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Questions tagged [electronegativity]

Refers to ability for an atom in a covalent framework to attract electron density to itself. Do not conflate with electron affinity, which is the ability of a lone atom (or molecule) to attract an electron to itself. Both are measured in joules/mole.

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Which one has a greater dipole moment: benzamide or benzoic acid?

My guess is that, since the relative electronegativities are similar, therefore the difference would arise only due to magnitudes of difference in electronegativities. And hence the strength should be ...
Gajraj Singh's user avatar
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How would you explain the general trend in melting point between Group 1 and Group 2 chlorides?

This question is based off of the attached chart. I notice how there's a general increase in melting point down group 2 chlorides and a general decrease (except for Lithium) down the group 1 chlorides....
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How would the regions of this graph showing percentage of ionic character, be classified? [closed]

Looking here at this website - Omnicalculator, at the section of the website for calculating percentage of ionic character. Omnicalculator - Percentage Ionic Character They let you choose elements and ...
barlop's user avatar
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Why is expected bond energy the *geometric* mean of two pure bonds?

Suppose we are calculating the electronegativity of a bond A—B. In my textbook (Chemical Principles) calculation of electronegativity, they calculate electronegativity in terms of a variable ...
Lysanderoth's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why is the statement regarding the strength of ionic bonds reasonable? [closed]

In largely ionic compounds (e.g. NaBr and NaI), it seems to be generally true that, the greater the differences of electronegativity between the forming substances (i.e. The compound has more "...
蕭力諶's user avatar
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Why is cyclohexane more polarizable than benzene?

Looking at figure 4.2 here, we can see experimentaly that cyclohexane is more polarizable than benzene. Why is this the case? Intuitively, I would think that because the orbitals in benzene are more ...
McKinley's user avatar
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Is ionisation enthalpy physical property or chemical property?

Ionisation enthalpy means energy change when an electron is removed. According to Wikipedia A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical ...
Harjot Dhillon's user avatar
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What is the reason why galvanic series is in it's specific order?

I'm trying to understand why galvanic series molecular entities are in the order they are in. Why does $\ce{Cu(s)}$ reduce $\ce{Ag^{2+}}$ ions but not $\ce{Pb^{2+}}$ ions? there seems to be some kind ...
Lid's user avatar
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How does polarity increase when electron density in oxygen decreases when comparing acidity

My book says the following statement: Due to the higher electronegativity of $sp^{2}$ hybridized carbon of phenol , the electron density in oxygen decreases. This increases polarity of O-H bond and ...
Razz's user avatar
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4 answers
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Why does ammonium chloride form an ionic bond?

Why does $\ce{NH4Cl}$ form an ionic bond if the difference in electronegativity between nitrogen and chlorine is $0$? Shouldn't it be at least 1.7 in order for an ionic bond to form? If not what is ...
randomdude's user avatar
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Can alkyl groups show -I effect?

Inductive effect is the partial shifting of the sigma-bonding electrons towards more EN (take as electronegativity or electronegative in this text) atom so why we will say that alkyl groups will ...
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Hannay smith equation derivation

Our chemistry teacher taught us about Hannay smith equation for calculating the percent ionic character. He did not told how that equation was derived. I could not find any satisfactory result from ...
Ravindu's user avatar
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Can it be said that an electron transfer between two neutral atoms comes from the neutral atomic electric field? [closed]

Let us consider the example of Na and Cl. Both atoms are called "neutral" simply because they have the same total number of protons as electrons, yet they have a very weak electric field ...
iwab's user avatar
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Why Hg doesn’t form hydroxide?

In my textbook it was written that if you put alkali solution into Hg2+ solution you won't get Hg(OH)2 but you get HgO. And this is because Hg has high electronegativity and this makes polarization of ...
satoru kurita's user avatar
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Can Polarizing Power and the Inductive Effect both explain the highly covalent bonds of Mn2O7?

The Mn-O bonds of Mn2O7 have more covalent character than those of MnO2. This makes sense when imagining Mn2O7 to consist of Mn7+ ions and O2- ions; the high charge of the cations give them a high ...
Akash's user avatar
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Does the charge on an atom impact the polarization of covalent bonds?

So far, I have generally seen polarization power only discussed in terms of ionic bonds: small, highly charged cations have more polarization power, and large anions are more polarizable. The more ...
Akash's user avatar
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Alternate electronegativity measures for exotic atoms?

An exotic atom is an otherwise normal atom in which one or more sub-atomic particles have been replaced by other particles of the same charge. For example, electrons may be replaced by other ...
Unknown123's user avatar
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3 answers
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Why an atom is more stable when only sublevels s and p are full?

