Questions tagged [ions]

For questions about ions - atomic or molecular particles having a net electric charge. Do NOT use this tag just because your question involves ions but is not about the ions themselves (as in electrochemistry, etc.).

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36 views

Writing Ionic Equation

According to the rules of writing ionic equation, only compounds in aqueous state can be split or dissociated into their ions, whereas elements or compounds in solid, liquid or gas state remain as ...
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Are all ions stable? [closed]

My science teacher says that all ions are stable, which seems wrong to me. For example $\ce{He^{-1}}$ is an unstable ion of helium, and although it might not exist in the real world, it is still ...
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1answer
50 views

A gram of salt added to pure (distilled) water introduces around $2 \times 10^{22}$ ions? [closed]

I am currently studying Practical Electronics For Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk. Chapter 2.5.2 Resistivity and Conductivity, claims the following: Adding an ionic compound in the ...
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44 views

Why is the strontium ion smaller than the potassium ion? [closed]

The ionic radius of the $\ce{Sr^2+}$ ion is $\mathrm{132\,pm}$, while the ionic radius of the $\ce{K^+}$ ion is $\mathrm{152\,pm}$. Why is this the case? I would have thought that since $\ce{K^+}$ has ...
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2answers
128 views

For a copper/copper sulfate half reaction, do sulfate anions move to the anode and lose electrons?

In my (high school) textbook, there's an example on finding the charge on 1 mole of electrons, which involves performing the electrolysis of an aqueous copper (II) sulfate using a copper anode and a ...
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3answers
86 views

How to decrease the percent of ammonia that is converted to the ammonium ion in water? [closed]

Ammonia is a weak base that reacts with water according to this equation: NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4+(aq) + OH −(aq) Will Fe(NO3)3 decrease the ...
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0answers
46 views

Total Dissolved Solids and Alkalinity [closed]

I need to calculate total dissolved solids (TDS) of various groundwater samples from chemical analyzes. I have concentrations of ions/molecules in mg/L. I’ve found various formulas to calculate TDS ...
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1answer
57 views

Why is the chlorine ion more stable than the chlorine atom? [closed]

In heterolytic cleavage, for instance, $\ce{NaCl}$ breaks in two fragments $\ce{Na+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$. If chlorine is fully filled because it takes one electron from sodium, then why does chlorine make ...
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1answer
16 views

Heterogeneous ion solution

I am a college student and for my chemistry of solutions class, I had a lab where we had to titrate orange juice to check the calcium content. However, the experimental results are 20% off the ...
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21 views

A question about potential difference across a membrane

Membrane potential of living cells arising from the difference of concentration of ions on both sides of the membrane, but why didn't someone use selective polymers as AEM (Anion Exchange Membrane) ...
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2answers
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Why is the ionic product of water $K_w$ the same in acid, water, and alkali?

Seen on the web: The concentration of [H+] and [OH−] both vary based on the the composition (acid/alkaline) of the solution, but the remarkable thing is that their product does not. When [H+] goes ...
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Can glass be deionized?

Is there a chemical treatment that could remove sodium and calcium ions from the surface of soda-lime glass to turn it into quartz glass, increasing the hardness?
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1answer
53 views

For group 13 elements M³⁺, why is the formation of MCl₄⁻ more favorable than for group 12 elements M²⁺?

I'm not a chemist and I'm trying to understand a chemistry point from a talk I went to recently. Any help would be much appreciated. The speaker was talking about $+3$ (Group 13) elements in the ...
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304 views

Magnesium oxide dissolving in distilled water [closed]

Magnesium oxide is a salt, and salts dissolve in distilled water, due to water being polarized. Therefore I would expect that you would find free ions, which is confirmed by the water conducting ...
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1answer
82 views

Does a halonium ion for astatine exist?

I've just begun reading about halonium ions and I noted that only the first four halogens are acknowledged to be able to form halonium ions, but hydrogen astatide can be formed. I can't seem to find ...
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2answers
85 views

Electron Ionization and the Franck-Condon Diagram: vibrationally excited and vibrationally ground states

I am currently studying Mass Spectrometry: A Textbook, third edition, by Jürgen H. Gross. On page 41, the author says the following: As explained by the Franck-Condon diagram, hardly any molecular ...
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A question about nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

In the structure of NAD+, why does the nitrogen of pyridine bind covalently to the the first carbon of glucose while the anion stabilizing the nicotine amide ion is the phosphate group? In other words,...
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1answer
563 views

What is the Lewis structure of the azide ion?

