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Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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Why does potential difference between electrode and electrolytic phase depend on concentration of metallic ions but not on area of electrode? [closed]

Why is it so that the potential difference between an electrode phase and an electrolytic phase depend upon the concentration of solution but not on the area of electrode dipped in the solution??
Kunal's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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White powder-like substance on top of sodium hydroxide solution

i've made sodium hydroxide solution adding 100g of hydroxide to water 100g. i've been adding it slowly and constantly stirring. few days later on top of solution was thick layer of white powder. it ...
2 votes
2 answers
80 views

How can gelling agents "dissolve" in the liquid phase as a "colloid" mixture?

Gelling agents according to Wikipedia: Some thickening agents are gelling agents (gellants), forming a gel, dissolving in the liquid phase as a colloid mixture... But colloid according to Wikipedia: ...
new's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
76 views

Why do azeotropes behave the way they do?

I read this answer to a similar question whilst it proved to be plenty insightful there was this one point I failed to understand: To get a minimum boiling azeotrope, the deviation from Raoult's Law ...
Venven's user avatar
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2 answers
68 views

Is dissolution of NH4Cl in water a physical change or chemical change?

A chemical change involves a reorientation of atoms of the substance, resulting in the formation of new substances. A physical change causes changes in physical properties of the substance, like its ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
80 views

Fundamental reasons for using vapors for ALD rather than solutions

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been developed for many materials, as can be seen from this overview: https://atomiclimits.com/alddatabase/ However, a search for liquid phase ALD gives less results. ...
Paul Kolk's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
94 views

Relation between dilution and osmotic pressure

The following question is taken from IAT 2024, an entrance test for research institutes in India at the high school level: Which one of the following plots correctly describes the variation of ...
Aadhaar Murty's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
39 views

Would it be possible to form dense metal using a sol gel technique?

I was trying reduce some silver salt AgNO3 into elemental metal by thermal reduction I mixed it with citric acid and formed a solution and poured it into a circular cap (makeshift mould) and what I ...
assasinchop7's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why does entropy increase on mixing two ideal liquids?

Why does entropy increase when we mix two ideal liquids? In my opinion entropy shouldn't change. Say we have two beakers of equal volume filled with $\ce{H2O(l)}$. I mark them red and blue (the ...
Gauransh's user avatar
-3 votes
1 answer
22 views

What is the difference between dissociation and ionisation exactly and is ionisation in this case connected to ionisation as in "ionisation energy"? [closed]

What exactly is the difference between ionisation and dissociation and is it connected to with ionisation energy
Anvi Mahajan's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
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Is double excitation of nitrogen possible, and would it be able to use it as a central atom in a coordination complex?

I’m 17 and in my 2nd year of high-school (we have it a tad different here in the Czech Republic) and am interested in theoretical chemistry so that’s the explanation of the nature of my question. So, ...
Prokop Hoza's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
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Total pressure of saturated solution of air and Benzene [closed]

The question asked for me is - A sample of air is saturated with benzene (vapour pressure =100 mm Hg at 298 K) at 298 K, 750 mm Hg pressure.If it is isothermally compressed to one third of its initial ...
Navanieeth TS's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
48 views

Does osmotic pressure depend on the quantities of the outer membrane solvent?

$$\pi V = nRT$$ What is the osmotic pressure at $\pu{25^oC}$ of an aqueous solution of 0.0010 M $\ce{C12H22O11}$ (sucrose)? We just need to substitute the data into equation (13.4) $$\pi = \frac{\pu{...
miiky123's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Freezing-Point Depression and Boiling- Point Elevation diagram

Hey I don't understand how can it be that the phase diagram of the solvent in a solution, can be separated from of the overall solution? isn't the freezing or melting and etc is of the whole solution? ...
miiky123's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Considering Le Chatelier's principle, what happens when you add more solute to a saturated solution already in equilibrium?

If I'm not wrong saturated solutions are in dynamic equilibrium. Will the addition of solute disturb the equilibrium? What exactly occurs and how to apply Le Chatelier's principle?
Anvi Mahajan's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
64 views

Vapor Pressure of Two Immiscible Liquids [duplicate]

The vapor pressure of two immiscible liquids (A and B) is the sum of their vapor pressures in their pure liquid form. Intuitively, I don't see how this is possible. If the liquids are being stirred ...
hi hi's user avatar
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1 answer
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Do volatile solutes affect the vapour pressure of solutions?

