Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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How to measure EC/ TDS?

I would like to measure the electrical conductivity of my hydroponic resovoir, with a EU plug, temperature sensor and an Arduino. I know that it is not accurate, because it will polarize, but this ...
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-1 votes
0 answers
22 views

Trying to understand boiling in ideal solution

I have studied that the boiling point of a pure liquid is the temperature when it's vapour pressure becomes atmospheric pressure (or the pressure of its surrounding in general). But I didn't ...
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-1 votes
0 answers
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Calculating solubility for medium strength electrolyte [closed]

The Ksp of $\ce{M(OH)_2}$ at a particular temperature is $K$. If dissociation rate of $\ce{M(OH)_2}$ at that temperature is $\alpha$,we are interested in determining the solubility of $\ce{M(OH)_2}$. ...
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How to run SCRF in Gaussian with extra basis? [migrated]

I want to run a SCRF calculation in Gaussian for a molecule. This has been done as standard with several geometries without issue using the aug-cc-pvtz basis and ...
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-3 votes
2 answers
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why is humid air an example of liquid gas solution instead of gas gas solution? [closed]

In my textbook, humid air is given as an example to liquid in gas solution. But isn't humidity the amount of water vapour (gas) and therefore should be gas in gas solution?
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Can Bromophenol Blue Sodium Salt, and Pentane be safely mixed/in contact with each other?

I'm trying to determine if powdered Bromophenol blue is safe to mix with Pentane. I would only need a tiny amount of dye, just enough to tint the pentane. I need to use pentane for it's specific ...
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Liquid water barrier and water vapor permeable membrane sheets

I am running an experiment where I am trying to maintain the relative humidity of a thermally insulated chamber. I am successfully able to hold the humidity using different salt solutions (NACL-75% RH,...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Why doesn’t ferrous sulfate appear orange in vinegar?

When I mix ferrous sulfate crystals with water, the solution almost immediately turns orange. However, when I mix ferrous sulfate with vinegar, it doesn’t change colors. Why is this?
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-4 votes
1 answer
34 views

Separation methods [closed]

I put some iron nails in water, and obviously, those started oxidizing, making those hydrogen bubbles. Some days after, the water was orange, indicated that the FeO has just dissolved in it. I found ...
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3 votes
1 answer
27 views

Clean a filler machine used to dispense epoxy resin

I am dispensing epoxy resin and at times epoxy hardener through a filler machine. It needs to be cleaned after each run, but rather than do a complete tear down, I'd rather be able to complete a &...
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1 vote
1 answer
33 views

What factors influence the upper size limit of micelle's?

Is there an inherent size at which micelle's cannot grow larger in volume? I have been trying to find a quantifiable method of measuring a size limit with all the variables that affect micelle ...
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9 votes
1 answer
524 views

What is the maximum osmotic pressure that can be exerted with water as the solvent at room temperature?

Lets say we have a membrane which separates a tank of pure water from a tank of water saturated with a solute(there are also undissolved chunks of solute which can immediately dissolve if water is ...
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How do I keep my homemade liquid fabric softener from separating?

I have a recipe for a homemade liquid fabric softener that smells good and works great, but I have to shake it every time before I use it. It gets old fast. The recipe calls for: 12 cups hot water, ...
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1 vote
1 answer
47 views

Difference between the specific heat capacity of potassium chloride solution and sodium chloride solution

I am curious about the difference between the specific heat capacity of a potassium chloride solution (KCl + water) and a sodium chloride solution (NaCl + water) - particularly the specific heat ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Reaction of long-term stored zinc acetate dihydrate

I was investigating solubility of zinc acetate dihydrate for various organic solvents, and for this I took out zinc acetate dihydrate in my lab containor. When I opened it very big aggregation was ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the effect of adding another solute to the solubility of the initial solute?

Let's say we have a saturated salt solution with 35 g/100 mL NaCl in water. If we add another solute up to its saturation concentration, for example 182 g/100 ml sucrose (C12H22O11), what happens? ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Why don't universal indicator solutions react with themselves?

Universal indicator is a pH indicator made of a solution of water, 1-propanol, phenolphthalein, sodium hydroxide, methyl red, bromothymol blue, sodium bisulfite, and thymol blue that exhibits ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Simple bistable and reversible electrochromic reaction in solution

I'm not a chemist and I'm looking for a simple bistable and reversible electrochemical reaction that changes color, specifically: A liquid in a glass with two electrodes that when a voltage is ...
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4 votes
0 answers
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Why is there a large increase in volume when an alkali metal is dissolved in liquid ammonia?

