Questions tagged [electronegativity]

Refers to ability for an atom in a covalent framework to attract electron density to itself. Do not conflate with electron affinity, which is the ability of a lone atom (or molecule) to attract an electron to itself. Both are measured in joules/mole.

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The most acidic hydrogen of 4‐hydroxybutanenitrile

Identify the most acidic hydrogen atom in the compound below: $$\ce{NC-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH}$$ My teacher said that the $\ce{H}$ connected to $\ce{O}$ is the most acidic since $\ce{O}$ is more ...
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Hydrogen Bonding by Carbenes

A hydrogen bond is formed between hydrogen attached to highly electronegative atoms (nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine) which are small in size too and the non-bonding pair of electrons of another such ...
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Which substitutent should be placed on axial position in SCl2(OCH3)2?

According to Bent's rule, in $\mathrm{sp^3d}$ more electronegative element is placed on the axial position, so between $\ce{Cl}$ and $\ce{OCH3}$ in $\ce{SCl2(OCH3)2}$ which should be placed on axial ...
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Why must polar molecules be asymetrical? [duplicate]

As I understand, polarity in molecules comes from the difference in electronegativity or the ability of the atoms to attract eletrons so the electrons spend more time or are more probable to gravitate ...
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Relationship between electronegativity and atomic radius [closed]

Would someone please explain in detail the relationship between the two? I understand that atomic radius is related to ionisation energy but I can't see how atomic radius may be related to ...
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Reference for electronegativities of different metal oxidation states

A long time ago I was researching the effect of the self regulatory response in Fe and Co. I found that my results made sense based on the idea of the electronegativity of the ions considered. I found ...
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How to determine polarity of components in TLC

Estimate how a TLC-analysis would look like for the following reaction when you take a TLC at: a) the start of the reaction, b) after 65% conversion and c) after full conversion of A. (You may assume ...
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Why do Hydrogen Halides(with the exception of HF) form mostly strong acids? [duplicate]

Why do Hydrogen Halides(with the exception of HF) form mostly strong acids? My guess is that the negatively charged Halide part of the molecule is attracted by the partially positive part of the water ...
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What is the correlation between electronegativity and the sharing of electrons?

For example in a C-O bond, the electronegativity difference is 1.2. does this mean that the Oxygen has 1.2 of the shared electrons and Carbon 0.8 (or some other numbers)? Is there a specific equation ...
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Confusions about inductive effect and acid strength

If one of the hydrogens in the alkyl side chain of ethanoic acid is replaced with an atom of Chlorine, the acid has a larger Ka value. My book says this is since the Cl "borrows" electron density from ...
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Can an element have variable oxidation states in a compound?

Take propanoic acid for example. If I assign oxidation states to the 3 carbons in it using the idea that the more electronegative element gets all the electrons in the bonds it makes, the 3 carbons ...
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Relationship between effective nuclear load and periodic properties

The effective nuclear charge is defined as the net positive charge experienced by an electron in a polyelectronic atom. It can be calculated using the well-known Stars Rule. Once I have calculated ...
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Which Oxygen atom in HCOOH (formic/methanoic acid) does Carbon donate its electrons to, to obtain a partial positive charge?

I was wondering if the Carbon atom in HCOOH (methanoic/formic acid) forms a positive partial charge by donating its electrons to both the Oxygen atoms, since they both possess a higher ...
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Does a C=C double bond donate electron or withdraw it?

I have learned that a $\ce{C=C}$ double bond is electron-rich because of the p-p overlap and hence can easily donate an electron pair: I agree with this statement. However, in a $\ce{C=C}$ double ...
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Why is carbon monoxide a monodentate ligand

Carbon monoxide has lone pairs on both the carbon and the oxygen atoms. However, I have never seen any complex where the oxygen atom or both the oxygen and the carbon atoms are the donors. I know ...
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Where will a H+ attack on 6-hydroxyhexan-2-one? [closed]

Where will a H+ attack on 6-hydroxyhexan-2-one? Protonation can take place either on the ketone or the alcohol. So where will it attack? In short, on which of the two oxygen atoms is electron density ...
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Why is hydrogen not very electronegative? [closed]

I looked at my reactivity series and I have just realized that hydrogen and carbon are both included in the series, even though they are non-metals. So why is hydrogen more electropositive than ...
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Why is fluorine one of the most electronegative atoms even though it doesn't have the largest effective nuclear charge?

