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Questions tagged [environmental-chemistry]

For questions regarding chemicals and chemical processes that act on and interact within environmental systems.

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Mobility of Cations in the Environment

I have recently performed an experiment in which I tested the affects of phytotoxic cations on the rate of germination of the common navy bean. I did this out of curiosity, as I have recently been ...
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2answers
164 views

Calculate the concentration in milimoles per litre (mM) of a solution that is 20% H2SO4 by mass and that has a density of 1.198 g/L

Calculate the concentration in milimoles per litre ($\pu{mM}$) of a solution that is $\pu{20\%} \ce{H2SO4}$ by mass and that has a density of $\pu{1.198 g/L}$. For the answer, please provide two ...
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1answer
68 views

How dangerous is an industrial scale styrene spill?

A few years ago a cisterna truck full of styrene crushed on the road near a small town nearby, spilling 4 tons of the chemical. It apparently has caused a small ecological catastrophe killing fish in ...
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0answers
37 views

Is it environmental to throw ordinary keys in the regular household trash?

I have several keys on my chain that I do not need any more, so I'm thinking about throwing them away, but I'm not sure if it is okay to throw away in the regular household trash. I looked it up to ...
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45 views

Can hydrogen plasma reduce carbon dioxide?

There are several studies describing usage of hydrogen plasma to reduce metal oxides. This is not yet widely adopted in industry, but it is of interest for environmental reasons (such as desrcibed in ...
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28 views

Reaction of electromagnetic radiations with the air pollutants [closed]

My friends, who are working on an IoT based technology project, explained their idea to me which is roughly like reducing air pollution by converting pollutants to oxygen ($\ce{O2}$) in any reaction, ...
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1answer
81 views

Effect of rain on water and soil samples contaminated by petroleum [closed]

I am about to perform research on the impact of petroleum fire disaster on the soil and water sources within the region of disaster, using heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons as impact ...
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1answer
134 views

Can Cl(g) cause quick rusting? [closed]

I'm actually digging in something that comes from Syria... How does Chlorine cause metal to get rusted? It's full of pictures of rockets (allegedly filled with chlorine gas) that are all rusted. In my ...
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1answer
109 views

how to control relative of Fe2+ and Fe3+ [closed]

hi how can I control relative of Fe2+ andFe3+ when we adding raw iron to acid solution To get the ratio 2:1
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1answer
1k views

What is K2O-nSiO2-xH2O?

In need of $\ce{K2SiO3}$ for my cucumber plants, I purchased a bag of potassium silicate. The molecular formula is $\ce{K2O-nSiO2-xH2O}$. Normally, my bags of fertilizer are easy to figure out. For ...
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2answers
237 views

DIY Brass Etching methods (safer etchants, waste, and disposal of)

I want to etch brass for making name plates etc. (Also for copper PCBs but brass is probably more complicated given the other metals). Several etchants commonly used, and I'm sure many more are ...
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1answer
9k views

Difference in pH of water and rainwater

In my textbook (Olmsted and Williams 4th ed) it is given that pH of pure water is 7, pH of unpolluted rain water is between 5-6 and pH of acid rain is between 4-5. It is obvious that pH for acid ...
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33 views

(Why) is it difficult to liquidize the polluting exhaust of a vehicle? [closed]

Considering the hazardous effects of car and other vehicle exhaust when released into the atmosphere, I began wondering why we are not dominantly preventing the exhaust from entering into the ...
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2answers
538 views

Environmental effects of terephthalic acid [closed]

What are the effects of terephthalic acid on the environment? Especially oceans What would happen if the levels of terephthalic acid increased in the ocean? What would be a way to reduce the impact ...
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1answer
107 views

First Order Degradation Constant (λ)(d^-1)

Can you please tell me the First Order Degradation Constant (λ)($d^{-1}$) for 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (mesitylene)? If you don't have this value, can you please tell me which VOC in 35 Illinois ...
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1answer
731 views

How to calculate the solubility of lead (II) carbonate in water, given that bicarbonate will also form?