If a non-volatile solute is added to water it will reduce vapour pressure as some space is occupied by non-volatile solute but what if the solute density is higher than water does vapour pressure ...
Yuvraj Singh's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
34 views

Dihydrogenphosphate and hydrogenphosphate buffer solution

I have just come across a problem involving a buffer solution comprising of dihydrogenphosphate ions and hydrogen phosphate ions, which asks how the mixture of these two ions can function as a buffer ...
Quin Gardiner Bax's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
77 views

What is the exact definition of isotonic solutions?

Background of the Question I am a high school student so maybe my understanding of this topic is quite less, so apologies in case I have asked an elementary question. My chemistry sir taught that :- ...
Adhway's user avatar
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0 answers
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Why Henry's Law for solubility of gas is defined in two ways?

My school book (NCERT) states Henry's Law as: The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas present above the surface of liquid or solution. and then ...
Divyansh Singh's user avatar
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0 answers
52 views

Why doesn't vapour pressure depend upon the amount of liquid?

I was reading about the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation, which is as follows: I was also reading about Vapour Pressure, when I learned this: The vapor pressure of a liquid does not depend on the amount ...
Adhway's user avatar
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Solubility or reactivity of tantalum carbide and potassium polyselenides?

It is probably an unexplored system, but is there anything known about the low temperature thermodynamic equilibrium state of this? By 'tantalum carbide', I mean $\ce{TaC}$, and by potassium ...
Paul Kolk's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
41 views

Henry's Law vs Raoult's Law Standard States for Activities

I am currently reading McQuarrie and Simon's Physical Chemistry and don't fully understand their discussion of standard states for activities. On page 990 they write (with a few minor adjustments to ...
Neel's user avatar
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1 answer
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Find the pH of a solution obtained by mixing 100 ml 0.1m Na3PO4 and 100 ml 0.1 M NaH2PO4. Given that H3PO4: [Κα₁ = 10^-4, Κα₂ = 10^-7, Каз = 10^-11] [closed]

So, my query is that since NaH2PO4 is a weak acid, and Na3PO4 is a basic salt, wouldn't they react? Another theory was that since NaH2PO4 is a weak acid and Na3PO4 is a salt of strong acid and NaH2PO4,...
qwqwqwerty-7's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
61 views

Why do some powders form powder-filled blobs in a liquid?

e.g., why does this happen? (I think in the picture, it's flour mixed with water. I've seen examples of this with many different powders mixed in liquids, usually water.) What has happened at the ...
David C.'s user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
144 views

In an unsaturated solution, is the product of ions still equal to Ksp?

Suppose I have a solution of a sparingly soluble compound, and consider its solubility in g/L. If I have less g/L of solution than that amount, it means the solution is unsaturated, but what happens ...
odin98's user avatar
  • 67
-2 votes
2 answers
71 views

Can you clearly explain what osmotic pressure is?

There are two main questions I'm struggling to get my head around. What exerts osmotic pressure? Is it the molecules of the solvent (water) or solute particles (sugar) ? Where is it exerted? On the ...
user143383's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
24 views

Why can we calculate the molar mass of a non volatile solute using lowering in vapour pressure?

Apparently it is possible to calculate the molecular mass of a non volatile solute using relative lowering of vapour pressure using the equation: Where P is the total vapour pressure of the solution, ...
user143383's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
75 views

What does it mean for a substance to be "sparingly soluble"?

I have trouble understanding what solubility means. Merriam-Webster defines it as follows: 1 the quality or state of being soluble 2 the amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of ...
odin98's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
62 views

Calculate the volume (in mL) of 0.200 M CaCl₂

Trying to calculate the volume (in mL) of 0.200 M CaCl₂ needed to produce 2.00 g of CaCO₃ (s). There is an excess of Na₂CO₃. Molar Mass of Carbon Carbonate = 100.09 g/mol. I am getting the answer ...
Chris's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
43 views

Increasing energy density for flow batteries with water based electrolyte?

Given a flow battery with a water based electrolyte, would it be possible to increase the energy density of battery by precipitating the redox active species from the anolyte and catholyte solutions? ...
Lance Collins's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
51 views

History of Azeotrope (azeotropic mixtures)

I'm currently researching the history of azeotropic mixtures for an essay, and I've come across some interesting information. The term "azeotrope" was coined in 1911 by English chemists John ...
Max89's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
153 views

Is this evidence that solubility of sodium bicarbonate<sodium carbonate?

