Questions tagged [electronic-configuration]

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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Difference in a array of probability density plots for the electron in its lowest-energy states of Hydrgen atom [closed]

Dynamic Periodic Table If you visit Dynamic Peridic Table, You will notice that for n=4 l=3,2 m=0,0, and n=2,l=1, m=0 there is a difference in the probability density plots for electron in its ...
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How is the hibridization of different compounds with hydrogen affected by the size of atoms it bonds on? [duplicate]

In our study material it is stated that elements of the second period, (in groups 6,7) tend to hibrydize their orrbitals in order to form bonds with for lets say hydrogen. But elements in higher ...
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How do you find the valency and electron configuration of VO3- and VO2+ [closed]

I understand how to find the valency of an atom, but how do you apply the same principle to a compound?
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General electronic configuration of transition elements

In my book, the general electronic configuration of transition elements is given as $$(n-1)\mathrm{d}^{[1;10]}n\mathrm{s}^{[1;2]}.$$ However, IUPAC defines them as elements or stable cations with ...
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Why aren't Boron and Aluminium assigned to group 3 of periodic table? What determines the group? [closed]

I've been curious about this 3D representation of the periodic table "Mendeleev's Flower" and was trying to study it, wondering if it reveals any regularities that are not obvious from classic ...
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Electron pairing in atoms

A question asks: This question refers to isolated gaseous atoms. In which atom are all electrons paired? Ba, Br, S or Si? I thought it was Ba as its electron configuration is [Xe] 6s2. However, ...
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How electron configuration is related to the oxidation state of an element such as sulphur and can this be extended for elements in other blocks? [closed]

The question arises from trying to get where does the values of $-2$, $0$, $+2$, $+4$ and $+6$ from the electron configuration. The electron configuration for sulphur $(Z=16)$ is $[Ne]3s^23p^4$. It ...
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Does it exist a transgression to Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity principle in this given electron box notation?

The following question arises from a set of statements from which I'm asked to state whether they are true or false. This is as follows: Indicate which of the following statements are true or ...
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Confusion in half filled or full filled electronic configuration

At the end of electronic configuration, we were taught that, electron orbitals are most stable when they are either fully filled or half filled. E.g., the final valence configuration of chromium is $\...
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Why is the number of covalent bounds typically formed by an element equal to 8 minus the group number? [closed]

Why would the number of covalent bounds typically formed by an element equal to 8 minus the group number? E.g for C, we have 8-4 bonds, for Cl, 8-7 bonds
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Reconciling electron configuration and valence electron distribution over separate energy levels in energy band theory [duplicate]

The electron configuration of a Silicon atom in its ground state is $\ce{1s^2 2s^2 2p^2 3s^2 3p^2}$, or equivalently, $\ce{[Ne] 3s^2 3p^2}$. When looking at the energy-level scheme of a silicon atom, ...
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Why does 2+ oxidation state become more stable relative to 3+ oxidation state for first row of transition metals? [duplicate]

I viewed an image showing all the possible oxidation states of each element in the first row of transition metals, and the main oxidation states highlighted in a different colour. I noticed all ...
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Direction of electron density in p orbitals

$\mathrm{s}$ orbitals are spherically symmetric while $\mathrm{p}$ orbitals are not. For Boron, the electronic configuration is $\mathrm{1s^2 2s^2 2p^1}$. In which p orbital does the most energetic ...
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On the meaning of distinguishability, and wavefunctions for 3 electron atoms

In a 2-electron atom at lowest energy, the $(1s)^2$ is occupied and the electronic wave-function must satisfy anti-symmetry requirements in the particle coordinates, as the spatial wave function is ...
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Why is nitronium ion an electrophile?

I have learnt that the species which have vacant orbital(s) are called electrophiles. But in this case, the nitrogen has a complete octet. The positively charged nitrogen ion has a valency of 4, of ...
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Is electron density a good measure of similarity between molecules?

I am looking for a good similarity measure between molecules in order to use it with machine learning algorithms. I found a paper, Carbó, R., Leyda, L. and Arnau, M. (1980), How similar is a molecule ...
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What is the maximum number of electrons that can be found in an atom when its last electron has the following quantum numbers?