Supposedly when explaining electronegativity and stability of an element, they tell you that it is more stable if the last level is full. That works up to the third period, but after transition ...
Curious student's user avatar
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2 answers
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Why do CCl4 and CH4 have the same bond angle?

I was reading about the molecular shape of compounds. I learned that the electronegativity of the central atom and the terminal atom in a molecule both play a role in determining bond angle. In $\ce{...
Akash's user avatar
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How to experimentally determine the dissociation energy (electronegativity) between identical atoms?

I was reading on Wikipedia about how Pauling electronegativities are determined through $$ \vert \chi_\ce{A} - \chi_\ce{B} \vert = \sqrt{E_\mathrm{d}(\ce{AB}) - \frac{E_\mathrm{d}(\ce{AA}) + E_\mathrm{...
Hale Bays's user avatar
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Electronegativity, polarity, pi bonds, and nitriles

While googling some numbers, I found that the dipole moment of acetonitrile is, according to wikipedia 3.92D. Compare this to the dipole moment of ethylamine, according to NIST of 1.220D. Now, I've ...
BrownBag's user avatar
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Why water doesn't break anionic part of oxyacids? [closed]

Recently, I was studying about oxyacids and my teacher took example of a general compound $\ce{X-O-H}$. He told that that on dissolving it into water ,water would break apart either $\ce{O-H}$ bond ...
user265825's user avatar
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Relation of partial charge with wavefunction

Suppose we have an one electron system. The probability $P$ that electron's position is in some interval $x + dx$ is given by: $$P = \int_x^{x+dx}|Ψ(x)|^2 dx$$ So if we measure $N$ times the electron'...
Anton's user avatar
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Quantitatively Calculate Dipole Moment [duplicate]

Recently, I have been reading up on articles relating to the dipole moments of different molecules (specifically this). I see how they can get bond lengths and experimental dipole moments with ...
Prajval K's user avatar
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0 answers
3k views

How come the methyl group (-CH3) is electron donating?

If the inductive effect operates purely through electronegativity differences, how come the methyl group is considered to donate electrons through the inductive effect? My textbook says that there is ...
VVidyan's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why is it technically inaccurate to say that the decrease in reactivity of halogens is due to decreasing electronegativity?

I came across the following information in this post. Below the infographic there is a paragraph with a disclaimer: As another disclaimer, the reactivity of the halogens decreasing down the group ...
user4723's user avatar
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1 answer
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Applying the Pauling's electronegativity when the ionisation enthalpy and electron gain enthalpy of an element are given

I came across the following problem while practicing some exercises on inorganic chemistry: If the ionization enthalpy and electron gain enthalpy of an element are 275 and 86 $Kcal mol^{-1}$ ...
Prajwal Tiwari's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
84 views

Which oxidation states were used when Pauling developed his electronegativity scale?

Paulings electronegativity is a relative scale, based on the difference in electronegativity between X and Y, $\Delta EN = 0.102 \sqrt {\Delta}$, where $\Delta = (X-Y)_{measured}-(X-Y)_{theoretical}$ ...
Quantonium's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
325 views

Would gold have the negative charge in gold phosphides?

It should make sense that phosphorus has the positive charge,and gold itself should have the negative charge in gold phosphide(and for any other gold phosphides) because phosphorus has a lower ...
Bruh Moments's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
311 views

Acidic character and anion stability across periods and groups of the periodic table [duplicate]

I understand that to compare relative acidity one must consider the stability of the conjugate bases. Across a period the electronegativity of an element increases. And that is for example why $\ce{HF}...
0ItisMe0's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
651 views

Oxidizing properties of sulfuric acid: can it oxidize hydrochloric acid to chlorine?

Can $\ce{H2SO4}$ oxidize $\ce{HCl}$ to $\ce{Cl2}$? I know that $\ce{KMnO4}$ can do it, but my question is considering $\ce{H2SO4}$. In sulfuric acid, sulphur is in +6 oxidation state and in $\ce{KMnO4}...
shiwans trivedi's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
585 views

Why is a sodium chloride molecule stable?

The ionization energy of sodium is $\pu{5.139eV}$. This is the energy absorbed when a neutral sodium atom is stripped of its outermost electron. The electron affinity of chlorine is $\pu{3.62eV}$. ...
SalahTheGoat's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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Why negative charge delocalises away from electronegative atoms

In the mechanism for the Wolff-Kishner reduction, after the $\ce{OH-}$ abstracts a proton, the resulting negative charge delocalises away from the nitrogen atom to the carbon, and the subsequent ...
harry's user avatar
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3 votes
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Which atoms in indole possess the greatest amount of electron density?