On a chemistry homework, we're asked to draw the Lewis structure of $\ce{N3-}$. My answer: Nitrogen ordinarily has five electrons in its valence; $\ce{N-}$ has six. This makes a total of 16 ...
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1answer
103 views

Positively charged gases

Theoretically, if you could could have a positively charged gas say O$^+$ enclosed (by a sufficiently inert material) around a conductor which is grounded, what would the reaction be at the conductor ...
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1answer
39 views

Naming a coordination compound

I was asked to determine the coordination compound which has the name: $$\text{triamminetrinitritocobalt(I)}$$ I thought it must be: $$\ce{[Co(NH3)3(ONO)3]^2-}$$ The $-2$ charge can be deduced by ...
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1answer
47 views

what causes the smell of a room ionizer? If ozone, what are we actually smelling when ozone interacts with nasal mucous? [closed]

This touches on how smell works, but my intent is ask about the mechanism for why do ionised smell like they do? I would like to get one step past ozone if that is the primary mechanism.
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1answer
91 views

The “nose” of the periodic table [closed]

My teacher said that on the periodic table there is a "nose" formed by Al, Zn, Ag, and Cd. She said that they are all fixed charged (+3, +2, +1, and +2 respectively), and said that if I write them in ...
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3answers
71 views

Iodine formation reaction

$$\ce{IO3-(aq) + 5I-(aq) + 6H+(aq) -> 3I2(aq) + 3H2O(l)}$$ Why does the reaction between iodide and iodate ions have to occur in an acidic medium ($\ce{H+}$) to form the iodine? what do the $\ce{H+}...
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0answers
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Lattice Energy of MX2 type

While finding the solution to the question that which among BaO and BaCl2 has hi that is energy I found that it was BaO whose lattice energy is high and there were explaining it just with charges. So ...
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1answer
1k views

Is Phosphate (PO4 3-) solube in water? [closed]

Josh~ Superphosphate is used instead of just phosphate because superphosphate is a compound whereas phosphate is an ion. This means that phosphate must attach itself with a cation in order to give a ...
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1answer
74 views

Can the Galvanic cell use a different ionic solution?

It makes sense that water-soluble salt when dissolved in water, they conduct electricity. Then when using the old method of the Volta Battery(using copper and zinc) with a different water-soluble ...
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36 views

Nature of the bonding in hexaaquaaluminium complex

$\ce {[Al(H2O)6]^3+}$ is a well-known complex ion formed by the $\ce {Al^3+}$. I have always had the understanding that only the aqua complexes of transition metal ions, such as $\ce {[Fe(H2O)6]^3+}$, ...
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1answer
3k views

Effective nuclear charge of oxygen atom (O) vs oxygen anion (O2-)

The size of an anion is greater compared to its parent atom because former's effective nuclear charge is lesser than that of latter. I found on wikipedia that the effective nuclear charge can be ...
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63 views

I need to identify the peaks in this boron mass spectrum

As part of a bigger project we were given this image. Its a mass spectrum produced in an accelerator with a Boron cathode. It was implanted in diamond. I assume the first peak is just $B^-$ but I have ...
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3answers
842 views

Where do negative ions migrate from the salt bridge to which electrode in the voltaic cell?

In the voltaic cell with $\ce{Mg/Mg^2+}$ and $\ce{Ag+/Ag}$, I am not sure whether the ions move from the salt bride to the $\ce{Mg}$ cathode or the $\ce{Mg^2+}$ cathode. I distantly recall my teacher ...
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2answers
2k views

Relation between size of ion and hydration energy [closed]

Suppose I take 1 tablespoon of an ionic crystal and put it in excess water. We know that shall the hydration energy of the crystal be more than the lattice energy, the crystal will separate in ions ...
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1answer
185 views

Determining the charge on an ion through mole calculation in electrolyis

During electrolysis $\pu{0.02 mol}$ of metal $\ce{X}$ is deposited on cathode when $\pu{0.12 mol}$ of electrons are passed through molten chloride of $\ce{X}.$ What is the formula of the chloride? I ...
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1answer
457 views

Do quaternary sulfur dications exist?

We know that sulfur can form sulfides $\ce{R2S}$, with two substituents bonded to it. The simplest example of this would be hydrogen sulfide. However, sulfur can also form sulfonium ions $\ce{R3S+}$,...
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1answer
425 views

What is the range of values of n in [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)n]SO4?