The question is as follows: What is the maximum number of electrons that can be found in an atom when its last electron has the following quantum numbers: $n=4, m_{l}=+3$ Since $m_{l}=+3$ I know ...
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Is the nickel an exceptions to the electron configuration? [duplicate]

the electron config. is this 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^8 can the 2 electrons in the 4s be donated to the 3d to make them diamagnetic?
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Empirical Evidence and Assignment of Orbital Energies (Electron Filling)

I see a lot of questions on electron configurations from students at various levels here. Students mechanically remember how to fill orbitals and sorry to say many teachers do the same. Not a single ...
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Why $ns^2np^6$configuration so stable? [duplicate]

In my chemistry textbook it is said that noble gases have stable configuration because they have achieved the maximum outermost shell configuration, which corresponds to the $ns^2np^6$ configuration. ...
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How can a methyl cation exist without 8 valence electrons

So far I have been taught that everything wants to achieve noble gas configuration - 8 electrons in the outer shell. I came across a methyl cation. Which contains a positive carbon, no lone pairs and ...
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Diamagnetic vs Paramagnetic

As far as I know, to know whether a substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic, we check if that particular species has got unpaired electron or not. But my textbook lists- Examples of Diamagnetic ...
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Intuition for why effective nuclear charge increases down a column

My textbook (Chemistry the Central Science, edition 12, Brown et al.) says that effective nuclear charge increases down a column. Indeed, this is consistent with the values provided by Clementi in the ...
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Why is Thorium (At. no. 90) an f-block element at all?

Being an exception of the Aufbau principle, Thorium has an electronic configuration of $\ce{[Rn]}\mathrm{7s^25f^06d^2}$ instead of the expected $\ce{[Rn]}\mathrm{7s^2 5f^2 6d^0}$. Two other elements, ...
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Why does period 3 of the periodic table contain 8 elements instead of 18?

Period 1 of the periodic table contains 2 elements ($1s^1$ and $1s^2$). Period 2 contains 8 elements ($2s^1$, $2s^2$, $2p^1$, $2p^3$, ..., $2p^6$). By the same argument, period 3 might contain 18 ...
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Do different oxidation states of the same element have the same emission spectrum?

I looked at the flames of copper (I) chloride and of copper (II) chloride through a spectroscope and they looked the same. The flame colour is the same too. But since they have different oxidation ...
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How can a neutral atom attract electrons when it's supposed to have zero charge?

A neutral atom is an atom with an equal number of protons and electrons We know the force of attraction between the proton and electron is equal and assuming that: one proton's positive charge ...
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Coulombic energy of repulsion and exchange energy

In this Wikipedia link about the excited states of oxygen, this diagram is shown. The left most molecular orbital diagram is the first excited state of oxygen, and the MO diagram in the middle is the ...
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Electronic configuration of Co³⁺

Cobalt (atomic number 27) has electronic configuration $[\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{(4s)^2 (3d)^7}.$ I have seen two different configurations and explanations for $\ce{Co^3+}$ from a variety of different ...
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Why does ethene not disintegrate upon excitation?

The average c=c double bond has somewhere around 614 kJ/mol of energy, if we convert it to eV, then the bond strength is roughly 6.4 eV. Additionally, Ethene absorbs light at 171 nm. However, if we ...
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Do external electronic shells influence internal ones?

There is a well-known electron shielding effect: negatively-charged internal electronic shell screens external shells from positive nuclei, thus increasing their radii. Thus, 2S orbital radius of Li ...
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Are there any forbidden collisional electronic transitions?

There are spectroscopy selection rules marking some radiative electronic transitions as forbidden. For example, it is stated that single electron of H atom can not move from S2 to S1, or from P2 to S2 ...
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Electron shells and subshells energies [duplicate]

According to what i learned in university, the energy of orbitals increases when the principal quantum number n increases. Also, in a given shell, s orbitals have lower energy than p orbitals which ...
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Why are sulfur trioxide and nitrate not isoelectronic, even though both have the same number of outer electrons?

