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Questions tagged [acid-base]

This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available ...

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Why aren't primidone's lactam groups acidic?

I understand that 5,5-disubstituated derivates of barbituric acid only show lactam-lactim tautomerism opposed to the lactim-lactam and keto-enol tautomerism of barbituric acid, hence the 5-mono and 5,...
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13 views

Find concentrations of Sodium Acetate and Acetic Acid to create buffer solution [on hold]

The stockroom contains 1M $\ce{NaOAc}$ (Sodium Acetate), 1M $\ce{CH3COOH}$ (Acetic Acid), distilled water, and strong acids and bases. You need to create a buffer solution that has a pH of 4.75 such ...
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24 views

Why is salt and hydrogen always produced when acid and metal reacts

I briefly researched this and unfortunately I couldn't find any further detail concerning why precisely this always occurred. There isn't much more to say. Would any of you know why it is that self ...
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35 views

pKa Conceptual Questions [on hold]

If anyone could clear up some of this conceptual confusion, that would be much appreciated. Is $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a$ an intrinsic property of a molecule? Or extrinsic? A property is extrinsic if it ...
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15 views

Why is the pKa of protonated alcohol lower than that of a hydronium ion?

My lecture note say: Hydronium ion -> water has pKa -1.7 Protonated alcohol -> alcohol has pKa -2.4 Okay so that the two values are low makes sense, the equilbrium is quite far to the right and the ...
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36 views

How do acids disassociate? [duplicate]

When recently learning about acids and bases, I realized that I had perhaps not understood how it is that acids disassociate. I had always thought the proccess was like an ionic salt, where the water ...
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10 views

buffer solution help please? and explanation [closed]

A buffered solution is made by adding 49.9 g C2H5NH3Cl to 1.00 L of a 0.74 M solution of C2H5NH2. Calculate the pH of the final solution. (Assume no volume change. Assume that all solutions are at 25°...
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18 views

Spillage of tetraamminecopper(II) chloride Cu(NH3)4Cl2 [closed]

I'm drafting a safety plan in case of spillage of tetraamminecopper(II) chloride Cu(NH3)4Cl2 , but can't find much of use on the subject. How does one neutralize and dispose of the spilled solution? ...
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34 views

Using thermodynamics to predict the acid-base character of fluoride ion in water

I was working through the end-of-chapter exercises of the acid-base chapter in Shriver's Inorganic Chemistry when I came across the following problem: 4.7. The effective proton affinity $\ce{A^{'}_{...
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2answers
38 views

Does concentration or pKa define acid strength?

For example, is 3M HCl a stronger acid than 1M HCl? I would reason that the concentration of an acid/base does not influence its strength. Strength is determined by the pKa, and, as per Le Chatelier'...
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26 views

How to Separate Copper Nanowires in an Alumina Membrane

So, in my Chemistry Lab we had an experiment to use Whatman alumina membranes and GaIn eutectic to create Nickel nanowires through electrodeposition. So essentially Nickel wire electrode and alumina ...
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1answer
22 views

If I add apple cider vinegar to a cleanser with a pH level of 7, will the pH level of it drop? [closed]

I am thinking about adding apple cider vinegar to my Physiogel Dermo cleanser which has the following ingredients: Aqua, PEG-75, Cetearyl Alcohol, Disodium Phosphate, Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate, ...
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0answers
29 views

How to make a general equation for water neutralization to calculate the exact amount of acid or base required? [closed]

I am doing my project on water neutralization plant.I have taken readings experimentally for mathematical modeling, and have done its curve fitting in MATLAB which is attached. The problem is ...
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1answer
22 views

Quantity of base needed to neutralise litre of 36% HCl?

Sorry for asking a basic chemistry question. I last did this kind of chemistry at school about 30 years ago and I don't have confidence that I'd get it right from first principles :) Short version: ...
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1answer
83 views

Polyprotic acid - How does one calculate the CONCENTRATIONS of ALL species present in a solution when you start with 0.3M NaH2PO4? [duplicate]

Can anyone give me a push in the right direction, how do I calculate the concentration of all species present in a solution with 0.3M NaH2PO4. So the concentration of H3PO4, H2PO4 -, HPO4 2-, PO4 3- ...
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12 views

does the process of curdling milk “spend” the acidity which causes it to start?

