Questions tagged [toxicity]

Questions on the harmful effects of various substances on the human body, or biological organisms in general.

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36 views

Do hydrogen sulfide and oxygen produce pure sulfur or sulfur dioxide? If both, under which circumstances does each scenario occur?

If both of the following hydrogen sulfide and oxygen chemical equations can occur, under what circumstances is the harmless pure sulfur and the toxic sulfur dioxide produced? $\ce{2H2S + O2 -> 2H2O ...
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Is elemental lead as toxic as lead compounds? [duplicate]

On the internet, nobody mentions about lead's oxidation state when talking about lead poisoning. I assume it's Pb(II) and Pb(IV), as chelation therapy is suggested as a treatment. Also, its ...
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80 views

Using the right equipment for successful detection of Novichok [closed]

Apparently, Navalny’s biomaterials were flown to Moscow's Nii Sklif lab which didn't find any traces of the poison. But they used an American Agilent Technologies GC-MS [1], while Bundeswehr ...
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A dataset of drugs or molecules that failed the FDA approval process

I am looking for a dataset of bad drugs, the opposite of FDA approved drugs. There is this database of withdrawn drugs, but these drugs were withdrawn after making it into the market. Is there any ...
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2answers
912 views

What chemical properties of ethanol make it usable for drinks as compared to that of methanol? [closed]

Methanol ($\ce{CH3OH}$) and ethanol ($\ce{C2H5OH}$) both are the organic compounds having an alcoholic group. The alcoholic beverages (liquors and spirits) for human consumption (albeit injurious to ...
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3answers
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How toxic chemically is plutonium (Pu), neglecting the radioactive damage?

In Rhodes' The Making of the Atomic Bomb, he says that, while Pu is not that radioactive (which is surprising -- maybe he means compared with radium and some other elements), it is very toxic. I would ...
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59 views

What is the mechanism of AChE inhibition by Onchidal?

A naturally-occuring neurotoxin, called Onchidal, produced by a species of sea slug acts as an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. The structure of Onchidal is presented below: How and ...
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90 views

Why is methyl parathion less toxic than ethyl parathion?

According to the PubChem pages on ethyl parathion and methyl parathion (pages 11 and 12 of the toxicity section, respectively), methyl parathion is significantly less toxic than ethyl parathion. The ...
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Will a dangerous amount of lead leach into soil from a galvanised corrugated steel raised bed? [closed]

I have searched, found similar questions but none answer my specific need. I have built a raised garden bed to grow vegetables (ironically due to a high lead content in our garden soil - planning to ...
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Why are carbamates capable of inhibiting acetylcholinesterase?

Certain carbamate compounds, such as the insecticide carbaryl or the Edgewood carbamates such as EA-3990, can inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Unlike organophosphorus compounds, however, they ...
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2answers
189 views

Fumes by Melting Aluminium Soda Cans [closed]

I am planning to melt and cast aluminium from soda cans. I went to quora page that deals with "burning" aluminium can, which can release toxic gases as the cans are coated with plastic inner lining. ...
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52 views

Treating styrene in the atmosphere

I was actually inspired to ask this question in certain circumstances. In the outskirts of my city, there happened to be a styrene gas leak early morning today which killed thirteen and hospitalized ...
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1answer
57 views

Non-toxic organic bases? [closed]

I am trying to find out if there are any non-toxic organic bases that could be given orally on a non-empty stomach to treat acidosis. From my research, histidine and diluted choline hydroxide were the ...
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52 views

How can I remove the bitartrate anion from an organic bitartrate salt?

I have a compound, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) bitartrate, which I originally purchased as a supplement and possible smart drug. I bought an absurd amount of it. It didn’t do anything for me as a ...
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Cadmium Selenide, Cadmium Sulfide, Cinnabar and Lead Oxide toxicity

I have a question about the toxicity of the pigments Cadmium Selenide (Cadmium Red), Cadmium Sulfide (Cadmium Yellow), Mercury Sulfide (Cinnabar or Vermillion) and Lead Oxide (Lead White). Not long ...
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Do any pharmaceuticals increase in potency or toxicity over time?

