Questions tagged [toxicity]

Questions on the harmful effects of various substances on the human body, or biological organisms in general.

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33 views

Chemical and Toxicity data

I'm looking for complete chemical data and toxicity parameters for PCBs, Amino Alcohols, Phosphites, PFAS, and quarternary ammonium salts and their family substances only with exisiting CAS numbers. I ...
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Regarding Baratchotoxin Stability period [closed]

How long the Baratchotoxin tipped darts be stable, like will it have the same toxicity even after 15 years with out being used
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2answers
101 views

Producing hydrogen sulfide—difficult to do much?

When I was young (nearly sixty years ago), my "chemistry set" taught me how to heat sulfur and candle wax to stink up the house.  It had no warning that hydrogen sulfide is toxic and ...
2
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1answer
81 views

How does this coin-and-strike-paper trick work (and is it safe)?

When I was a kid I remember a thing an adult showed me where you would take a piece of strike paper from a matchbox, rest it on a "copper" coin (I have no idea what these coins are made of), ...
2
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1answer
297 views

What are the safest non-toxic elements I can own? [closed]

As in a recent question, I mentioned I collect elements. My collection already has quite a few elements and a rare alloy (I have silicon, molybdenum, tungsten, gold, platinum, silver, copper, ...
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4answers
2k views

Can osmium react with oxygen at room temperature?

I’m an avid collector of elements (I love shiny rocks - don’t judge). I’m looking to buy some osmium, as it’s one of the heaviest and hardest metals out there. However, people online told me to avoid ...
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1answer
102 views

Why is Denaturated alcohol made poisonous? [closed]

I understand the need to denaturate alcohol, as to have a material that can be used for non-food products without the heavy alcohol beverage tax. So, adding a foul tasting bitter substance like ...
1
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1answer
46 views

What replaced lead-based pigments? [closed]

In the 1960s and before, even black and white letters had some lead from the actual metallic letters used by typesetters—some rubbed off. Same thing with books printed before 1970 or so and libraries ...
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69 views

References for recommendation guidline values (cyclic hydrocarbons and i-alcylated hydrocarbons)

I am studying a measurement protocol of VOC emissions of a rubber gym flooring product and stumbled over some substances I didn't found any guideline values such that below this value it seems to be ...
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1answer
360 views

I mix table salt and baking soda with water to make mouth rinse, and leave them for several days. It started to form precipitation, and a bad odor [closed]

I mixed 2 spoons of baking soda with 1 spoon of salt and mixed them with water (but not mixing totally) and left them for several days. At first I saw some bubble but the water was clear, but then it ...
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1answer
83 views

when copper oxide is dissolved in vinegar does it release copper oxide gas [closed]

i was cleaning my pennies in a bowl of vinegar and table salt and was wondering when the copper oxide on the pennies dissolves does it release copper oxide gas or a gas i should be worried about. I ...
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1answer
40 views

Do baking soda or vinegar reduce toxicity? [closed]

Both baking soda and vinegar can be used to remove cigarette odor from cloth and surfaces, at least temporarily. Do they reduce toxicity of the third hand cigarette smoke too or just 'hide' the smell?
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1answer
65 views

What are chemicals that will create a similar reaction to baking soda and vinegar for my book?

I'm writing a book based on a dream I had, but after some research I can't find too much on a specific reaction I want. The main character mixes a clear liquid and yellow powder which hisses and ...
4
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1answer
76 views

Why are zinc shot and mossy zinc not considered toxic but zinc granules are?

In our lab we have three forms of zinc. We were initially experimenting with these three forms to optimize our application. We have "zinc shot", "mossy zinc", and "zinc ...
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1answer
79 views

Why are tri-organotin compounds so toxic? [closed]

Organotin compounds (organostannane chemistry) are compounds with the tin-carbon bond and some of them(specifically the tri-organo ones) are as toxic as cyanide. Why is this though as I don't really ...
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2answers
552 views

Why is osmium(VIII) oxide so toxic?