or, like in general reactant-product reactions, will the reactants (H+ for example) get used up if there arent enough, and the curdling stop? like, if the milk is just introduced to a tiny but ...
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258 views

Why is p-nitrobenzoic acid more acidic than m-nitrobenzoic acid? [duplicate]

Why is p-nitrobenzoic acid more acidic than m-nitrobenzoic acid? According to me,since nitro group at meta position not only shows -I effect but also -M effect, I feel m-nitrobenzoic acid is more ...
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0answers
20 views

Will milk curdling continue until all colloids have curdled?

or, like in general reactant-product reactions, will the reactants get used up if there arent enough, and the curdling stop? like, if the milk is just introduced to a tiny but adequate amount of acid.
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14 views

What change will occur for the following reaction if the hypochlorous acid solution is diluted from 0.1 to 0.01 M?

What change will occur for the following reaction if the hypochlorous acid solution is diluted from 0.1 to 0.01 M? $$\ce{HOCl(aq) + H2O <=> OCl-(aq) + H3O+ (aq)}$$ a.) a decrease in the ...
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1answer
38 views

Is benzenesulfonic acid or cyclohexanesulfonic acid more acidic?

Which of the two sulfonic acids above is a stronger acid? I think that cyclohexanesulfonic acid 2 should be more acidic as there is no competitive resonance as in 1. Is that correct?
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1answer
21 views

Why does the neutralisation of any strong acid in an aqueous solution by any strong base

Why does the neutralisation of any strong acid in an aqueous solution by any strong base always result in a heat of reaction of approximately –57 kJ mol−1?
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16 views

Is C4H6O6 combined with C4H4O6^(2-) one buffer system?

I've always learned that buffers are a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. Because C4H6O6 is diprotic, does this mean that there will be more than one ...
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Acidity of polysulfanes

In a chemistry olympiad I had this morning, there was a question on the acidity of polysulfanes. Specifically, it asked candidates to explain the increasing acidity of polysulfanes as the number of ...
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1answer
81 views

What is the pH of a solution made by mixing 10.00 mL of 0.10 M acetic acid with 10.00 mL of 0.10 M KOH?

What is the pH of a solution made by mixing 10.00 mL of 0.10 M acetic acid with 10.00 mL of 0.10 M KOH? The $K_a =1.8 × 10^{-5}$ for $\ce{CH_3CO_2H}$. Assume that the volumes of the solutions are ...
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21 views

Common pseudoelemental symbol for acid/conjugate base

For my organic chemistry class I'm compiling a list of trends. One of them is, the more electronegative its conjugate base, the more acidic the acid. We use this for comparing acids whose anions share ...
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1answer
36 views

Acids using different solvents [closed]

Many polar protic solvents exist and ionic compounds are able to dissolve inside these substances for the same reason as water. So, theoretically, if a substance were to steal a $H^+$ ion from a polar ...
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16 views

How to remove chlorides from solution for electrolysis

I'm trying to refine some potash (from hardwood ash) to Potassium Carbonate for my HHO generator. I've been experimenting with other electrolytes to test them in the generator, and found that salt ...
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0answers
21 views

Alkali Glass Etchant

I am an artist, I have heard about a glass etchant that is a base rather than an acid. The person that sells it is in Russia and will not provide an MSDS sheet or a chemical name, though assures me ...
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20 views

Why do high heat and H2SO4 lead to an E1 reaction at a secondary carbon (pic related)?

The question is "show the major organic product the following reaction". The above picture is the correct answer. Why does an E1 reaction take place as opposed to E2? My thought process was that since ...
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1answer
57 views

Reaction between HCl and NaHCO3 [duplicate]

I want to know why in the reaction between HCl and NaHCO3, we have CO2 and H2O instead of H2CO3 ?
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22 views

Why don't zwitter ions show ortho effect?

I recently came across a statement which said that zwitter ions are an exception to the ortho effect. Is it because the ions attract each other and the -COOH group is brought back into the plane ...
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1answer
50 views

Why do nonmetal oxides react with water to form acidic compounds? [closed]

I am confused about the molecular basis by which nonmetal oxides react with water to form acidic compounds. For example, I understand that sulfur trioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid as ...
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29 views

Why do the following acid-base reactions favor the products?

I'm preparing for an organic chemistry test, and I'm confused about a problem on my study guide. The problem asks which of the following reactions favors the products: $\ce{(CH3)2C=CH2 + H2O -> C+...
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1answer
101 views

How does base size affect the ratio of kinetic/thermodynamic enolate?