Pursuing a question raised in these comments: Are there any known pharmaceuticals that increase in potency or toxicity during storage, or over periods of months to years? If not, what if we broaden ...
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28 views

Does toxicity depend on state of matter? [closed]

Does the toxicity of an element depend on the state of matter (liquid, solid, gas)? Could there be an element, which is totally non-toxic when it is solid, but toxic when it is liquid. Which elements ...
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How is mercury in drinking water detected? [closed]

A document I've been reading states that: Both the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal and the Maximum Contaminant Level were set at 2 parts per billion because current technology allows public water ...
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Risks of using organic mercury compounds in analytical chemistry

I'm interested in speciation analysis. Hearing of fatal accidents with organic mercury compounds made me wonder about the risks for the analytical chemist trying to determine Hg species in foodstuff. ...
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2answers
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Does water in big cities get heated (boiled) for treatment?

I live in Bangkok and read how water comes to customers here: I understand from the chart that water go through Thon Buri treatment plant (west Bangkok) and Mahasawat treatment plant (east Bangkok) ...
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107 views

Indigo and the Environment: is it that bad?

TL;DR: In what aspects are the products of the indigo vat dyeing process (sodium sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate ions) harmful to the environment or to living beings? I was recently looking into ...
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396 views

How does one tell (or conclude) if a substance is carcinogenic?

It's common to read statements like: Tetrachloroethene ($\ce{CCl2=CCl2}$) was earlier used as a solvent for dry cleaning, but since it contaminated ground water and is a suspected carcinogen, ...
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Why is potassium ferrocyanide considered safe for consumption, when it is just one reaction away from the highly toxic potassium cyanide?

According to this answer, heating potassium ferrocyanide will decompose it into potassium cyanide. Now, potassium ferrocyanide is an approved anti-caking agent, and hence used in table salt, for ...
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1answer
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If heavy metals bind to sulfur why isn't sulfur used as a safer way to chelate them? [closed]

I was wondering about sulfur as an alternative life-threatening chelators. Why isn't sulfur used as a chelator if heavy metals have an affinity for it?
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Water replacement for pressure-testing [closed]

Due to circumstance, our Data Centre build has some delays and it currently looks like we're going to have to perform a hydrostatic test of our sprinkler system with live computers in it. As I have ...
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1answer
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Cup with vinegar/salt/copper solution previously in it ran through dishwasher

Someone enjoys making jewelry, and saw an online tutorial saying that you can mix equal parts of vinegar and salt, and leave copper in it for a while to oxidize it, and turn it green. After doing ...
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Chilling water in copper vessel

Does chilling drinking water in copper bottle result in any chemical reaction that turns it dangerous for consumption in any way? Few days back, in summer, I carried kokum juice in copper bottle. I ...
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1answer
61 views

How to determine toxicity of a substance? [closed]

I often read description of various compounds or elements as being poisonous. Now I know that through experience we have discovered the toxicity of various substances like lead, chlorine or phosgene ...
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1answer
6k views

Does melting HDPE plastic produce toxic fumes? (melting, not burning)

● The question isn't about burning HDPE but melting it at the proper temperature. (At 120 to 180°C depending on it's density, it becomes gooey. According to the source below the "extrusion" ...
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913 views

Are risks (hexavalent chromium) during Chrome plating temporary, or remain with the product?

Since some chrome plating production processes generate hexavalent_chromium compounds, which are reportedly highly toxic/carcinogenic, I wonder: Do the hexavalent chromium substances only occur (...
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Is the flint used in disposable lighters toxic?

Especially the sparks that result when using them. I heard this from a friend and can't seem to find an answer on Google.
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115 views

Is it safe to heat fluorite (CaF2) to 140 °C?

For the manufacture of the optical system, we need to heat the fluorite ($\ce{CaF2}$) lenses to $\pu{140 °C}$. Is it possible: for some poisonous gas to be emitted? ($\ce{F2, HF}$ or other) for ...
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What makes dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) so penetrative through latex and human skin?