My textbook represents the copper ion as "tetraaminecopper(II) sulfate-1-water", so I assumed that this complex ion has only 1 water of crystallization. Then, in the Wikipedia article, they represent ...
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700 views

Why isn't O=N-O-O the best lewis structure for NO3-?

I'm practicing lewis structures and I'm stuck on the one for NO3 -1 (nitrate ion). I understand that N has to be the central atom because it is the least electronegative, but I'm confused why all the ...
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1answer
412 views

What happens if you put a piece of copper into a solution containing Al3+ ions?

This is a question in my studies, and I am a little bit confused! I would think it happens nothing because copper is below aluminium in the reactivity series, right?
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1answer
72 views

Which is more stable in gas phase, free radicals or ions?

Answering some kinetics questions I came across this statement: Free radicals are more stable in the gas phase than ions. Is this correct or not? Why? Is there a different trend in liquid or ...
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1answer
54 views

Electrolysis - What is the basis for the discharge rules?

At the cathode, the one that is discharged is the less reactive one (compared to hydrogen) so why at the anode is the one that’s discharged more reactive (less stable) ?
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Why doesn't H₄O²⁺ exist?

I know this question has been asked previously but I cannot find a satisfactory explanation as to why is it so difficult for $\ce{H4O^2+}$ to exist. There are explanations that it is so because of $+2$...
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1answer
92 views

Textbook Claim: “… in all cases it is the electrostatic force acting between charged particles that is responsible for all the forms of bonding.” [duplicate]

I am reading an introductory semiconductor physics textbook. The textbook states the following: Several types of atomic bonding have been identified, including ionic, covalent, van der Waals, ...
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1answer
60 views

Which ions determine ionic conductivity of a salt solution?

Let's take $\ce{ZnSO4}$ salt solution in water for example. So the ions inside my solution will be $\ce{H+}$, $\ce{OH-}$, $\ce{Zn^2+}$ and $\ce{SO4^2-}$. My questions are: Is the ionic conductivity ...
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2answers
80 views

In Ion Chromatography instrument, Does the specific conductivity (peak area) of an analyte depends upon background conductivity?

In Ion Chromatography instrument, Does the specific conductivity (peak area) of an analyte depends upon background conductivity ? Assume Specific Conductivity (peak area) of fluoride ion is 4 unit ...
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1answer
1k views

How to determine the greatest d orbital splitting?

This question comes specifically from an IB Chemistry HL Paper 1 in May 2018 TZ1, namely question 8. Which complex has the greatest d orbital splitting? It gives 4 Complexes $\ce{[Fe(H_2O)_6]^{2+}}$,...
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0answers
65 views

Kinetic Shift of Simple Cleavage

What is the kinetic shift for the simple cleavage fragmentation if the ion source residence time is 100 microseconds, the time to reach the detector after leaving the ion source is 10 microseconds? (...
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45 views

Is the analyte included in the ionic strength equation?

I don't quite understand the calculation for ionic strength of a solution. The formula includes the concentration and charges of the ions in solution, however, is the analyte (whatever we're trying to ...
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how can I predict the rate of water ions precipitation on a surface?

Consider a titanium pot that contains 1kg water with the following ions: $[Ca^{2+}]=22000$ ppm, $[Mg^{2+}]=1500$ ppm,$[Sr^{2+}]=791$ ppm,$[Na^{1+}]=48000$ ppm,$[Cl^{1-}]=120000$ ppm,$[SO_4^{2-}]=...
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2answers
927 views

Why does beryllium lose two electrons when it’s orbitals are already full?

I have a rudimentary understanding of orbitals, as in what they are, the shapes (l, I think) and of the principles. So I was doing the electronic configuration for beryllium, it has 4 electrons. So ...
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2answers
1k views

Why does MgCl2 become Mg^2+ and Cl^-? [closed]

I'm taking a biology class, and it's one-chapter intro to chemistry chapter had been driving my study group nuts. On a recent quiz, it asked the question: In water, $\ce{MgCl2}$ dissociates into $\...
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1answer
1k views

Why is Fluoride anion less stable than iodide anion?

Down the halogen group , electropositive character increases , then why is it that Fluoride ion is the least stable ? The counter arguement is that fluoride ion has four lone pairs and a small size ...
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2answers
863 views

Superscript and subscript together after the same atom

In the chemical formula of some ion compounds, there is the necessity to write the charge in the superscript and the numbers of atoms in the subscript, but together at the right of the same symbol ...

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