Calculate the solubility of lead (II) carbonate, $\ce{PbCO3}$, ($K_{\mathrm{sp}} = 1.5 \times 10^{-15}$) in water, given that carbonate is a stronger base than water, so will also form bicarbonate. ...
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0answers
262 views

Does iron in water become visible when being heated?

I'm using ground water to provide my daily needs: Laundry, bath, toilet, ... I don't use it as drinking water, but I do cook with it. What I noticed is that when using the water cold it appears as ...
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1answer
95 views

Degradation of sulfuryl fluoride SO2F2

Recently, the houses next to us were fumigated with "Vikane", which apparently is $\ce{SO2F2}$. To my surprise, the gas was just pumped out in the atmosphere without further ado at the end of the ...
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5answers
3k views

How 'heavy' should an element be, to be a “Heavy Metal”?

I've come across the term "Heavy metals" innumerable times in articles, mostly pertaining to environmental issues. Is there a weight range (of sorts) against which an element (metal) is classified as ...
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4answers
109 views

Why is atmospheric composition compared by volume?

The composition of the Earth's atmosphere by its constituent gases (nitrogen, oxygen, argon...), is often given by percent volume. (See this Wikipedia page, for example). Why are these compositions ...
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1answer
112 views

Breaking Down PCB's in lakes

I was wondering if there is any natural process which breaks down PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyl). This is an extremely harmful contaminant that was pumped into various lakes by chemical plants up ...
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1answer
137 views

Release of sulfur dioxide from odored fuel gases

Often, fuel gases such as butane and natural gas (methane) are mixed with some foul-smelling impurities such as thiols (mercaptans) and hydrogen sulfide. Presumably, anything containing sulfur would ...
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1answer
82 views

What chemicals cause the softer less-raw taste of purified water sold in bottles/cans?

I've seen this post, but it doesn't answer my question. I took water that is supplied by the municipality corporation and put it through a gravity based water filter. The taste of the water didn't ...
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1answer
72 views

Why might PM2.5 concentration increase or stay the same when SO2 is reduced?

The question is in the title. I've made some research, but in every paper I found the correlation between $\ce{SO2}$ and $\mathrm{PM_{2.5}}$ is described as positive. Thus if $\ce{SO2}$ is reduced, $\...
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1answer
352 views

Coagulation with Ferric Chloride

I'm having a hard time understanding the use of coagulation wastewater treatment. I have read in literature that ferric chloride is used as a coagulant to remove COD, TSS and Ammonia from landfill ...
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0answers
40 views

Ozone depletion distribution [closed]

I am working with ozone measurements from two different sites (one rural and one urban). I am looking at the distribution of hourly averaged concentrations in air. The first figure shows the ozone ...
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1answer
834 views

What molecule is mostly responsible for the smell of petrol/gasoline when I refill my car?

Is it benzene or is there another aromatic molecule in gasoline with "heavier scents"? Does anybody know of a scientific investigation to provide evidence for an answer?
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1answer
1k views

How does pH level change the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in sea water?

I am planning to investigate the relationship between $\mathrm{pH}$ and dissolved oxygen. I would like to have a reason without taking in account the plants, animals and decomposer roles. I want to ...
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0answers
132 views

How can I get rid of 700 million tons of chlorine gas?

I am conducting a thought experiment in which 40 million tons of hydrogen are supplied through saltwater electrolysis each year, creating 700 million tons of chlorine gas (Cl2) and 800 million tons of ...
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1answer
135 views

Is there any reason to fear personal exposure to rain with a pH of 3.1?

Where I live now there can be significantly acidic rain. The government posts measurements for many cities and there can be stretches for days or longer with reported pH of 3.2 or 3.1. I even saw 2.9 ...
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1answer
428 views

Exhaust gas purification

I'm more asking this because I'm not sure how far science has come. Pretty much, I've been thinking about the car exhaust system lately. The two main components that lead to hazards from cars are $\ce{...
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1answer
208 views

Is organic carbon the same thing as organic compounds?

Are they the same thing or is there some minute difference? I have looked all over the web and you would think this would be a common question but I can't find any answer. If they are different then ...
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2answers
118 views

Why NOx will break the ozone sphere

I've found that a reason for people to oppose supersonic aeroplanes was the $\ce{NO_{$x$}}$ gases it released would do harm to the ozone layer. So what is the mechanism of this?
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7k views

Is there an easy way to test for the amount of iron (Fe) in water?