I've read the story of Karen Wetterhahn and how she was poisoned and died from two drops of dimethylmercury that accidentally fell on her latex glove, and I was wondering what is the chemical ...
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Why is carbon monoxide not a greenhouse gas?

Carbon monoxide is considered to be a toxic gas and, given that it is usually found along with $\ce{CO2}$, why it is not considered a greenhouse gas?
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Would standing next to a pool of mercury do you any harm?

I was watching this clip from the 2017 film The Mummy in which the characters stand next to a pool of mercury which was being used as part of an elaborate prison. Several comments under this video ...
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What is the composition of camel urine. Does it contain any particularly toxic substance? [closed]

I'd like to know the composition of camel urine. Furthermore, I'd like to know if it contains any known toxins.
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is dental acrylic dangerous when heated?

I work in a research lab where we use small screws to attach onto hard objects and secure it with dental acrylic, to maintain durability. The screws are expensive, so when we are done with the ...
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Choosing electrodes for corrosive environments

Background I'm building a watering robot for my household plants. For the purpose of measuring the moisture content of the plant I intend to use a resisitive approach where I pass an electric current ...
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1answer
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Polluting agents generated by road traffic in a city [closed]

I want to measure the air quality according to road traffic in a city. What are the polluting agents (generated by fuel combustion) strictly related and generated by road vehicles that is worth ...
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1answer
447 views

Osmium tetroxide production [closed]

I know osmium powder will produce osmium tetroxide when exposed to air,but what about solid piece of osmium,such as pellet or ring,finely polished to minimize surface area,will this produce ...
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How do we know a nerve agent is tasteless?

According to the BBC, the nerve agent sarin is a tasteless liquid. How do we know that this liquid has no taste, given that anyone to have (not) tasted it in any meaningful quantity presumably died ...
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Cubic zirconia additives and toxicity

What are cubic zirconia (CZ) gemstones usually colored with? According to wikipedia the following dopants are being used: Cerium Chromium Neodymium Erbium Titanium. Chromium is quite colorful ...
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3k views

Any substance too poisonous to measure an LD50?

A recent question on poisons was answered in part by bringing up the concept of $\pu{LD_{50}}$ and animal testing and so on; none of that was new to me, but it did bring to mind a question I don’t ...
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Hexanoic acid and copper/brass - toxicity?

We have a sensor made of brass through which we are flowing organic solvent vapours mixed with air, typically hexane and various alcohols. After a year or so the interior is covered in a greenish-...
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4answers
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How are poisons discovered? Does someone have to die/be poisoned from it first?

How are poisons discovered? Does someone have to die/be poisoned from it first? Or are there other ways of discovering the harmfulness of a substance? Perhaps everything is tested on other animals ...
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Could the inks used in Wonder Bread container have caused lead poisoning?

Decades ago I recall reading that the colorful wrapper of Wonder Bread was misprinted inside out and therefore the printed logo rubbed off on the bread itself, bread was used and kids ended up with ...
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1answer
651 views

Will squeezing lemon juice on top of foods with ferrocyanide additive release hydrogen cyanide gas?

For example, will squeezing lemon juice on top of table salt with sodium ferrocyanide ($\ce{Na4[Fe(CN)6]}$) additive (E 535) release hydrogen cyanide gas? Examples of ferrocyanide additives: sodium ...
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471 views

What is the Chemical Compound that has a NFPA 704 (Fire Diamond) of 2-2-1-ox?

I recently saw this fire diamond configuration of: 2 - Flammability; 2 - Health; 1 - Reactivity; OX - Extra Information I have been attempting to find a database of terms, but after turning up with ...
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1answer
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How do the toxicities of arsenate and arsenite compare?

So I was browsing the detoxification metabolistic mechanisms for E. coli, and came across an arsenic detoxification mechanism that converted arsenate to arsenite using a glutaredoxin. So my question ...
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Dangers of corroded mercury battery

Disclaimer: Sorry if this is not a pure chemistry question. If it's better suited to another SE, I'm happy to have it migrated there. I'm in the process of cleaning my father's workshop, and recently ...