My teacher said unexplainedly that when alkali metals dissolves in liquid ammonia, there is a large increase in the volume. I found a paper that confirms this fact [1]: In the course of recent ...
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1 answer
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Finding final volume of the diluted solution with defined mass concentration given initial molar concentration

To what volume should you dilute $\pu{126 mL}$ of an $\pu{8.15 M}$ $\ce{CuCl2}$ solution so that $\pu{49.5 mL}$ of the diluted solution contains $\pu{4.56 g}$ $\ce{CuCl2}?$ I know you need to use $...
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1 answer
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Is acetone an effective solvent for bitumen?

Japanning is an age old process of protecting metal surfaces by applying several successive layers of a syrup-like black coating and then baking it to a hard and durable finish. It was often applied ...
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0 answers
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Which single parameter can tell about the absolute as well as relative position of a solvent wrt a specific polymer in Hansen Space?

I am trying to represent solutions of a specific polymer (let's say PVDF) dissolved in various solvents using a single parameter. By various solvents I mean single solvent (e.g. DMF) or solvent blends ...
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0 votes
0 answers
57 views

Can titanium dioxide oxidize sulfite

Suppose that there is 100mL of a 1M SO2 solution in water. If 1g of TiO2 photocatalyst is dispersed throughout the solution and UV light is shined on it, would it cause significant amounts of the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
65 views

Balancing a chemical reaction with oxidation numbers

We have been teached how to balance chemical reactions with oxidation numbers in school, but somehow I can't understand it. This is the equation to balance $$\ce{Cu(s) + NO3−(aq) + H+(aq) -> Cu^2+(...
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1 answer
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How does one obtain a CuCl2 (solid or in solution with water) from a solution with HCl

I have a solution of CuCl2 and with HCl, and I want to seperate CuCl2 from the HCl. I cannot boil or distill the solution, since I don't have a fume hood or access to a safe enough space outdoors. So ...
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5 votes
2 answers
427 views

Name of particles in a suspension

What is the proper name given to the particles in a suspension? Suspensae perhaps? When these particles are brought out of suspension, and precipitate down to the bottom of the mixture, what is that ...
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0 votes
0 answers
18 views

Solubility of multiple solutes and limits of solubility during freezing

I'm interested in modeling the freezing of solutions of water and I'm not really sure what happens in water after the solubility of a given material is reached. I know that as ice crystals form they ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Relative Humidity inside a thermally insulated chamber for a NACL solution

I ran an experiment, where I had to measure the relative humidity of a thermally insulated chamber containing NaCl solution. I have read from a few papers, that the relative humidity of a NaCl ...
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3 votes
1 answer
127 views

Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA): Solubility in ethanol

How much CBGA and CBDA can be dissolved in a given amount of ethanol at room temperature? I did a bit of research but could not find any source on solubility of these substances in ethanol. For ...
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1 vote
0 answers
33 views

How to calculate pH resulting from dissolving a salt in water? [closed]

The main question is how to calculate the changes in pH after dissolving a salt in water. Suppose we dissolve 1 gram of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) in 1 liter of Water. This will result in (...
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1 answer
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How to find the empirical formula from mass percentages of oxides [closed]

Say you've given an element X and it makes two oxides. The first oxide is $X_\mathrm{4}O_\mathrm{6}$ and the mass percentage of oxygen is 43.7%. In the second oxide, the mass percentage of X is 43.7%. ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
50 views

Don't understand how to conduct a sugar/water solution experiment [closed]

I am helping my some with simple chemistry experiments by following a book on experiments. I don't understand how to conduct one experiment thought (please see pic, experiment 16). It says dissolve ...
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-2 votes
2 answers
140 views

Why is my Povidone-Iodine 10% Solution losing it's color which disappeared, 2 tsp mixed with 6 oz distilled water, sitting out for 3 days? [closed]

I was directed to use this method of 2 tsp povidone mixed with 6 oz distilled water for mouth gargling, and also either using the mixed solution in a neti pot on the nose, or using the mixed solution ...
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2 votes
0 answers
60 views

Can reverse micelle's exist outside solution?

As in reverse micelle's, the polar liquid remains inside the micelle while the exterior is one of lower dielectric constant; if the liquid were to be carefully removed, would the micelle structure ...
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4 votes
0 answers
68 views

Why is supersaturated sodium acetate so (meta)stable?

