Questions tagged [metal]

For questions about metals in general and their physical or chemical properties. For characteristic properties and reactions of d and f block metals specifically, use the [transition-metals] and [rare-earth-elements] tags respectively instead.

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How thin can metallic monolayers be?

As there has been a "recent" explosion unto the investigation of 2D materials, most of the materials talked about are organic in nature, however there is mention of certain 2d materials made ...
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1 answer
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Increasing the weight in metal with salt? [closed]

Is it possible to increase the weight in metal (such as bronze) by exposing it, or soaking it in salt?
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1 answer
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What is the mechanism of sodium reacting with water vapor?

We all know that $$\ce{2Na +2H2O(g)->2NaOH +H2}$$ The question is: What is the mechanism (not the reason that sodium is more 'electropositive' or more reactive than hydrogen, as in this question; ...
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What metals are safe to use as electrodes when doing electrolysis of water (I am trying to produce hydrogen gas)

I am going to be a DC power converter (with fairly high voltage and amps) to turn water into hydrogen (and oxygen) gases. However I have a few questions about the safety of this process. What ...
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Balanced reaction to Cr given H+ [closed]

The troublesome nature of this post, is that I was given very little information to work with: "The metal chromium (Cr) reacts with an acid, to create Cr^+3 ions, and hydrogen gas. Show the ...
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Is there an acid (or other solvent) that dissolves nickel but not brass?

Preferrably one that is common or easy to make using common chemicals. My application is to remove nickel plating from brass parts. Right now the best solution I have is to scrape and chip it off, but ...
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7 votes
1 answer
972 views

What theory accurately explains metallic bonding in beryllium?

Since beryllium is an alkaline earth metal, the bonds between beryllium atoms could be considered metallic and we can use molecular orbital theory (MOT) to explain metallic bonds in metals. Consider ...
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How to find out by what method the steel was made, having a microstructure?

I know that rolled steel will have grains elongated in the rolling direction and I don't see anything similar in the microstructures of these steels. If I'm not mistaken, then the irregular boundaries ...
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Will hydrogen spillover be feasible on β12 borophene

Considering the fact that atomic hydrogen spillover has only been established to take place on reducible metal oxide supports, what is the possibility of spillover from palladium nanoparticles to 2D ...
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5 votes
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How to make a thin layer of crystalline barium titanate on copper substrate?

Is it possible to create a thin $\ce{BaTiO3}$ crystal layer on a copper plate by putting the plate in a beaker, pouring in heated hydrofluoric acid that has been saturated with $\ce{BaTiO3}$ powder ...
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1 answer
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Can a thin stainless steel plate warping and unwarping in a gas oven due to temperature gradients break at some point?

This is in continuation of a previous question: I have a specially cut 316 stainless steel plate, 345mm diameter * 2mm thicknesses, used in a butane pizza oven that can reach 500 degrees Celsius as a ...
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Can a plain sheet of stainless steel adhering to the 316 grade be regarded as food safe at every finish level?

My question is not purely about chemistry but it definitely involves it. I was looking for a while to buy a food-grade stainless steel plate that would fit my home pizza gas oven (to have the dough ...
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Can metal displacement reactions happen with insoluable salts?

I know how normal metal displacement reactions work. If one metal is more reactive than the other, they will displace. For example, normally for this reaction: $$\ce{Fe_{(s)} + 2AgCl_{(aq)} -> Fe^{+...
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How to find out amount of carbon in metal

I am an student of archaeology and on my final work I am working with mining hammers, on which metallography was used. But my supervisor want to use some kind of acid on the surface of the metal so it ...
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1 vote
1 answer
369 views

Comprehensive list of metal alloys along with Moh's hardness scale

Material property lists, such as springermaterials.com, has lists of metal alloys and their properties. Is there a similar website that lists alloys along with their Mohs scale hardness? For ...
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1 answer
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Aluminum Alloy with most alkaline resistance [closed]

Previously i asked this question in Engineering SE: What aluminum grade is the most resistant to corrosion in alkaline environment? Some input from others seem indicating that no mass-produced ...
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How to determine the visual properties of a specific steel compound?