I have a rusty metal rainwater tank, and I'd like to find the amount of iron in the water. (The water I've collected is perfectly clear.) How would chemists in the 1800's have gone about this? What ...
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1answer
2k views

pH of rain with and without thunderstorm

I just came to know that pH of rain water will be lesser when it is accompanied by a thunderstorm than when it is not accompanied by thunderstorm. Why would it be so? Will the temperature increase due ...
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1answer
176 views

Comparing Methods of Determination of Dissolved Oxygen Content in Water Sample

I am currently doing an IB Chemistry Individual Investigation on dissolved oxygen in water samples by using Winkler method. However, my teacher suggested that I have to use oxygen probe as a standard ...
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1answer
161 views

Is there a chemical treatment for pipes to reduce or eliminate leaching of lead into tap water?

Given events in Flint, Michigan, where a switch to acidic river water in the city water supply resulted in leaching of lead into tap water from the insides of pipes, I wonder -- has anyone has heard ...
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1answer
95 views

Finding out the composition of seawater/brine?

As part of a project, I am working on precipitating salts from seawater and brine. I have a sample of seawater and I need to measure the concentrations of $\ce{Mg^2+, Ca^2+ and Li+}$ present in the ...
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1answer
51 views

Why perborate is greener bleaching agent?

All I know is, perborate degrades into supposedly less harmful compounds. But what exactly happens that it is considered greener? Consider say perborate vs. hypochlorite. Why perborate is "greener"?
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1answer
5k views

Why does ozone, being heavier than air, not settle down?

Is this because of some equilibrium between diffusion and gravity ? What exactly is responsible?
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1answer
113 views

Particle size of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur pollutants and HEPA filters

I am thinking about buying air purifier as pollution is high in my city. Going through the specifications of HEPA filters, I found that they block particulate matter of 2.5. PM 2.5 contains dust and ...
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1answer
141 views

Heavy Metal Toxicity [closed]

Ok, so I am working on a project where I have to make a tax for manufacturers using non recyclable materials. So for this tax you multiply the weight (in kg) by how toxic the material is, this gives ...
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1answer
2k views

How much worse is methane than CO2 as greenhouse gas? [duplicate]

I can't find a coherent answer to this question. The numbers are all over the place. 25 times greater 84 times more potent The reason I'm looking is because I can't find a reason in physics why this ...
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2answers
694 views

Why does water condense on grass and iron grills in cold weather?

In my book it is said that in cold weather fog appears. This fog is nothing but water droplets. After a hot day if the night is cold then the moister in air starts to condense. What I do not ...
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0answers
186 views

What are most common condition for reduction of hematite to magnetite?

I found that hydrogen can reduce $\ce{Fe2O3}$ to $\ce{Fe3O4}$ under anaerobic conditions, but since I dont have $\ce{H2}$ in my lab what should I use to convert hematite into magnetite? and what ...
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0answers
246 views

Difference between starch surfactant and CTAB, SDS, Tx-100

I am doing a research on the effect of surfactant on ZnO nanoparticles properties. There is a confusion here between starch surfactant and CTAB, Tx-100 and SDS. I need point on what is the difference ...
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1answer
54 views

Chemical consideration of biodegradeability

We hear the term 'biodegradeability' being thrown around alot in science, but rarely ever is the science itself explained. What are the chemical properties in a substance that make it biodegradeable?...
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2answers
796 views

What causes methane to have 25 times higher global warming potential than CO2

What causes methane to have 25 times higher global warming potential than $\ce{CO2}$? I think it has to do with $\ce{CH4}$ being a less massive molecule, but I'm not sure.
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1answer
77 views

Biodegradation time for biodegradable shopping bags?

How long does it take for the plastic/polythene shopping bags marked biodegradable to biodegrade?
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1answer
656 views

Urban air pollution and the smell of freshly cut lawn grass?

Recently, all the lawns in the apartment complex that I live in have had their lawns cut - giving that pleasant smell of freshly cut lawn. Now, I am aware that the smell arises from a chemical ...