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Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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Are insoluble ionic bases strong or weak

According to my chemistry textbook (holt rinehart), Al(OH)3 is a weak base because it’s not very soluble. By applying that logic can Mg(OH)2 be considered as a weak base? A quick google search will ...
Sarwar's user avatar
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Do volatile solutes affect the vapour pressure of solutions?

If a non-volatile solute is added to water it will reduce vapour pressure as some space is occupied by non-volatile solute but what if the solute density is higher than water does vapour pressure ...
Yuvraj Singh's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
27 views

Dihydrogenphosphate and hydrogenphosphate buffer solution

I have just come across a problem involving a buffer solution comprising of dihydrogenphosphate ions and hydrogen phosphate ions, which asks how the mixture of these two ions can function as a buffer ...
Quin Gardiner Bax's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
61 views

What is the exact definition of isotonic solutions?

Background of the Question I am a high school student so maybe my understanding of this topic is quite less, so apologies in case I have asked an elementary question. My chemistry sir taught that :- ...
Adhway's user avatar
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Why Henry's Law for solubility of gas is defined in two ways?

My school book (NCERT) states Henry's Law as: The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas present above the surface of liquid or solution. and then ...
Divyansh Singh's user avatar
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0 answers
25 views

Interrelation of properties of azeotropes

I have been told the following facts about azeotropes: They have a specific boiling point The azeotropic mixture occurs at the maxima of the non ideal Rault's law curve The composition of liquid and ...
Banana Genius's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

Why doesn't vapour pressure depend upon the amount of liquid?

I was reading about the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation, which is as follows: I was also reading about Vapour Pressure, when I learned this: The vapor pressure of a liquid does not depend on the amount ...
Adhway's user avatar
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Does pressure of vapor state affect vapour pressure of its liquid phase when both are in equilibrium in closed container? [closed]

In a closed container there exist a equilibrium between pure liquid and gaseous mixture i.e (gaseous mixture is ideal gas and liquid follows all classical chemistry laws). Also vapour state is ...
MultiUniverseExplorer's user avatar
3 votes
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Solubility or reactivity of tantalum carbide and potassium polyselenides?

It is probably an unexplored system, but is there anything known about the low temperature thermodynamic equilibrium state of this? By 'tantalum carbide', I mean $\ce{TaC}$, and by potassium ...
Paul Kolk's user avatar
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Common Ion Effect - Cl- disappeared more than it existed

I had an experiment of Common Ion Effect I have dissolved 35.92g of NaCl(s) in 100ml water (which is saturated) And I have added 10ml of 12.0M HCl. I have checked NaCl was precipitated. NaCl was 0.614 ...
Mineppl13's user avatar
2 votes
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33 views

Henry's Law vs Raoult's Law Standard States for Activities

I am currently reading McQuarrie and Simon's Physical Chemistry and don't fully understand their discussion of standard states for activities. On page 990 they write (with a few minor adjustments to ...
Neel's user avatar
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Find the pH of a solution obtained by mixing 100 ml 0.1m Na3PO4 and 100 ml 0.1 M NaH2PO4. Given that H3PO4: [Κα₁ = 10^-4, Κα₂ = 10^-7, Каз = 10^-11] [closed]

So, my query is that since NaH2PO4 is a weak acid, and Na3PO4 is a basic salt, wouldn't they react? Another theory was that since NaH2PO4 is a weak acid and Na3PO4 is a salt of strong acid and NaH2PO4,...
qwqwqwerty-7's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why do some powders form powder-filled blobs in a liquid?

e.g., why does this happen? (I think in the picture, it's flour mixed with water. I've seen examples of this with many different powders mixed in liquids, usually water.) What has happened at the ...
David C.'s user avatar
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2 answers
128 views

In an unsaturated solution, is the product of ions still equal to Ksp?

Suppose I have a solution of a sparingly soluble compound, and consider its solubility in g/L. If I have less g/L of solution than that amount, it means the solution is unsaturated, but what happens ...
odin98's user avatar
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2 answers
67 views

Can you clearly explain what osmotic pressure is?

There are two main questions I'm struggling to get my head around. What exerts osmotic pressure? Is it the molecules of the solvent (water) or solute particles (sugar) ? Where is it exerted? On the ...
user143383's user avatar
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0 answers
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Why can we calculate the molar mass of a non volatile solute using lowering in vapour pressure?

Apparently it is possible to calculate the molecular mass of a non volatile solute using relative lowering of vapour pressure using the equation: Where P is the total vapour pressure of the solution, ...
user143383's user avatar
1 vote
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What does it mean for a substance to be "sparingly soluble"?