Osmium(VIII) oxide or osmium tetroxide is a volatile chemical compound with the formula of $\ce{OsO4}$. It is highly toxic for supposedly irritating mucous membranes, but I'm not too sure if it is ...
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120 views

Why are all of the group 16 hydrides/hydrogen chalcogenides except H2O toxic? [closed]

I mean ($\ce{H2O}$) is non-toxic and is needed everyday but all of the other group 16 hydrides (hydrogen sulfide ($\ce{H2S}$), hydrogen selenide ($\ce{H2Se}$), hydrogen telluride ($\ce{H2Te}$) and ...
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4answers
81 views

What toxic gases are emitted during the combustion of potassium ferrocyanide? [closed]

I have read that Hydrogen Cyanide is emitted if Potassium Ferricyanide is combusted, but would this be the same case for Potassium Ferrocyanide? I am preparing to perform some case hardening on steel ...
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41 views

Avoiding chemical reactions with carbonated alcoholic drinks

I'm making a cooling beverage dispenser for carbonated drinks. The keg remains room temperature and the beverage rises through a pipe that's coiled up inside a cooling unit filled with water or ...
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4answers
4k views

Is Fluorine more toxic than Chlorine?

Fluorine is more reactive than Chlorine. But does it mean that Fluorine can cause more damage to living tissues? If so, why wasn't Fluorine used in WW1 instead of Chlorine?
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2answers
101 views

Biological activity of the isotopes of the same element

I have a question regarding biological activity of different isotopes of the same elements, notably $\ce{^206Pb}$ and $\ce{^208Pb}$. Lead is known to be toxic, such that it can replace calcium from ...
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1answer
77 views

What compound(s) contribute to bleach's smell and are they dangerous?

Just a few hours ago, I had to deal with a mold problem on some untreated wood and was told by a hardware store worker that bleach was an effective way to deal with the problem, following up with some ...
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Accidentally sprayed the wrong product in my mouth [closed]

I sprayed the wrong product in my mouth the other day. It was a spray hand cleaner. Noticed the mistake right away and immediately spit it out and then rinsed my mouth. But even so, my tongue and ...
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Chemical safety information: Where to look to find out how poisonous poisons are?

Could someone point me toward a primer on how to read the toxicity warnings on standard chemical data sheets? Or alternatively, where one should look for more precise information than is contained on ...
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1answer
69 views

How are the toxic components in a mixture identified?

I was doing research on buckwheat sprouts (as to whether I should include them in my diet) and I came across a website that said eating too much can cause fagopyrism, which is caused by compounds ...
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How do I understand exactly how hazardous a material is based on SDS?

I work with a lab occasionally and get asked often if a chemical is safe to breathe, how hazardous is it if it lands on skin, etc. For the most part, I'll try to go to an SDS and look it up. The ...
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25 views

How do structural differences between neostigmine and TL-599 contribute to differences in toxicity?

Stevens and Beutel studied the activity of several carbamate anticholinesterases. Among other things, they found that the (4-trimethylammonio)phenyl dimethylcarbamate iodide (The para-analog of ...
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52 views

Why are S-thiocarbamates less toxic than carbamates?

According to Haley and Rhodes, neostigmine bromide (alternatively known as Prostigmine) has an LD50 in mice of around 0.165 mg/kg by IV injection. Pubchem claims that this is also the LD50 for ...
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1answer
42 views

How does lead toxicity from jewelry happen vs. occupational exposure?

It is known that lead levels in jewelry is a problem, especially for children (https://dtsc.ca.gov/toxics-in-products/lead-in-jewelry/). As a parent with jewelry-loving children I am aware that ...
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390 views

Is it OK to dispose of potassium hydrogen phthalate into the sewer system?

I have been using potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) for creating primary standards. I have looked into the Flinn catalog, and the disposal consideration is classified as "organic acids, must be ...
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1answer
49 views

Could there ever be a way to safely handle visible amounts of elements like astatine, francium, or protactinium? [closed]

This is something I'd actually be interested in doing if possible. I've asked about artificial stability here https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/584595/could-there-at-least-theoretically-ever-...
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2answers
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Do hydrogen sulfide and oxygen produce pure sulfur or sulfur dioxide? If both, under which circumstances does each scenario occur? [closed]

If both of the following hydrogen sulfide and oxygen chemical equations can occur, under what circumstances is the harmless pure sulfur and the toxic sulfur dioxide produced? $\ce{2H2S + O2 -> 2H2O ...
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1answer
164 views

Is elemental lead as toxic as lead compounds? [duplicate]

On the internet, nobody mentions about lead's oxidation state when talking about lead poisoning. I assume it's Pb(II) and Pb(IV), as chelation therapy is suggested as a treatment. Also, its ...
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1answer
146 views