Why doesn't electronegativity increase as the effective nuclear charge increases? Most atoms with a higher atomic number than fluorine have a higher effective nuclear charge. However, flourine is a ...
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why fluorine and oxygen have different behaviour towards electron gain enthalapy and electronegativity? [closed]

I have seen following definitions in my textbook: Electron gain enthalapy may be defined as enthalpy change taking place when an isolated gaseous atom of the element accepts an electron to form a ...
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Comparing Acidic Strength of H3PO4 and H3AsO4

The $pKa$ values for H3AsO4 and H3PO4 are $2.30$ and $2.12$ which indicate that H3PO4 is a stronger acid compared to H3AsO4. I looked up their electronegativity values to find that they are almost the ...
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Effect of Electronegativity on Bond Angles in NH3 and NF3 [duplicate]

I am reading a book: Concise Inorganic Chemistry by J.D.Lee (Fifth Edition) In the chapter-The Covalent Bond, the author says: $\ce{NF3}$ and $\ce{NH3}$ both have structures based on a tetrahedron ...
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Why is the electronegativity of indium greater than that of thallium?

Why is the electronegativity of indium greater than that of thallium? One possibility which I had assumed was the poor shielding effect by the d and f orbitals which leads to an increase in the ...
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Why do atoms have electron Affinity? [duplicate]

Atoms are stable so how can they pull electrons i.e how do they have any electron affinity at all?
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Will there be change in electronegativity difference in C-O and C=O?

Is there any change in EN difference in C-O and C=O. If yes, why? Does EN difference change if its bond is changed to single, double, or triple?
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Why does C=O have a larger dipole moment than C-O?

Why does $\ce{C=O}$ have a larger dipole moment than $\ce{C-O}$? According to me, dipole moment directly depends upon bond length and electronegativity difference. In $\ce{C=O}$ and $\ce{C-O}$, (I ...
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What measures of the dielectric constant mark whether the solution is ionic, polar and nonpolar? [closed]

At what numerical values of ε, then what organic compounds if any mark these thresholds. How is that only for a vacuum has ε=1? This is absolute lowest limit?
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Intramolecular or intermolecular?

I am extremely confused about these types of forces. Some websites state that the forces in the covalent bonds of carbon dioxide are inter. Other websites say they are intra? Also, some websites say ...
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Change of electronegativity of carbon atom by changing substituents

I was wondering how electronegativity and charge of carbon atom is affected by switching the substituents. For example what will be the difference in electronegativity of carbon atom in CF3, CCl3, ...
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Why don't I get the same value of percentage ionic character of a particular molecule from different equations?

About the ionic character of a polar covalent compound Pauling gave two equations as [1-$e^{.25(x_a - x_b)}] $% [18$(x_a-x_b)^{1.4}$]% Hanary and Smith gave the equation [$16(x_a-x_b)+3.5(x_a-...
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What is the reaction mechanism between a basic oxide and an acid?

For instance in $$\ce{ Li2O (s) + 2HCl (aq) -> 2LiCl (aq) + H2O (l)}$$ I am wondering why the $\ce{Cl}$ displaces $\ce{Li}$ .I figure that oxygen is negatively charged as it pulls the electron from ...
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electronegativity and hydrogen bonding [duplicate]

I have a basic idea why, but can someone just confirm, why chlorine isn't able to hydrogen bond despite the fact that it has the same electronegativity value as nitrogen.
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Bond angles in NH3 and NCl3

The bond angle in a molecule is inversely proportional to the electronegativity of the surrounding atom if the central atom is same. This also happens with $\ce{NH3}$ and $\ce{NF3}$, as bond angle in $...
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Directional nature of the acetamido group in electrophilic substitution reaction

Here, in $\ce{CH3CONH2 -}$ group, the nitrogen has a lone pair and can thus activate the benzene ring along with having an ortho-para directive effect in the following manner: However at the same ...
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Why in SN1 reaction the order of reactivity of alkyl halides increases from fluorine to iodine?