I have trouble understanding what solubility means. Merriam-Webster defines it as follows: 1 the quality or state of being soluble 2 the amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of ...
odin98's user avatar
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1 answer
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Calculate the volume (in mL) of 0.200 M CaCl₂

Trying to calculate the volume (in mL) of 0.200 M CaCl₂ needed to produce 2.00 g of CaCO₃ (s). There is an excess of Na₂CO₃. Molar Mass of Carbon Carbonate = 100.09 g/mol. I am getting the answer ...
Chris's user avatar
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0 answers
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Increasing energy density for flow batteries with water based electrolyte?

Given a flow battery with a water based electrolyte, would it be possible to increase the energy density of battery by precipitating the redox active species from the anolyte and catholyte solutions? ...
Lance Collins's user avatar
1 vote
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History of Azeotrope (azeotropic mixtures)

I'm currently researching the history of azeotropic mixtures for an essay, and I've come across some interesting information. The term "azeotrope" was coined in 1911 by English chemists John ...
Max89's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is this evidence that solubility of sodium bicarbonate<sodium carbonate?

Someone introduced $\ce{CO2}$ into saturated $\ce{Na2CO3}$ solution, and observed that white precipitate is produced. He therefore claims that $\ce{NaHCO3}$ has less solubility than $\ce{Na2CO3}$. His ...
youthdoo's user avatar
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-4 votes
1 answer
60 views

Is it possible to make acids and bases in amphiprotic solvents other than water [closed]

In such solvents, could there be chemicals which could donate/accept protons, and if so could their solutions display acidic/basic properties?
Mark R's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Iodine solution concentration

I am planning to make 1L of 0.005M iodine solution from KI and I2. I have found instructions that say to use 2 g of KI and 1.3 g of I2 but no explanation why exactly this particular amount. I also ...
Ance's user avatar
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0 answers
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An experiment to study colligative properties

I was planning on doing a school project on the effects of gelatin on the melting point of water, as follows: Aim: To study the variation in the melting point of water mixed with gelatin. Materials ...
Harikrishnan M's user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
163 views

How can the Kw of water be constant?

I know in neutral solution, $\ce{[H+]}= \ce{[OH-]}= \pu{1.0 x 10^-7}$. However, let’s say I add an acid like HCl. This will increase $\ce{[H+]}$, therefore it’s no longer $\pu{1.0 x 10^-7}$, but is ...
Maria's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why Green Solution After Putting Bismuth Antimony in Nitrogen Acid

I am in a physics lab studying dislocation, and we submerged a bismuth antimony sample in nitrogen acid (about 50% concentration, if I remembered it right) as the first step to etch it. There were ...
Yuting Z's user avatar
-4 votes
1 answer
57 views

How to figure out concentration of ingredients in solution? [closed]

I have a solution that contains 3 inactive ingredients: ethanol, propylene glycol, purified water and 5% of an active ingredient. What would be the smartest way to figure out the concentrations of the ...
deekay42's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
144 views

What solvents can I use to dissolve Epichlorohydrin rubber and Chloroprene Rubber

I am working with Epichlorohydrin and Chloroprene Rubbers and I would like to cast films of 2 mm at most. The solvents I have in my lab are DMSO, THF, DMF, Acetone, Ethanol and Propylene Carbonate. ...
Arjun Satheesh's user avatar
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0 answers
16 views

Vapour pressure and Raoults law [duplicate]

Suppose we take a binary ideal solution having components A and B .... let's say that their mole fraction is 1/3 and 2/3 respectively (for simplicity) Now ... We know that this solution will start ...
Daksh Kapoor's user avatar
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0 answers
193 views

Why does ethanol decrease viscosity of a high pH carbomer solution more compared to water

Carbomer 407 is made up of acrylic acid that undergoes polymerisation to form a long linear structure. At higher pH, the carboxylic acid functional groups will dissociate to form carboxylate ions. ...
Mike's user avatar
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-4 votes
2 answers
124 views

Mixing two solutions: how to solve such problems, is there a trick? [closed]

Two containers were filled with salt solutions, and the first container contained 1 liter less solution than the second. The mass concentration of salt from the solution in the first container was 10%,...
Alexander's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
135 views

When does osmosis stop?

In the figure given below:- Since only solvent particles can move through semipermeable membrane, if we manage to keep pressure on both the containers equal say by keeping weights, will osmosis go ...
Naman Singh's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
75 views

Anti-bumping granules

Anti-bumping granules are usually small stones. I presume that the principle of these granules ensuring smooth boiling, is that it blocks the upward motion of solution molecules. Usually the stones ...
Chemistry is fun's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
126 views

Why don't P graphs contradict Raoult's law graphs?

Our teacher gave us the following question: 1 mole each of liquids A, B are mixed in a piston-type vessel and piston is moved slowly and isothermally. (PA0 = 75 torr and PB0 = 25 Torr) Find: (a) ...
Arghya Shubhshiv's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
116 views

Does dissolution and crystallization always occur together?