The material that is described in a paper by Li et. al.[1] is interesting to me, but they don't go into any details on what the end result would look like visually. Out of curiosity, I was wondering ...
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How do I separate an Indium-Gallium alloy into Indium and Gallium?

I've recently learned more about Indium and Gallium, and I find them quite interesting, especially how an alloy can be manually made simply by rubbing them together. I'm curious though, is there a ...
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Can you coat/ "plate" things with non metals or compounds? [closed]

I was recently watching a video on electro plating I understand that it only works with metals so I wondered if there's a method to do the same thing but with non-metals.
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What reaction does happen when molten sodium hydroxide reacts with aluminium?

The reaction between aqueous sodium hydroxide and aluminium follows this equation: $$\ce{2NaOH + 2H2O + 2Al = 2NaAlO2 + 3H2}$$ But it's obviously not possible to balance this equation without the ...
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What happens to the sea of electrons when a metal melts/boils? [closed]

I was taught about metallic solids with the sea of electrons model. My question is how does the sea of electrons function when metal turns into a liquid and a gas. The way I see a liquid is ...
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1 answer
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Purpose of Sodium Fluoride (NaF) in Sodium Hydrogen Sulphate (NaHSO4) acid pickling solution?

I am a proud home workshop electroplating fanatic, and the kit I sourced (from another country, with five weeks shipping) contained this bag of "Dry acide salts". I'm trying to source the ...
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4 votes
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The role of 2-nitrophenol in tin etchant (aqueous mixture of 2-nitrophenol and NaOH)

Aqueous mixture of 2-nitrophenol and NaOH is a time-honored etchant that dissolves tin-rich alloy and retain the intermetallic compounds from the tin. I wonder the role of 2-nitrophenol in the etching ...
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Why is copper a better conductor of electricity than calcium?

How would we compare the electrical conductivity between copper and calcium? I understand that electrical conductivity of a metal is dependent on the number of delocalized electrons for that metal. ...
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3 answers
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How can steel be so different from iron, even if amount of carbon is small?

Perhaps I am too naive, but I am having a hard time visualizing how even 'high-carbon' iron and steel alloys are maybe, at most, about four percent carbon by mass, which still means only one (smaller) ...
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What replaced lead-based pigments? [closed]

In the 1960s and before, even black and white letters had some lead from the actual metallic letters used by typesetters—some rubbed off. Same thing with books printed before 1970 or so and libraries ...
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Natural preservatives of ink

Would pure compounds like thymol, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde work as preservatives of fountain pen ink? I'm specifically interested in three properties - Prevention of growth (mostly fungal) in the ...
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3 votes
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How is this Clemmensen Reduction taking place? [closed]

How did that isotopically labelled Carbon migrate? I know that an carbanion is formed, but I am not able to conclude the final product. Please Help
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1 vote
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Lithium Air vs Li Fluoride battery capacity [closed]

Lithium air aka lithium oxygen batteries are described as highest theoretical capacity battery possible. In wikipedia, it says lithium air has energy density 5210 Watt hour per kg, including weight of ...
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Metal oxide formation minimum temperature?

Is there such thing as minimum temperature for creation of metal oxide? Let's say a highly reactive metal, lithium, comes into contact with solid oxygen at a cryogenic temperature of 20 Kelvin, would ...
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Extraction of copper from chalcopyrite

During the extraction of copper from chalcopyrite ore, the ore ($\ce{Cu2S.Fe2S3}$) is heated to form $\ce{Cu2S}$ and $\ce{FeS}$. Then during smelting it reacts with $\ce{O2}$ to form $\ce{Cu2O}$. Then ...
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4 votes
4 answers
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Can a metal be forced to form an anion theoretically? [duplicate]

I know that metals have the capability to lose electrons and form cations, but is it also theoretically possible to supply an electron to a metal so that it forms an anion? If so, has it ever been ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Upon the addition of metallic sodium to cold water, is an explosion possible?

In a Cambridge IGCSE question paper, the following question was asked: Describe the reaction of sodium with cold water. Include the observations that can be made. I was thinking of writing that &...
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Why is it that not all metals produce hydroxides when reacting with water? [duplicate]

I was taught, as a rule, that: metals + water $\rightarrow$ metal hydroxide + hydrogen gas $$\text{Na} + \text{H}_2\text{O} \rightarrow \text{NaOH} + \text{H}_2$$ However: $$3\text{Fe} + 4\text{H}...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Ferrous chloride solution coming out purple rather than green?

