Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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0answers
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Can different components show different deviations from Raoult's law?

Introduction: Raoult's law is used to calculate the partial pressures of the vapour phases of volatile components of a solution Given that there are two components, A and B, in the liquid-liquid ...
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42 views

Formal way to write a dissolution process

Suppose we have to write a chemical equation for the dissolution of a salt (e.g. $\ce{NaCl}$) in water. Which of the following two ways is the proper and why? First way $$\ce{NaCl (s) + H2O (l) <=&...
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I have tried to remove oxidation from a metal scraper using vinegar, now the metal looks and smells burnt, what went wrong?

I have recently tried to remove some oxidation from a metal scraper spatula by using vinegar. After leaving it there for a couple of hours I was left with a burnt smell (with a hint of burnt candle ...
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1answer
66 views

Heating NaOH solutions

I am trying to determine the best heat at which to use an NaOH solution to clean a textile fiber. This is being done, carefully, in Asian villages. The raw material is ribbons of bark peeled from a ...
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0answers
47 views

Why does conductivity of a solution of sodium in liquid ammonia decrease with a decrease in temperature?

What happens to the conductivity when a solution of sodium in liquid ammonia at $\pu{-33^{\circ}C}$ (Boiling point of ammonia) is further cooled? I expected the solution to behave as any other ...
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2answers
49 views

Why vapor pressure is unaffected by change in atmospheric pressure [duplicate]

I am a high school student and I am very confused in a topic about "vapor pressure of liquid". Why doesn't a change in atmospheric pressure affect vapor pressure? I think intuitively that ...
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1answer
54 views

Calculating molarity of iodine solution after reaction

I made an iodine solution referring to the methodology provided in this link: https://www.thoughtco.com/vitamin-c-determination-by-iodine-titration-606322 $$\ce{KIO3 + 5KI + 3H2SO4->3I2 + 3H2O + ...
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1answer
43 views

Using samples in titrations

I've never done an experiment before. So, the methodology provided in this pdf is quite confusing. Link to the pdf: https://www.canterbury.ac.nz/media/documents/science-outreach/vitaminc_iodine.pdf So,...
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1answer
69 views

What does water saturated oxygen mean? [closed]

What does water saturated oxygen mean in this question: The vapour pressure of water at 80º C is 355 torr. A 100 ml vessel contained water saturated oxygen at 80º C, the total gas pressure being 760 ...
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2answers
74 views

How do you achieve phase separation of a methanol / chloroform solution?

If I'm washing a methanol solution with chloroform, can I just add water in a 1:1 mixture with the methanol and expect it to break? Do I need to do anything else to cause the aqueous phase to separate ...
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1answer
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is boiling point a colligative property? [closed]

I know that elevation in boiling point is a colligative property .But is elevation in boiling point a colligative property ? Boiling point should be a colligative property acc to me bcz it depends ...
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Cleaning solution alternatives for acetate, nitrate, or polyester base motion picture film

I am in search of alternative film cleaning solutions which are safe for the film, me, and the environment. I have used several different professional film cleaning solutions in my many years of ...
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2answers
42 views

Finding freezing temperature and osmotic pressure of an ethylene glycol and glycerol solution in water

A water solution is prepared by mixing $\pu{200 g}$ of a ethylene glycol (ethan-1,2-diol; $\ce{C2H6O2}$) solution (20% by weight) with $\pu{500 g}$ of glycerol (propan-1,2,3-triol; $\ce{C3H8O3}$) ...
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1answer
26 views

diprotonated vs monoprotonated inorganic phosphate

We have made confounding observations in the physiology lab working with inorganic phosphate. The cell processes we study rely upon the transport of diprotonated inorganic phosphate. But we get ...
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1answer
123 views

Does Raoult's law hold for immiscible liquids?

I know that Raoult's law holds true only for a non volatile solute in a volatile solvent mixture wherein the vapour pressure of the solution gets lowered due to the addition of solute. Now, first of ...
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1answer
38 views

Density and Viscosity for Solution: 80% Liquid Methane CH4 with Solution of 20% Gas Nitrogen N2 on Surface of Titan (the largest moon of Saturn)?

Problem: Need to estimate the density and dynamic viscosity of such a mixed fluid: 80% Liquid Methane CH4 with solution of 20% Nitrogen Gas N2 with temperature of 94K and pressure of 1,467 hPa (the ...
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3answers
108 views

How are compounds within a complicated mixture detected?