In $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism alkyl halides need to be ionized, so wouldn't it make more sense if alkyl fluoride reactivity were the most, since it is the most electronegative element?
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Do some electrons transfer if I connect with a conductor 2 solid pieces of 2 different elements with different electronegativity? [closed]

Making some researches to answer my last post, I found this article. It explains that when a piece of zinc and a piece of copper are connected with a conductor, since copper is more elctronegative ...
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Is there any mathematical formula for electron affinity and ionization potential?

I already know about the mathematical formula for electronegativity, but it requires the ionization potential and electron affinity. How can I can easily calculate the ionization potential and ...
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Why do some elements with high electronegativity exhibit metallic properties?

Metals typically have low electronegativity, which makes them form ions easily and prefer making metallic bonds to covalent. However, some of them seem to disprove that. Take, for example, gold, lead ...
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Confusion between electronegativity and electron affinity

Electronegativity is a chemical property that says how well an atom can attract electrons towards itself. The electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released ...
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Why is the bond dissociation energy of C-H bond higher than that of a N-H bond?

Looking at a chart of BDEs (bond dissociation energies) regarding elements bonded with hydrogen, the general trend seems to be that the BDE increases as we go to the top and to the right. This can be ...
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Is it possible to calculate electronegativity of surface atoms?

As the title asks, is it possible to calculate the electronegativity (EN) of specific atoms on extended surfaces (slabs), more specifically using computational methods? There are a few issues here I ...
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Does the dipole moment increase or decrease by increasing the bond length?

It is established the dipole moment is a result of multiplication of the magnitude of charges (Q) and the distance between them (r). What I understand is that when an electron and a proton get closer (...
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How to identify where a bond will break and where a bond will form (acetals)

In the following reaction: The $\ce{H}$ from $\ce{ROH}$ joins the $\ce{O}$ in the carbonyl. So the Alcohol breaks at the bond between the $\ce{R'O}$ and the $\ce{H}$. How do I know this occurs, ...
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Electronegativity difference value [closed]

What is the exact electronegativity differece value of determinig whether a compound is ionic or covalent? Is it 1.7 or 2.1?
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How does HCl dissolve in water if the intramolecular force is stronger?

So what I know now is that the H in HCl is more positive and the Cl is more negative, while the H in H2O is more positive and the O is more negative. When HCl enters water, its more positive atoms (H) ...
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Having trouble understanding activity series of metals & electronegativity

I want to know how do metals replace hydrogen in a substance such as water. Isn't water happy with its configuration? It has shared enough electrons so that both hydrogen and oxygen complete their ...
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Why does increasing electronegativity difference result in decreasing density?

I've been collecting data and there's a very strong inverse relationship between electronegativity difference and density ($\pu{R^2}$ value of roughly 0.95 from my data). Is there any chemistry that ...
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Why -I effect of SR2+ >NH3+ [duplicate]

I have previously asked this question, but that was in a little ambiguous way. So am re-asking the question precisely. As electronegativity of N > S, hence the tendency of N to pull the electrons is ...
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Is a SR2+ substituent really more electron-withdrawing than NH3+?

As the electronegativity of nitrogen and sulfur are around 3.04 and 2.58, respectively (according to the Pauling scale). So according to that, $\ce{NH3+}$ should pull the electrons more towards it ...
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Geometries of SCl2(OCH3)2 and SF2(OCH3)2

I am not able to understand the difference between structure of $\ce{SCl_{2}(OCH_{3})_{2}}$ and $\ce{SF_{2}(OCH_{3})_{2}}$. I am already well versed with Molecular Orbital and VSEPR theories. I found ...
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Li2O + 2KCl =2 LiCl +K2O: Is it a feasible Reaction?

$$\ce{Li2O + 2KCl <=> 2LiCl + K2O}$$ I got this reaction on a test question paper. With three other options, it was asked whether this reaction is feasible or not? I googled it and found the ...