Using the right equipment for successful detection of Novichok [closed]

Apparently, Navalny’s biomaterials were flown to Moscow's Nii Sklif lab which didn't find any traces of the poison. But they used an American Agilent Technologies GC-MS [1], while Bundeswehr ...
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A dataset of drugs or molecules that failed the FDA approval process

I am looking for a dataset of bad drugs, the opposite of FDA approved drugs. There is this database of withdrawn drugs, but these drugs were withdrawn after making it into the market. Is there any ...
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2answers
1k views

What chemical properties of ethanol make it usable for drinks as compared to that of methanol? [closed]

Methanol ($\ce{CH3OH}$) and ethanol ($\ce{C2H5OH}$) both are the organic compounds having an alcoholic group. The alcoholic beverages (liquors and spirits) for human consumption (albeit injurious to ...
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3answers
5k views

How toxic chemically is plutonium (Pu), neglecting the radioactive damage?

In Rhodes' The Making of the Atomic Bomb, he says that, while Pu is not that radioactive (which is surprising -- maybe he means compared with radium and some other elements), it is very toxic. I would ...
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2answers
107 views

What is the mechanism of AChE inhibition by Onchidal?

A naturally-occuring neurotoxin, called Onchidal, produced by a species of sea slug acts as an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. The structure of Onchidal is presented below: How and ...
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1answer
147 views

Why is methyl parathion less toxic than ethyl parathion?

According to the PubChem pages on ethyl parathion and methyl parathion (pages 11 and 12 of the toxicity section, respectively), methyl parathion is significantly less toxic than ethyl parathion. The ...
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643 views

Will a dangerous amount of lead leach into soil from a galvanised corrugated steel raised bed? [closed]

I have searched, found similar questions but none answer my specific need. I have built a raised garden bed to grow vegetables (ironically due to a high lead content in our garden soil - planning to ...
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0answers
42 views

Why are carbamates capable of inhibiting acetylcholinesterase?

Certain carbamate compounds, such as the insecticide carbaryl or the Edgewood carbamates such as EA-3990, can inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Unlike organophosphorus compounds, however, they ...
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2answers
3k views

Fumes by Melting Aluminium Soda Cans [closed]

I am planning to melt and cast aluminium from soda cans. I went to quora page that deals with "burning" aluminium can, which can release toxic gases as the cans are coated with plastic inner lining. ...
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1answer
63 views

Treating styrene in the atmosphere

I was actually inspired to ask this question in certain circumstances. In the outskirts of my city, there happened to be a styrene gas leak early morning today which killed thirteen and hospitalized ...
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1answer
212 views

Non-toxic organic bases? [closed]

I am trying to find out if there are any non-toxic organic bases that could be given orally on a non-empty stomach to treat acidosis. From my research, histidine and diluted choline hydroxide were the ...
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2answers
105 views

How can I remove the bitartrate anion from an organic bitartrate salt?

I have a compound, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) bitartrate, which I originally purchased as a supplement and possible smart drug. I bought an absurd amount of it. It didn’t do anything for me as a ...
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1answer
103 views

Cadmium Selenide, Cadmium Sulfide, Cinnabar and Lead Oxide toxicity

I have a question about the toxicity of the pigments Cadmium Selenide (Cadmium Red), Cadmium Sulfide (Cadmium Yellow), Mercury Sulfide (Cinnabar or Vermillion) and Lead Oxide (Lead White). Not long ...
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0answers
58 views

Do any pharmaceuticals increase in potency or toxicity over time?

Pursuing a question raised in these comments: Are there any known pharmaceuticals that increase in potency or toxicity during storage, or over periods of months to years? If not, what if we broaden ...
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1answer
36 views

Does toxicity depend on state of matter? [closed]

Does the toxicity of an element depend on the state of matter (liquid, solid, gas)? Could there be an element, which is totally non-toxic when it is solid, but toxic when it is liquid. Which elements ...
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0answers
47 views

How is mercury in drinking water detected? [closed]

A document I've been reading states that: Both the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal and the Maximum Contaminant Level were set at 2 parts per billion because current technology allows public water ...
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0answers
41 views

Risks of using organic mercury compounds in analytical chemistry

I'm interested in speciation analysis. Hearing of fatal accidents with organic mercury compounds made me wonder about the risks for the analytical chemist trying to determine Hg species in foodstuff. ...