One of the factors that favor kinetic products is bulky bases. So, I'd expect that, for a certain substrate, the use of a more bulky base to favor even more the kinetic product. However, in the table ...
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28 views

Effect of H-bonding on o-nitrobenzoic acid

My argument here is regarding the acidity of o-nitrobenzoic acid being greater than p,m-nitrobenzoic acid. In o-nitrobenzoic acid, there is an intramolecular hydrogen bond which makes the bond ...
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1answer
13 views

The test of metal hydroxides and metal oxides

Is testing metal oxide different from testing metal hydroxide using a litmus paper?
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2answers
39 views

Sodium Sulfate or Sodium Peroxysulfate? [closed]

I needed some unadulterated H2SO4 to react with some steel wool to render Ferrous Sulphate then to ferrous hydroxide for some experiments with ferromagnetic cores. I thought to use Sodium ...
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3answers
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How to identify the most stable Lewis adduct of boron trichloride?

Which of the following is the most stable Lewis acid–base adduct? (a) $\ce{H2O\bond{->}BCl3}$ (b) $\ce{H2S\bond{->}BCl3}$ (c) $\ce{H3N\bond{->}BCl3}$ (d) $\ce{H3P\bond{->}BCl3}$ ...
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0answers
25 views

H0 value for fluoroantimonic acid

I am confused about $\mathrm{H_0}$ value of fluoroantimonic acid. Wikipedia says $\mathrm{-23<H_0<-21}$. Others say around -31. There's a huge gap. I won't worry for 3-4 fluctuations but worry ...
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63 views

Gold/platinum + HF

I know that noble metals such as gold/platinum are unaffected by conc. mineral acids such as HCl or H2SO4 or HNO3 but Can be dissolved in aqua regia (mix of HCl and HNO3 in 3:1), but never heard about ...
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1answer
26 views

Regarding acid-base reactions, how does one know when a hydrophobic base substance is fully protonated?

When there's a weak base substance (hydrophobic powder), and it needs to be completely protonated by adding an acid (eg: HCl), how does one know when it's completely protonated? Since the powdered ...
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0answers
15 views

Comparing basicity of pyrrolidine and piperidine [duplicate]

How do we compare the basicity of pyrrolidine and piperidine? I think that ring strain is the only factor that can possibly affect it. The nitrogen being sp3 hybridised wants to have a bond angle of ...
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2answers
123 views

The intrinsic electron-withdrawing nature of alkyl groups

What you are about to read may be a very mind-boggling paragraph but please do not regard it as nonsense. Please think through it thoroughly. In Chapter 6 of Organic Chemistry (4th ed.) by Maitland ...
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54 views

Arranging these aromatic amines according to their basic character

The problem asks to arrange theses amines in an increasing order of their basic character. Clearly 2 is less basic than 1, because $NO_2$ is a strong $e^-$ withdrawing group and it is going to show ...
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1answer
32 views

Which is stronger ? Picric acid or phoshoric acid

I would like to have clarity as to which acid is the stronger acid; picric acid or phosphoric acid. Because different sources are giving me different answers
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1answer
35 views

How does Borax Solution act as a buffer? [closed]

What type of buffer is it? If it's a Weak Acid-Conjugate Base type of buffer, what is the weak acid and conjugate base?
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1answer
42 views

What is the driving force of this reaction?

I know that every reaction that occurs in a solution must have a driving force leading to the kicking out of some ions from the solution. These reactions include redox , double-displacements and acid/...
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1answer
56 views

Is there also a leveling effect for weak acids in water?

The leveling effect says that any acid stronger than the hydronium ion ($\ce{H3O+}$) will completely dissociate in water. Hence no differentiation of acid strength is possible between eg HBr and HCl ...
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1answer
70 views

Chloroantimonic v/s fluoriantimonic

Does chloroantimonic acid exists like . If not , than why , what we get when we mix hydrochloric acid and antimonypentachloride and can we predict its acidic strength if it would ever be synthesized. ...
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67 views

Acid HClF6 and HIF6

I was wondering about $\ce{HClO4}$ which is a very strong acid . I thought it can be made stronger by replacing $\ce O$ with $\ce F$ to make $\ce{HClF6}$ but didn't find its existence . I thought that ...