Sodium acetate is a common example used in general chemistry lectures to illustrate the idea of supersaturation, and that precipitation of a supersaturated solution can be initiated by a seed crystal. ...
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1 vote
1 answer
57 views

Why does Raoult's Law have a weighted sum instead of a direct sum?

I'm fully aware of the various questions asked about Raoult's Law, and I'm asking this after having gone through all of them and not finding a suitable answer to my question. I have studied, that at a ...
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0 votes
2 answers
64 views

What is the relationship between electrodes and ions in a voltaic cell?

From what I understand, a voltaic cell involves two metals in two solutions. The metal and solution picked requires for the metal and the solution to interact. Atoms from the anode lose electrons and ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Can addition of a "neutral" salt like NaCl assist pH test strip measurement accuracy in low ionic strength/poorly buffered solutions?

After a web-search, it seems ISAs (Ionic Strength Adjusters) are offered commercially to assist pH electrode/probe measurements. Presumably meant to increase conductivity (without affecting pH ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Is it appropriate to say "solid-in-gas solution" and "liquid-in-gas solution"?

A number of books mention "solid-in-gas" and "liquid-in-gas" types of gaseous solutions. However, for something to dissolve in a gas, it must be in its vapour phase. So, for ...
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1 vote
1 answer
48 views

Using a pH meter to measure the presence of water in liquid ammonia? [closed]

I intend to do some experiments with building an ammonia-water gas adsorption refrigerator similar to a Crosley Icyball Wikipedia - Icyball. When recharging the icyball, it is important to not ...
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0 votes
1 answer
112 views

Why are camphor vapours taken in nitrogen gas?

I have read some examples of "solid-in-gas" solutions in several books. These examples include iodine vapours, camphor vapours etc. However, one fact that has stuck me is that nearly every ...
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0 votes
2 answers
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Precipitation of equimolar amounts of chloride and bromide [duplicate]

I was just wondering about the following situation; if we had a solution containing 0.1M bromide and 0.1M chloride ions, and treated it with excess silver nitrate, what would happen and would ...
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0 votes
0 answers
15 views

how dilute should the solution be for a noticeable enough colligative property such as relative lowering in vapor pressure?

I was mixing soup powder with boiling water today and noticed the vapors coming from the water suddenly vanish; seemed like the powder being non volatile decreased the mole fraction of water in the ...
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4 votes
1 answer
95 views

Why is the van ’t Hoff relation an approximation?

Lately, I've been looking and thinking about the fact that a professor told us in an advanced physiology lecture. When it came to mentioning osmotic pressure and the van ’t Hoff relationship $$ \pi = ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How to determine whether a solid has dissolved or no reaction occurred? [closed]

From this link: https://chemhaven.org/che111/lab/Lab_9_Unknown_Anion_F21.pdf When dissolving a solid or precipitate, only a portion is dissolved, thus leaving some behind, and fooling a student into ...
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1 vote
1 answer
49 views

Isn't my book doing this problem about ionic product wrongly?

Problem: After adding a $\pu{150 mL}$ $\pu{6.7\times10^{-5} M}$ $\ce{NaOH}$ solution to a $\pu{100 mL}$ $\pu{2.5\times10^{-5} M}$ $\ce{FeCl2}$ solution, green colored $\ce{Fe(OH)2}$ precipitate is ...
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1 vote
1 answer
167 views

Can ferrous ions exist in an acidic solution?

Can Fe2+ ions exist in an acidic solution or will they always pick up available protons and become Fe3+? My hunch is they can't exist but I'm not really sure. If the latter, does that mean that ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Do benzene and hexane form an ideal solution?

My teacher said that benzene and hexane do not form an ideal solution (with reference to Raoult's law) but did not explain any reason for it. My approach: Cyclic hydrocarbons (benzene here) have ...
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3 votes
1 answer
47 views

Is a diluted aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite more stable than a concentrated solution, all else being equal?

On the Clorox website, they recommend that you dilute bleach (NaOCl) in water prior to use for disinfection. They say that you should make a fresh solution each time you need to use it, adding: “Don’t ...
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0 answers
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What are the intermolecular forces between the following compounds in a mixture?

I need to figure out the intermolecular force between the following compounds in a mixture: acetone-aniline, acetone-chloroform, ethanol-acetic acid, acetone-ethanol, ethanol-water Can someone ...
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