I was reading an article about an independent pharmaceutical watchdog group called Valisure which recently released a report stating that they found Benzene, a toxic substance, in many bottles of ...
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2answers
165 views

Why are entries missing on a solubility data chart for ionic compounds? [closed]

There is a solubility chart in my college chemistry class text for "Solubility of Ionic compounds in water". I have copied and pasted image of chart below. I was surprised to find a dozen ...
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1answer
42 views

An unambiguous definition of a solution [duplicate]

I see the word solution used quite inconsistently. I'll give a few examples of how the word has been defined to me or how its been used. A solution is a homogenous mixture where the solute is ...
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1answer
168 views

Do azeotropic mixtures evaporate proportionally?

Do azeotropes evaporate, without boiling, in proportionate amounts, or does this property describe their behaviour only at boiling point? Concretely, if 91% isopropyl alcohol/water (by volume, i.e. an ...
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2answers
47 views

will splitting a solution will keep the concentration values (and moles) the same? [closed]

I have this exercise from my H.W: and I am asked: if we split the solution into 3 different containers equally - how many moles will the solution have in each container? will the Cl- concentration ...
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1answer
40 views

How many boiling points does a mixture of liquids have?

Let's say I have a mixture of two miscible liquids. I want to get the liquids by fractional/pure distillation. My textbook says a mixture boils over a range of temperatures. On the contrary, another ...
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1answer
50 views

Salt solubility and solvent dissociation

A textbook, describing a qualitative test for the $\ce{Al^3+}$ cation in which you use $\ce{NH4Cl}$ and $\ce{NH4OH}$ to precipitate $\ce{Al(OH)3}$, mentioned that the solubility of this precipitate ...
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1answer
38 views

What product is created in a zinc - nitrate reaction? [closed]

Question: Place 2 mL of Nitric acid in a test tube and add a small piece of Zinc turning I thought that the overall net ionic equation would be: $$\ce{Zn + 2H+ -> Zn^2+ + H2}$$ Is this correct? ...
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How does the surface to volume ratio of ions and their distribution in solution compare to that of suspended nanoparticles in nanofluids?

I am interested in understanding the heat transfer capabilities of fluids. Nano-fluids are suspensions of nanoparticles (1-100nm sized particles) in a base fluid, often water, oil or glycol. These ...
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1answer
65 views

Hydration vs Dissolution

While revising Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry from revision material published by Arihant publications I encountered the following mentioned statement. During dissolution, the physical state of ...
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0answers
38 views

Why in positive deviation from Raoult's Law partial vapour pressure of a liquid component is greater than what is predicted by Raoult's Law?

When my teacher was teaching me positive deviation from Raoult's Law, he told me that in this case $P_{solution}>P_A^°χ_{A} + P_B^°χ_{B}$ He told that here the solute-solvent interactions are ...
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36 views

Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Solution

The osmotic pressure of an aqueous solution at $25$ Celsius is $92.0$ $kPa$. Calculate the boiling point of the solution. (Assume that the density of the solution is $1.0$ $g/mL$, ignore the mass of ...
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23 views

Why does the non-volatile solute go into the liquid part of the the solution when a solution containing non-volative solute is freezed?

My teacher gave the following diagram in the class notes. He said that when a solution containing a non-volative solute (for e.g. a solution of $\ce{NaCl}$ in water) is freezed, then there will be ...
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1answer
158 views

What is the derivation for the expression of depression in freezing point?

In my textbook, it is written that the expression for depression in freezing point is $$ΔT_{f}=K_{f}\cdot m$$ where $ΔT_{f}$ is the freezing point depression (defined as positive value), $K_{f}$ is a ...
2
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1answer
103 views

Why lowering of vapour pressure is not a colligative property?

In my textbook, it is written that lowering of vapour pressure is not a colligative property but relative lowering of vapour pressure is a colligative property. But why is that? There is literally no ...
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1answer
51 views

Why is change in volume of the solution zero in case of an ideal solution?

In my textbook it is written that $ΔV_{mix} = 0$ for ideal solutions i.e. $V_{solution} = V_{A} + V_{B}$. But why is this true? There is literally no explanation in my textbook as to why this is true. ...
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1answer
21 views

Where does the residue accumulate in the boiling point composition curve?

My teacher was teaching me the boiling point composition curve for fractional distillation and in the class notes he gave the following diagram (I have given below). It says that the residue starts ...
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0answers
101 views

Will potassium permanganate react with ferric chloride?

