Questions tagged [transition-metals]

For questions about the characteristic physical properties, chemical reactions, etc. of d-block elements, group 3-12, or their compounds. Do not use this tag if your questions is about general properties of metals, use [metal] instead. Also see [rare-earth-elements].

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Electrolysis when E_cell = 0

I'm a bit confused by the electroplating of Zinc onto Copper, with Zinc (anode) and Copper (cathode) electrodes in a Zn(NO3)2 solution. The reduction reaction is: Zn2+ + 2e- ---> Zn (s) (E_rxn = -0....
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Which one is more stable in aqueous solution Cr3+ or Ti4+? [closed]

Cr3+ has a half-filled configuration but Ti4+ has a noble gas configuration. I have seen many people answer that Cr3+ is more stable without any proper explanation.
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Displacement Reaction [closed]

In a displacement reaction I understand that the more reactive metal essentially takes the place of the less reactive metal. But I can't seem to understand how this more reactive metal can break the ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Relative stability of $\ce{V^2+}$ and $\ce{V^3+}$ and their Standard Electrode Potential

My book - NCERT Chemistry for Class XII -Page 218 Contains the following paragraph: Initially they mention that the Low value for Standard Electrode Potential of $\ce{Sc^3+/Sc^2+}$ is due to the ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Determining iron(III) content in mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) [closed]

Problem Outline a plan of an experiment to determine the percentage of iron present as iron(III) in a solution containing $\ce{Fe^3+(aq)}$ and $\ce{Fe^2+(aq)}$ ions. You are provided with zinc, a ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Melting and boiling point of transition-metals, primarily for the groups of Cr and Mn [duplicate]

The NCERT Chemistry book for Grade 12 writes The high melting points of these metals are attributed to the involvement of greater number of electrons from $(n-1)d$ in addition to the ns electrons in ...
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Which d block elements in their unipositive ion state show reorganisation and transference of electrons from 4s to 3d?

This question serves as elaboration of another previously asked question. The irregular trend in ionization enthalpy of 3d elements I'll be breaking down the cited phenomenon into steps, according to ...
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Why does low spin character predominate in hexafluoronickelate(IV)?

According to my book there are no unpaired electrons in $\ce{NiF6^2-}$. However, that should not be the case since fluoride is a weak field ligand. Why does hexafluoronickelate(IV) behave as a low ...
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1 vote
1 answer
149 views

Atomic Radius of Manganese and Chromium

It is clearly a general trend that the atomic radii of the 3d elements in ascending order of atomic weight, leads to the following trend as in the graph below. But, it was pointed out to me that, Mn ...
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3 votes
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Permitted composition of lithium oxometallate in lithium-ion battery and its influence on ion transfer

The following scheme describes the overall reaction that takes place in a Li-ion battery: $$ \begin{align} \ce{Li_{$y$}C6 &-> $y$ Li+ + $y$ e- + C6} &\quad &\text{(anode)} \tag{R1}\\ \...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Is boiling aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate safe?

I want to create saturated coper(II) sulfate solution in order to grow crystals. Is boiling a solution of copper sulfate at home safe? Are there any risks? Is the vapour pure water?
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3 votes
1 answer
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Can a carbon that has 5 bonds be explained by saying that one of its bonds is a coordination bond?

In my organometallic chemistry class at the university, the doctor told us that compound μ³-CO-[Fe₄(CO)₁₂]²⁻ had the structure that appears in the image. As you can see, there is a pentavalent carbon. ...
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1 vote
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How to promote oxidation of copper(I) chloride to copper(II) chloride with oxygen in solution?

I recently discovered that copper(I) chloride in hydrochloric acid can react at about 80 °C with bubbled-in oxygen gas and oxidize into copper(II) chloride. I found almost no documentation on the web, ...
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1 answer
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Exceptional electronic configuration of Chromium

I understand that the reason for the exceptional electronic configuration of Cr is the increased stability of half filled set of orbitals But here's an excerpt from my textbook …consider the case of ...
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Ionic radii of transition metal ions in the presence of weak field and strong field ligands

‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎ In the graph given in this image,‎ I was told by my teacher‎ that whenever we start filling the eg orbitals there is an increase in the radius because these orbitals face the ligand directly ...
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Is triazanido(methyl)iron(IV) low-spin?