Someone introduced $\ce{CO2}$ into saturated $\ce{Na2CO3}$ solution, and observed that white precipitate is produced. He therefore claims that $\ce{NaHCO3}$ has less solubility than $\ce{Na2CO3}$. His ...
youthdoo's user avatar
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-4 votes
1 answer
61 views

Is it possible to make acids and bases in amphiprotic solvents other than water [closed]

In such solvents, could there be chemicals which could donate/accept protons, and if so could their solutions display acidic/basic properties?
Mark R's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
227 views

Iodine solution concentration

I am planning to make 1L of 0.005M iodine solution from KI and I2. I have found instructions that say to use 2 g of KI and 1.3 g of I2 but no explanation why exactly this particular amount. I also ...
Ance's user avatar
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2 votes
4 answers
171 views

How can the Kw of water be constant?

I know in neutral solution, $\ce{[H+]}= \ce{[OH-]}= \pu{1.0 x 10^-7}$. However, let’s say I add an acid like HCl. This will increase $\ce{[H+]}$, therefore it’s no longer $\pu{1.0 x 10^-7}$, but is ...
Maria's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
73 views

Why Green Solution After Putting Bismuth Antimony in Nitrogen Acid

I am in a physics lab studying dislocation, and we submerged a bismuth antimony sample in nitrogen acid (about 50% concentration, if I remembered it right) as the first step to etch it. There were ...
Yuting Z's user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
67 views

How to figure out concentration of ingredients in solution? [closed]

I have a solution that contains 3 inactive ingredients: ethanol, propylene glycol, purified water and 5% of an active ingredient. What would be the smartest way to figure out the concentrations of the ...
deekay42's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
165 views

What solvents can I use to dissolve Epichlorohydrin rubber and Chloroprene Rubber

I am working with Epichlorohydrin and Chloroprene Rubbers and I would like to cast films of 2 mm at most. The solvents I have in my lab are DMSO, THF, DMF, Acetone, Ethanol and Propylene Carbonate. ...
Arjun Satheesh's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
16 views

Vapour pressure and Raoults law [duplicate]

Suppose we take a binary ideal solution having components A and B .... let's say that their mole fraction is 1/3 and 2/3 respectively (for simplicity) Now ... We know that this solution will start ...
Daksh Kapoor's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
197 views

Why does ethanol decrease viscosity of a high pH carbomer solution more compared to water

Carbomer 407 is made up of acrylic acid that undergoes polymerisation to form a long linear structure. At higher pH, the carboxylic acid functional groups will dissociate to form carboxylate ions. ...
Mike's user avatar
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-4 votes
2 answers
140 views

Mixing two solutions: how to solve such problems, is there a trick? [closed]

Two containers were filled with salt solutions, and the first container contained 1 liter less solution than the second. The mass concentration of salt from the solution in the first container was 10%,...
Alexander's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
145 views

When does osmosis stop?

In the figure given below:- Since only solvent particles can move through semipermeable membrane, if we manage to keep pressure on both the containers equal say by keeping weights, will osmosis go ...
Naman Singh's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
101 views

Anti-bumping granules

Anti-bumping granules are usually small stones. I presume that the principle of these granules ensuring smooth boiling, is that it blocks the upward motion of solution molecules. Usually the stones ...
Chemistry is fun's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
155 views

Why don't P graphs contradict Raoult's law graphs?

Our teacher gave us the following question: 1 mole each of liquids A, B are mixed in a piston-type vessel and piston is moved slowly and isothermally. (PA0 = 75 torr and PB0 = 25 Torr) Find: (a) ...
Arghya Shubhshiv's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
181 views

Does dissolution and crystallization always occur together?

Does dissolution and crystallization always take place simultaneously? Also does crystallization also occur in unsaturated solution but its rate is less than rate of dissolution or is rate of ...
ToLearn's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
22 views

Concentration term PPM [duplicate]

What volume do we assume when the concentration is written as mass by volume ppm? I mean when mass by volume percentage is say 20%, we can say that 20g solute is present in 100 ml solution. So if it ...
Naman Singh's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
51 views

Explanation for Raoults Law

The vapour pressure of pure liquids is independent of quantity of substance. But when in a solution, the vapour pressure of the components are given by $$P_A=P^°_AX_A$$$$P_B=P^°_BX_B$$ Since $A-A$, $A-...
Obelia's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why is glass a mixture and not a solution?

While studying mixtures and solutions, I read that glass is a mixture and not a solution. Then I searched over the Internet about it, but I got the same answer that it is a homogenous mixture. But ...
Harjot Dhillon's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
29 views

Magnetic surface removal

I have a DIY project made from used hard disk. Certain HDD models contain precision glass disks plated with magnetic surface, usually done with magnetron sputtering. I am searching for a substance I ...
kab00m's user avatar
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