I came across a question : Which of the following compound does not decolourise an acidified solution of $\ce{KMnO4}$? Answer was: After doing a bit of research I found that $\ce{KMnO4}$ oxidises $\...
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2answers
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A solution is cloudy at lower concentration and becomes clear at higher concentration. Why?

This might be just an "everyday life science" question. I am a university professor but not in Chemistry so please educate me. Today I was adding some floor cleaner formula to water as ...
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1answer
106 views

Can we compare the vapour pressure of solutions whose concentrations and temperature is known?

If we have some solutions, in which we know the temperature and concentration of the solute particles, can we compare their vapour pressures? Original question: Which solution has the highest vapour ...
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2answers
192 views

Azeotropic mixtures and Raoult's Law

So I find this everywhere: "Mixtures showing large deviations from Rault's law form azetropic mixtures at specific compositions" My questions are: (a)Why is it so?Why deviation from Raoult's ...
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1answer
53 views

Does the composition of a solution keep changing when being boiled? [closed]

The mole fractions of the components of vapours aren't the same as those of the liquid-liquid solution (unless the solution is azeotropic), this implies a change in the composition of the liquid ...
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55 views

Henry's Law and “Gases in Vapour Phase”

I found the following definition of Henry's Law in my textbook: "The partial pressure of the gas in vapour phase is proportional to the mole fraction of the gas in the solution." My ...
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1answer
196 views

To calculate total vapour pressure of a solution

Question: 1 mole each of A and B were mixed to obtain an ideal solution of which one mole went to the vapour phase at equilibrium. If $P°_\mathrm{A} = \pu{100 torr}$ and $P°_\mathrm{B} = \pu{900 torr}$...
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1answer
61 views

Finding the concentration from a dilution

This must be a very basic question but I have gotten confused over it. How would I find the concentration of each component of the reaction for each experiment from this data? I am guessing it can’t ...
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1answer
56 views

Confusion in solubility expressions in Henry's Law

While reading about Henry's law and solubility I frequently come across two relations: $C = k_{h}P$ (c = concentration of a dissolved gas) $P = k_{h}x$ (x = solubility/mole_fraction) What is the ...
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What is an effective coagulant/flocculant for an acidic solution?

The acidic solution is a mixture of dissolved ammonium sulfate and mono-ammonium phosphate (pH about 4.5-4.8) along with an inorganic sludge with a similar consistency to clay I am looking to remove ...
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2answers
55 views

How to run electrochemical tests on Microorganism (bacteria in a medium)?

I am trying to run some electrochemical tests(e.g.CV (Cyclic Voltammetry) & EIS (electrical impedance spectroscopy)) using half cell configuration on micro-organisms (e.g.bacteria). The bacteria ...
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1answer
175 views

Is mixture of ammonium hydroxide and ammonium nitrate a buffer solution? [closed]

Is a mixture of $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{NH4NO3}$ a buffer solution? I have seen some examples with $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{NH4Cl}$ but never $\ce{NH4NO3}$.
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Why is the Ag+ concentration in a beaker fixed in the reaction between excess AgCl (s) and KI (aq) from the start? [duplicate]

This arises as a sub-question for the following question: Calculate the concentration of I- in a solution obtained by mixing 0.10 M KI with an excess of AgCl(s). I tried to look at How does addition ...
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2answers
82 views

How to know if a reaction forms H3O+ ions or OH- ions? [closed]

How would you know when an acid or base is paired with $\ce{H2O}$ that it will form an $\ce{OH-}$ ion or a $\ce{H3O+}$ ion? I just started the acid and base equilibrium unit, and I'm just confused on ...
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1answer
227 views

Universal symbols for molar mass, molarity, and molality

This is a really basic (perhaps trivial) question, but I just want to confirm: What are the SI symbols for molar mass, molarity, and molality? For molality and molarity, there is a difference, but I’...
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1answer
74 views

Depression of the Freezing Point

Recently we learnt that there is a depression in the freezing point when a non-volatile solute is added to the solvent. Our teacher explained this phenomenon with a graph where the vapour pressure of ...
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0answers
53 views

DIY lipid nanoparticles

I, and a number of friends, take a bunch of supplements that are polyphenols and often flavin-oids, -ols or -es; also numerous carotenoids. Examples include quercetin, luteolin, fisetin, curcumin, ...

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