Though $\ce{SO3}$ has the same number of outer electrons as $\ce{NO3-}$, the two are not isoelectronic. This statement is from JD Lee, but I could not understand why is he calling these two molecules ...
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Why do the d orbitals contract when pairing of electrons start, because the size should increase due to increase in energy

The energy of an orbital is proportional to its mean radial distance, and since the 3d orbital is much larger it is much higher in energy than the 3s and 3p orbitals All references from JD Lee ...
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Are Slater’s rule and lanthanide contraction contradictory?

According to most textbook and the Wikipedia page of lanthanide contraction, the phenomenon is due to poor shielding of nuclear charge by 4f electrons. However, the σ value of 4f electrons to 6s is 1....
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Ionization energy of S²⁻ vs S

Which of $\ce{S^2-}$ and $\ce{S}$ has smaller ionization energy? On one hand, ionization energy of $\ce{S^2-}$ can be predicted to be smaller than that of $\ce{S}$ because it is "easier" to remove ...
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Lewis structure of chlorine dioxide [duplicate]

The central atom in the molecule of $\ce{ClO2}$ is chlorine. Draw the ‘dot-and-cross’ diagram for $\ce{ClO2}.$ Show outer electrons only. How to draw Lewis structure of $\ce{ClO2}?$ Please explain ...
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Does this electronic configuration violate the Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity?

I know this configuration violates the AufBau principal but does it also violate Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity?
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Confused with Electronic Configurations [duplicate]

According to the Aufbau principle, the electronic configuration for $_{78}^{158}Pt$ is the following: $$[Xe]\,5s^{2} 5p^{6} 5d^{8} 6s^{2}$$ But in reality, it is: $$ [Xe]\,5s^{2} 5p^{6} 5d^{9} 6s^{1}$$...
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What is the electronic configuration of La⁺? [closed]

Second IP of La is most likely to second IP of which element: (1) Be (2) Ba (3) Ca (4) Zn The given answer is calcium. I don't understand if the 6s electron or the 5d electron leaves on ...
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Additional example determining Marcus parameters searched

Background / theory: The electron transfer in organic materials was formalized by the Marcus theory, introducing $|H_{ab}|$ to describe the how molecules (or more generally: sites) are coupled with ...
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Electronic configuration in [Ni(CN)4]2-

$\ce{[Ni(CN)4]^2-}$ is a low spin , inner orbital complex having $\mathrm{dsp^2}$ hybridisation. According to Crystal Field Theory, $\ce{CN^-}$ is a strong field ligand that causes pairing of ...
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Plutonium element configuration

For Plutonium 94 when I do it's element configuration I get 1s2-2s2-2p6-3s2-3p6-4s2--3d10-4p6-5s2-4d10-5p6-6s2-4f14-5d10-6p6-7s2-5f6 I found on this site that I'...
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Electronic configuration

I was preparing for an exam and I saw one question which is difficult to understand: The electronic configuration $\mathrm{(1s)^2(2s)^2(2p)^6}$ does not belong to: a) any element b) anion ...
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What is the electronic structure of Mn in KMnO4 and K2MnO4?

I know that is is d3s hybrid. But in my book it is unclear which orbitals participate in pi bond with O. I think it should be both p and d orbitals of Mn that do.
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What is the definition of a bipolaron and a dipolaron?

I wondered about the exact definition of a bipolaron? In particular, if I have an oxygen vacancy in a metal oxide and the 2 excess electrons (when forming a neutral oxygen vacancy) localise on the 2 ...
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Explanation of metallic crystal structures using orbitals and electron configuration

There has to be a direct relation between metallic crystal structure formation and electrons in orbitals. For instance, we know that Fe2+ forms body centered cubic or bcc structure with the ...
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Why is a compound that is more stable gives out less energy upon reaction? [closed]

I am having trouble relating stability with energy released. For example, I am looking at a statement regarding Benzene that says, since delocalised electron model of Benzene is more stable than the ...
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Why is the graph of fluorescence vs. wavelength continuous?

If the emission of a photon from an excited state to the ground state occurs with a precise energy, then why is it that wavelengths that differ from lambda max have values on a fluorescence vs. ...

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