
1 answer
149 views

Why are orbits shown out of plane in popular cartoons of atomic structure? [closed]

The (former) U.S. Atomic Energy Commission had a seal showing a symbolic view of the atom that is unrealistic but instantly recognizable: Source: https://blog.nuclearsecrecy.com/2012/04/13/friday-...
Karsten's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
530 views

How does O2- have the largest radius [closed]

Why is the correct option O^2-, aren't all of them equal since they all have the same number of energy shells and same number of electrons in them
foozi2007's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
250 views

Is there a difference between Hartree-Fock method and LCAO?

I have to dive in some quantum chemistry for a quantum machine learning project and I came across the so-called Hartree-Fock method. In one of the reference I used, they considered electrons as ...
QMLSorbonne's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
454 views

What is the difference between alloying and doping? [closed]

When compared to doping, how is alloying different? What modifications to the structure are brought about by both of these?
Udeshwari's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
122 views

How can Planck’s equation and the wave equation simultaneously coexist with contradicting each other? [closed]

The equations: E=hf (Planck’s equation, where E is the energy, h is the Planck’s constant and f is the frequency) and V=fλ (where v is the speed (in a vacuum), f is frequency and λ is the wavelength) ...
Kirandk's user avatar
  • 412
1 vote
1 answer
72 views

How does bond formation affect the energetics of the bond?

I am an 11th grade student who has just started learning about bonds in compounds. My question pertains to a line written in JD Lee's Concise Inorganic Chemistry for JEE (Main and Advanced) It was ...
Fiziks's user avatar
  • 29
-2 votes
2 answers
710 views

Why silicon doesn't have the electronic configuration [Ne] 3s¹ 3p³?

I have read that half or fully filled orbitals provide more stability to the element due to symmetry and exchange energy.It is the reason for electronic configuration of Cr-[Ar]4s¹3d⁵. Then, why doesn'...
j sivesh's user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
731 views

What Are Angular Nodes , Radial Nodes, Nodal Plane and Nodal Surfaces? [duplicate]

Actually, i am confused between all of them. some says that angular node is same as nodal planes and radial nodes is same as nodal surfaces... and what's the difference between nodal planes and nodal ...
Piyush Baweja's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
75 views

Electrons in Bohr's atomic model [duplicate]

Why electrons don't fall into the nucleus in bohr's atomic model? Is there a reason or explanation or is just a consideration?
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
226 views

Why the electronic configuration of samarium is ending with 4f⁶6s²

What is coming in my mind is that 4f^7 6s^1 should be more stable as it allows two orbitals to be half filled rather than 4f^6 6s^2 in which only one orbital is completely filled....can someone please ...
Ved's user avatar
  • 73
1 vote
0 answers
111 views

Why is it impossible to determine number of visible emission spectrum of He+

We know that atoms emit spectral lines on excitation and de excitation. I was doing one high school question based on this theory Number of visible lines when an electron returns from 5th orbit upto ...
InfinityLies's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
253 views

Why is radial probability density exactly zero at the center?

I have read that the radial probability density is exactly zero at $r = 0$ because the radial probability density is $$P(r) = \psi^2\,\mathrm dv,\tag{1}$$ where $\mathrm dv$ is the volume of spherical ...
hsdfasd's user avatar
  • 53
1 vote
0 answers
25 views

Which ionic radius is most relevant for anticipating co-crystalization?

In the context of anticipating the likeliness that elemental impurities co-crystalize into the crystals containing an element of similar radius (see this question), which is the relevant radii to ...
Hans's user avatar
  • 1,097
0 votes
2 answers
336 views

Proof for equation of radial probability distribution curve

So my textbook says the equation for this is $$P(r) = 4\pi r^2\Psi^2 $$ It also gives the volume of the shell formula $$\mathrm{d}V = \frac 43 \pi(r+\mathrm{d}r)^3 - \frac 43 \pi r^3$$ which I ...
G.S.'s user avatar
  • 11
-3 votes
1 answer
305 views

Which quantum numbers does the orbital angular momentum depend on? [closed]

I learned from a question that I recently solved that the orbital angular momentum depends on both the azimuthal and magnetic quantum numbers. I did not expect this because the formula for the orbital ...
user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
436 views

Excitation of hydrogen atom

I studied the Bohr's model of atom that says electron can jump to higher energy level by absorbing photon, but the quantum model says we have more than that (quantum numbers). Therefore, when the ...
Zhentian's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
466 views

Huge variation of the atomic size of Uranium

I've already posted this question in Physics Stack Exchange, but the answer that I received (actinide contraction similar to lanthanide contraction) is not convincing for me, or at least is not ...
gryphys's user avatar
  • 534
0 votes
0 answers
80 views

A question regarding hydrogen emission and absorption spectrum

I have read in many articles as well as my textbook that when an electric discharge is passed through a sample of hydrogen gas it excites the electrons and glows emitting light.When this light is ...
AJknight's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
410 views

Explanation of the missing 1-s orbital electrons of carbon in the molecular orbital diagram of methane

Consider the molecular orbital diagram of methane, for example found here: I would like to know what happens with the two 1s orbital electrons of carbon in the molecular orbitals it is forming. Is it ...
WizardMath's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
909 views

Comparison between Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen and Alkali Metals

I posted a question on Chemistry Stack Exchange a while back. It was related to the naming of atomic orbitals. One of the answers to it mentioned a research experiment. The link to the question is ...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
173 views

Size of Orbitals, Making Intuitive Sense of Quantum Model, Nomenclature of Subshells in the Quantum Model

Alright, so I am doing the Quantum Mechanical (or what some people call the Wave Mechanical model) of an atom. There's this part where we have different zones of the probablity of finding electrons, ...
user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
2k views

How to find the orbital a given wavefunction represents?

We were given the following question in chemistry class (under the topic “Atomic Structure”): Which orbital does the following wavefunction represent? $$φ(r) = \frac{1}{81(6π)^{1/2}}\left(\frac{Z}{a}\...
Aaryan's user avatar
  • 133
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

Ambiguity on determining a relativistic Dirac orbital's "shape" when it has two angular components

Wikipedia says that a relativistic Dirac atomic orbital is a 4-component vector, with two angular parts and two spin parts. It also says, indirectly, that 'the top two components of a 2p(1/2) orbital ...
Kanghun Kim's user avatar

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