I was messing around on WebMO when I suddenly remembered that tetrakis(4-norbonyl)iron(IV) was diamagnetic, despite its tetrahedral coordination. Knowing that late metal complexes in extremely high ...
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-5 votes
1 answer
370 views

Which ion is more stable in aqueous solution; Co2+, or Co3+? [closed]

We know $\ce{Co^{3+}}$ is more stable in complex compounds than $\ce{Co^{2+}}$ is in the same. I am told that for aqueous solution, $\ce{Co^{2+}}$ is more stable than $\ce{Co^{3+}}$, however in ...
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Electronic states of VO vanadium oxide in $C_{2v}$ point group

The electron configuration of $V^{2+}$: ... 3$d^{3}$ with 3 d electrons in 3 d orbitals. In $C_{\infty v}$, $d_{xz}$ and $d_{yz}$ have $\Pi$ IRREP; $d_{z}^{2}$ has $\Sigma^{+}$ IRREP; $d_{x^{2}-y^{2}}$...
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Is tetraoxidocobaltate(V) low-spin

After hearing that hexaamminecobalt(III) and hexafluoridonickelate(IV) are both low-spin due to the central metals' high oxidation states(even though both bear pi-donor ligands), I began to wonder if ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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The higher energy to transform Cu(s)/Cu^2+(aq) is not balanced by its hydration enthalpy

The book says that "the higher energy to transform Cu(s)/Cu^2+(aq) is not balanced by its hydration enthalpy". I also read that when we add energy of sublimation and ionization energy , ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Contribution, and the way thereof, of the core 6p orbitals of compounds of plutonium(VIII)

According to the NIST database, the ground-state configuration of plutonium(VIII) is [Hg]5f³6p³, when intuitively it should be the same as neutral radon([Hg]6p⁶). Since plutonium(VIII) compounds are ...
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-2 votes
2 answers
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Is Co(2+) easily oxidised to Co(3+)? [closed]

I think this question lacks some required informations but that's exactly what was given on my question paper. I thought of explaining this in descriptions of crystal field theory but I couldn't solve ...
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What exactly is oxidation number with regards to [Fe(CN)6]-4 [closed]

I read that $\ce{Fe}$ has an oxidation state of $+2$ in $\ce{[Fe(CN)6]^{4-}}$. Does that mean $\ce{Fe}$ gives away $2$ electrons? Doesn't $\ce{(CN)6}$ form coordination bonds with $\ce{Fe}$ meaning $\...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How to predict colour of precipitate? [duplicate]

I am currently preparing for Junior science competitions and I am coming across many questions where colour of precipitate plays important role... Like When compound $\ce{Hg2(NO3)2}$ reacts with $\ce{...
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Why is copper a better conductor of electricity than calcium?

How would we compare the electrical conductivity between copper and calcium? I understand that electrical conductivity of a metal is dependent on the number of delocalized electrons for that metal. ...
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5 votes
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What determines the kind of Bravais lattice structure (body-centred cubic, hexagonal, etc) a transition metal shows?

With the exception of Zn, Hg, Cd and Mn transition metals most transition metals have only one kind of lattice structure at room temperature. Another trend I noticed was that Groups 3 and 4 have ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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Why is it that not all metals produce hydroxides when reacting with water? [duplicate]

I was taught, as a rule, that: metals + water $\rightarrow$ metal hydroxide + hydrogen gas $$\text{Na} + \text{H}_2\text{O} \rightarrow \text{NaOH} + \text{H}_2$$ However: $$3\text{Fe} + 4\text{H}...
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8 votes
2 answers
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Exchange energy of d6 configuration

In NCERT Chemistry book, it is given as: Exchange energy is responsible for the stabilization of energy state. Exchange energy is approximately proportional to the total number of possible pairs of ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How can we predict the formula of a coordination compound by just knowing the ligand and central metal? [closed]

Question: On complete reaction of $\ce{FeCl3}$ with oxalic acid in aqueous solution containing $\ce{KOH}$, resulted in the formation of product A. The secondary valency of $\ce{Fe}$ in the product A ...
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Does concerted oxidative addition follow first-order kinetics?

So my professor for organometallic chemistry described the different mechanisms for oxidative addition and in talking about the concerted mechanism he said that it had first order kinetics. I find ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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How to compare magnetic moment of chromium(III) and cobalt(II) ions?

Is there any way of comparing the magnetic moments of $\ce{Co^2+}$ and $\ce{Cr^3+}$ gas phase ions by just going through their electronic configuration?Or is it just experimental data?
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7 votes
1 answer
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Why is it advised to use neutral ferric chloride solution while performing confirmatory test for acetate ions? [duplicate]

The reaction of $\ce{FeCl3}$ with $\ce{CH3COO-}$ is $$\ce{3Fe^{+3} +6CH3COO- +H2O<=> [Fe3(OH)2(CH3COO)6]^{+} +2H^{+}}$$ Recently I read that a solution of $\ce{FeCl3}$ hydrolyses very quickly to ...
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Is tetrachloridocuprate(II) formed when dilute hydrochloric acid is added to a solution containing tetraamminecopper(II)?