Does dissolution and crystallization always take place simultaneously? Also does crystallization also occur in unsaturated solution but its rate is less than rate of dissolution or is rate of ...
ToLearn's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
21 views

Concentration term PPM [duplicate]

What volume do we assume when the concentration is written as mass by volume ppm? I mean when mass by volume percentage is say 20%, we can say that 20g solute is present in 100 ml solution. So if it ...
Naman Singh's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
47 views

Explanation for Raoults Law

The vapour pressure of pure liquids is independent of quantity of substance. But when in a solution, the vapour pressure of the components are given by $$P_A=P^°_AX_A$$$$P_B=P^°_BX_B$$ Since $A-A$, $A-...
Obelia's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why is glass a mixture and not a solution?

While studying mixtures and solutions, I read that glass is a mixture and not a solution. Then I searched over the Internet about it, but I got the same answer that it is a homogenous mixture. But ...
Harjot Dhillon's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
29 views

Magnetic surface removal

I have a DIY project made from used hard disk. Certain HDD models contain precision glass disks plated with magnetic surface, usually done with magnetron sputtering. I am searching for a substance I ...
kab00m's user avatar
  • 111
3 votes
1 answer
337 views

Enthalpy change of a solution of 1-pentanol in 1-butanol

I came across a question asking to indicate the enthalpy of solution for a solution of 1-pentanol in 1-butanol. The options were the following: $\Delta H < 0$ $\Delta H \approx 0$ $\Delta H >...
Cold_Spaghetti's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
41 views

Why is it that in a buffer solution the equilibrium concentrations may be assumed to be the initial concentrations? [duplicate]

Considering the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, $$\text{pH} = \text{p}K_a + \lg \frac{[\ce{AcO⁻}]} {[\ce{AcOH}]}$$ $$\text{p}K_a = \lg \frac{[\ce{AcO⁻}][\ce{H⁺}]} {[\ce{AcOH}]}$$ Why are the values ...
reisan's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Why does the melting point of hexafluorosilicic acid differ that much in these two solution concentrations?

From the Wikipedia article for hexafluorosilicic acid: Melting point: ca. 19 °C (66 °F; 292 K) (60–70% solution) $<$ −30 °C (−22 °F; 243 K) (35% solution) What's the reason for this huge ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
61 views

Why do laundry detergents go bad?

Common lore on the internet is that liquid laundry detergents go bad 1-2 years after they are purchased. Is this true? I'd like to understand the chemistry behind this. This is the laundry detergent I ...
Monya Feldman's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
58 views

How can a volatile solvent make an ideal solution with a non-volatile solid solute?

I ask because to make an ideal solution the intermolecular forces between the molecules of solvent and solute respectively should be similar and after mixing they should also be similar to what they ...
Sukriti Sharma's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
80 views

Are all salts completely dissociated in solution when put in smaller amounts than their molar solubility?

From what I understand, the solubility is given in terms of molar solubility (or $\pu{K_{sp}}$), from which it can be easily calculated). Indeed, the saturation point represents the maximum amount of ...
odin98's user avatar
  • 57
1 vote
2 answers
477 views

How to prepare solution of liquid reagent of the given molar concentration?

I have a liquid reagent with molecular mass $M = \pu{294.08 g mol^-1}.$ I'd like to prepare $V = \pu{400 ml}$ of solution of that reagent with a concentration $c = \pu{100 mM}.$ Does it mean I have to ...
Pono's user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
100 views

Can acids contain OH-? [closed]

Given that a solution contains $\ce{OH-}$ ions can we sufficiently determine the substance is a base? From my understanding, an acid may still contain $\ce{OH-}$ ions. However, the concentration of $\...
user135170's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
69 views

How do I plot ternary phase diagrams using Flory-Huggins solution theory?

I have three components, $A,B,C$, with 3 exchange parameters: $\chi _{AB}, \chi _{BC}, \chi _{AC}$. I want to create a FH ternary diagram to see how such a mixture behaves and how phase separation ...
bad_chemist's user avatar
-3 votes
2 answers
109 views

Powder left everywhere after solution was left to evaporate. What could it be?

I dissolved a coin made of silver and copper and probably other metals in nitric acid. I neutralized the solution with some sodium hydroxide and then added salt(NaCl) to make Silver Chloride. A white ...
randomuser38924's user avatar
-2 votes
3 answers
662 views

Why do we have to prevent the hydrolysis of iron(III) nitrate?

I want to make particular concentration of ferric ions from $\ce{Fe(NO3)3.9H2O}$, and then I found this video It says that we have to add nitric acid to prevent iron from hydrolysis, what does it mean?...
Muhammad Ihsan's user avatar

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