I've got some steel wool in hydrochloric acid to attempt to make ferrous chloride and the whole solution has turned purple. From everything I've seen it's supposed to be green. I have no idea what's ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Why is the term "nascent nitrogen" still used in metallurgical industries?

Continuation of Why do nitrogen-containing organic compounds give N2 as the combustion product? (comment converted into question) Nascent state is an obsolete theory in chemistry and is discredited. ...
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Corrosive potential of molten ionic salt

I was looking at this video about fourth generation of nuclear reactors and one of developing concepts is molten salt reactor (MSR) where melted ionic salt replaces water as coolant and also acts as a ...
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5 votes
2 answers
485 views

Is there a simple way to distinguish grades of purity for copper metal?

Is there a simple way to distinguish different grades of fine copper purity (on a trace metal basis) that can be carried out in a small lab? Specifically, I would like to be able to differentiate 4N, ...
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I have tried to remove oxidation from a metal scraper using vinegar, now the metal looks and smells burnt, what went wrong?

I have recently tried to remove some oxidation from a metal scraper spatula by using vinegar. After leaving it there for a couple of hours I was left with a burnt smell (with a hint of burnt candle ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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What is the cathode in NiMH batteries

What is the cathode in $\ce{NiMH}$ batteries? I’m not sure if it is $\ce{Ni(OH)2}$ or $\ce{NiOOH}$. I’m confused because I thought that these batteries are like $\ce{NiCd}$ batteries except better (...
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1 answer
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What is/was "uraneous oxide"? Was it an accepted name for a compound or mixed oxides of uranium?

In This National Technical Reports Library page for a 1965 report Method for Coating Actinide Particles in the list of keywords both Uranium compounds and Uraneous oxide are listed. But I don't find ...
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Passivation of metals in acids

It is commonly taught in chemistry textbooks that metals such as $\ce{Fe, Al, Cr}$ is "passivated" in cold concentrated $\ce{H2SO4}$ and $\ce{HNO3}$ due to them forming oxide films on the ...
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How can the difference between surface energy and electrostatic repulsion be calculated in electroplating?

When metals are electroplated unto surfaces, there are a myriad of forces at play. To set a clear example, if one were to electroplate a magnet with a diamagnetic metal such as bismuth, there will be ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the alloying composition of the Zinc-Platinum System?

My research team and I are working on a bimetallic alloy consisting of Zinc and Platinum. We have looked for papers regarding the composition of Zinc-Platinum alloy. But there aren't many papers out ...
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5 votes
1 answer
235 views

Boiling sodium hydroxide in stainless steel cup: Solution turning to a blue color

I boiled highly concentrated sodium hydroxide in a stainless steel cup. This created a blackish layer on the bottom of the cup and turned the colour of the sodium hydroxide solution to blueish. Am I ...
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13 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why do only some metals make protective oxide layers?

Almost all Alkali metals and Alkaline Earth metals react with air to form their respective oxides, but why does only Magnesium forms a protective oxide layer? What properties of magnesium oxide allow ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Avoiding chemical reactions with carbonated alcoholic drinks

I'm making a cooling beverage dispenser for carbonated drinks. The keg remains room temperature and the beverage rises through a pipe that's coiled up inside a cooling unit filled with water or ...
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-4 votes
1 answer
46 views

What happens to vaporized metal in the atmosphere when it cools down? [closed]

Imagine you vaporize a chunk of metal like an iron meteorite or plutonium or whatever in the atmosphere. What happens to that metal when it cools down? Does it form dust and drop in the nearby ...
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2 answers
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Will a titanium piercing tarnish if submerged in sulfur water (hot spring)?

I have tried to research whether titanium piercings will tarnish if one submerges in sulfur hot springs. Will titanium piercings react to the sulfur water?
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2 votes
1 answer
400 views

Why does the cathode in an OLED require a low work function and the anode require a high work function?

I am currently doing some research on organic light emitting diodes and am just trying to get my head around some of the terminology and concepts because I am more from the organic chemistry side don'...
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