As observed in the lab, when concentrated $\ce{HCl}$ is added to a solution of deep blue $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4]^2+}$ a green color appears indicating the partial formation of the yellow colored $\ce{[CuCl4]^...
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5 votes
0 answers
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Explanation of the trans-effect (thermodynamic and kinetic) for octahedral transition metal complexes

The thermodynamic trans effect refers to the ground state weakening of the metal-ligand bond in a complex by a ligand trans to it. The kinetic trans effect is the lablisation of a ligand in a complex ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Can aqua regia/royal water dissolve lead? [duplicate]

As known aqua regia can't dissolve $\ce{Ag}$ because formation of $\ce{AgCl}$ precipitate. Similarly will aqua regia precipitate $\ce{Pb}$ as $\ce{PbCl2}$? OR It is not possible to observe this ...
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1 answer
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Noble gas configuration and valence shell electrons [duplicate]

I know that the maximum number of electrons within a shell is equal to 2n^2. I would think that the noble gases would reflect this but that isn’t always the case n = 1 2(1^2) = 2, this is the atomic ...
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4 votes
2 answers
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Why is osmium(VIII) oxide so toxic?

Osmium(VIII) oxide or osmium tetroxide is a volatile chemical compound with the formula of $\ce{OsO4}$. It is highly toxic for supposedly irritating mucous membranes, but I'm not too sure if it is ...
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0 votes
3 answers
608 views

How does copper oxidise alcohols?

Consider for example ethanol being heated in the presence of copper at 300 °C. How does it give ethanal as a product? Copper being in its elemental state (oxidation state 0). Since negative oxidation ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Why does Co(I) have a 3d8 configuration?

Why is the electron configuration of $\ce{Co^+}$ $[\ce{Ar}](\mathrm{3d})^8$? Since neutral $\ce{Co}$ itself has a $[\ce{Ar}](\mathrm{4s})^2(\mathrm{3d})^7$ configuration, wouldn't the ionised electron ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Finding the valency of transition metals in coordination complexes

I understand how to find the valency of atoms in small organic compounds. For instance, for CH4, the valency of carbon is 4, while the valency of each hydrogen is 1. But for a coordination complex, ...
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3 votes
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Why can zinc porphyrins assume 5 coordinate geometries?

It has been reported that 5-coordinate geometries are possible and stable for Zn(II) porphyrin complexes. How do these complexes form and why are they stable when other 5-coordinate geometries of Zn(...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Do all metal nitrates give nitrogen dioxide on decomposition?

Some metal nitrates decompose to give nitrites: $\ce{2MNO3 -> 2MNO2 + O2}$ whereas some metal nitrates decompose to give $\ce{NO2}$. A possible reaction is $\ce{M(NO3)2 -> MO + NO2 + O2}$ Based ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Balancing redox reaction of zinc and hot diluted nitric acid

I need to balance the following reaction: $$\ce{Zn + HNO3 -> Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + H2O}$$ I assigned all oxidation numbers: $$\ce{\overset{0}{Zn} + \overset{+1}{H}\overset{+5}{N}\overset{-2}{O_3}\...
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8 votes
1 answer
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Does iron(VI) fluoride exist?

Why does $\ce{FeF6}$ not exist? There are hexavalent iron compounds, so that is not the problem. There is the $\ce{[Fe(CN)6]^3-}$ ion, so there doesn't seem to be a steric problem.
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2 votes
1 answer
201 views

How to convert cell diagram to a chemical equation?

How would one convert on the right side of the cell diagram: $$\ce{Zn(s) | Zn^2+(aq) || MnO4-(aq), Mn^2+(aq), H+(aq) | Pt(s)}$$ $$ \begin{align} \ce{Zn(s) &-> Zn^2+(aq)} \tag{ox}\\ \ce{MnO4-(aq)...
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4 votes
0 answers
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Invisible spin allowed transitions in Tanabe-Sugano diagrams

In class we are looking at Tanabe-Sugano diagrams, more concretely at transitions for a d2 complex. I understand that the only spin allowed transitions are those that have a triplet state, therefore ...
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6 votes
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Comparison of C=O bond strength in metal carbonyls

Find the weakest $\ce{C=O}$ bond among $\ce{[Mn(CO)6]+},$ $\ce{Fe[(CO)5]},$ $\ce{[Cr(CO)6]}$ and $\ce{[V(CO)6]-}.$ I thought the $\ce{C=O}$ bond strength would be lowest in $\ce{[V(CO)6]-}$ since the ...
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Comparison between bond length of platinum and titanium oxides

This question comes from a problem sheet I recently had. It concerns the fact that Pt-O bond lengths are typically longer than Ti-O ones, even though the radii of the two metals are similar. My ...
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3 votes
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Why is tetrachlorocuprate (II) yellow if it is high-spin?

From my knowledge of transition metal complexes, tetrahedral complexes generally have less splitting (compared to octahedral complexes) because they only involve four ligands are they aren't placed ...
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5 votes
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Why transition metal catalyzed [2+2]cycloaddition reactions allowed?

As you know, cycloaddition reactions which (4n)π electrons are involved in such as [2+2]cycloaddition are forbidden in normal organic reactions, but transition metal catalyzed [2+2]cycloaddition ...
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