Presumably the amine acts as an electron donor, but that would suggest extra electron density of the adjacent carbons, making them more shield, which isn't seen in the results in the image below. ...
Pringles Profiteroles's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
101 views

Why is the intensity of the IR spectra of IBr higher than that of ICl?

Why is the intensity of the IR spectra of $\ce{IBr}$ higher than that of $\ce{ICl}$? I know that the IR spectra intensities are proportional to the derivative of the dipole moment with internuclear ...
DJA's user avatar
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1 answer
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Which is more electronegative, Anions or Cations? [closed]

Electronegativity is the tendency of atoms in covalent bonds to attract electrons closer to themselves (I'll admit I realised ions do not form covalent bonds only after I finished writing). ...
Adil Mohammed's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
95 views

Why is HF much more covalent than KI despite having a greater electronegativity difference? [duplicate]

Generally, the percent of ionic character in a two-element compound correlates quite well with the difference in the electronegativities of the two elements making up the compound, as can be seen in ...
Vikki's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Does formal charge affect bond polarity?

Bond polarity, as far as I understand, is a measure of the degree to which shared electron density is distorted, and thus solely depends on the electronegativity difference. Up until now, I had ...
Vulgar Mechanick's user avatar
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0 answers
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Alternatives to Bayer process for extracting aluminum from lunar regolith

I am exploring ways to produce metallic aluminum from lunar regolith. According to most published results of lunar soil, $\ce{ Al2O3}$ comprises roughly 14% of mare samples by mass with $\ce{SiO2}$ ...
Andrew Butenko's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
349 views

How can chlorine be 'only' the third-most electronegative element yet have the highest electron affinity?

From Wikipedia: It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale,...
Kurt Hikes's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Is this bond Ionic or Covalent, and why? AlBr [closed]

We know a compound could form between NaCl because they are +1 and -1 ions which make them both into a complete valence set. Could a compound form between Al and Br, for example, and what type of bond ...
Shawn A's user avatar
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0 answers
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Why is aluminium oxide solution amphoteric? [duplicate]

Is Aluminium oxide solution amphoteric due to aluminium's electronegativity being in between 1.5 and 2.1. If so why? I believe it is because a AL-O-H molecule is made and it can either disassociate ...
shreck357's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Is selenium disulfide polar or non-polar?

So I saw in some internet site that $\ce{SeS2}$ is a polar molecule. When I drew the Lewis structure of the molecule, it showed up as a linear molecule like this: $$\ce{S=Se=S}$$ The electronegativity ...
Adolf's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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Why is the carbon fluorine bond stronger than the carbon oxygen bond?

From this wiredchemist.com, I obtained values of the bond dissociation energies of the $\ce{C-O}$ and $\ce{C-F}$ bonds: \begin{align} D_0(\ce{C-F}) &= \pu{485 KJ mol-1}\\ D_0(\ce{C-O}) &= \...
Yushi Li's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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What kind of bond exists between a metal and a non-metal with a difference in electronegativity of less than 1.7? [duplicate]

I'm being taught that the kind of bonds that exist between elements depends on the electronegativity difference between the elements. A difference less than 1.7 is covalent and a difference higher ...
Sam's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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If Electronegativity of Cl is greater than H2 then why is the bond angle of Cl2O greater than H2O? [duplicate]

If Electronegativity of Cl is greater than H2 then why is the bond angle of Cl2O greater than H2O? Cl2 has more EN than H2 and size of Cl2 is more than H2 but if we go according to EN then more angle ...
Mihira's user avatar
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-1 votes
2 answers
156 views

comparing electronegativity for row elements and size of the atom for column elements

I have read that while comparing atoms in a row we compare their electronegativities to know which atom would better stabilize a negative charge on it, and for atoms in a column we compare their sizes....
Floatoss's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
68 views

What is the reason for decrease in electron donating tendency with increase in no. Of bonds [closed]

The order of electron donating tendency with polar protic solvent goes as $$\ce{RCH2 > RCH=CH > RC=C-}$$ However, I think that with the increase in the number of bonds the electronegativity ...
Saniya's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
3k views

Why is the electronegativity of potassium and rubidium same?

The electronegativity of potassium and rubidium is reckoned at 0.82 for both. Why is it same for both of them? Shouldn't it be less for rubidium as compared to potassium owing to the addition of one ...
Abdullah's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
59 views

Why do you count both bonding electrons towards an atom's octet, but you only count one of them towards the atom's charge? [duplicate]

For example, oxygen is neutral when it has just 6 electrons. But the pink O in the molecule pictured has 3 bonds giving it 8 electrons, a full-octet. It's more electronegative than all the atoms it's ...
histrionics's user avatar

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