Questions tagged [ions]

For questions about ions - atomic or molecular particles having a net electric charge. Do NOT use this tag just because your question involves ions but is not about the ions themselves (as in electrochemistry, etc.).

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30 views

Is there an economical way to neutralize sodium in compost? [on hold]

I have compost that has too much sodium. It has a CEC of over 50 due to high organic matter, so washing the sodium out takes a lot of water. (About 3 times the volume of soil.) Currently there are ...
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13 views

How to measure hydration of negative ions [on hold]

I understand that when it has a positive charge it is based off of size and charge. The higher the charge and smaller the size the better. Is it same with negative ions?
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Quantitative measurement of stability of ions formed from single atoms

Is there any quantitative way, like in which we can show by measurement, that some particular ion formation is more favourable or stable than other ion formation for a particular element (formed from ...
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1answer
38 views

Iodine formation reaction

$$\ce{IO3-(aq) + 5I-(aq) + 6H+(aq) -> 3I2(aq) + 3H2O(l)}$$ Why does the reaction between iodide and iodate ions have to occur in an acidic medium ($\ce{H+}$) to form the iodine? what do the $\ce{H+}...
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9 views

Lattice Energy of MX2 type

While finding the solution to the question that which among BaO and BaCl2 has hi that is energy I found that it was BaO whose lattice energy is high and there were explaining it just with charges. So ...
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1answer
136 views

Is Phosphate (PO4 3-) solube in water? [closed]

Josh~ Superphosphate is used instead of just phosphate because superphosphate is a compound whereas phosphate is an ion. This means that phosphate must attach itself with a cation in order to give a ...
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1answer
69 views

Can the Galvanic cell use a different ionic solution?

It makes sense that water-soluble salt when dissolved in water, they conduct electricity. Then when using the old method of the Volta Battery(using copper and zinc) with a different water-soluble ...
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19 views

Nature of the bonding in hexaaquaaluminium complex

$\ce {[Al(H2O)6]^3+}$ is a well-known complex ion formed by the $\ce {Al^3+}$. I have always had the understanding that only the aqua complexes of transition metal ions, such as $\ce {[Fe(H2O)6]^3+}$, ...
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1answer
446 views

Effective nuclear charge of oxygen atom (O) vs oxygen anion (O2-)

The size of an anion is greater compared to its parent atom because former's effective nuclear charge is lesser than that of latter. I found on wikipedia that the effective nuclear charge can be ...
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43 views

I need to identify the peaks in this boron mass spectrum

As part of a bigger project we were given this image. Its a mass spectrum produced in an accelerator with a Boron cathode. It was implanted in diamond. I assume the first peak is just $B^-$ but I have ...
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3answers
145 views

Where do negative ions migrate from the salt bridge to which electrode in the voltaic cell?

In the voltaic cell with $\ce{Mg/Mg^2+}$ and $\ce{Ag+/Ag}$, I am not sure whether the ions move from the salt bride to the $\ce{Mg}$ cathode or the $\ce{Mg^2+}$ cathode. I distantly recall my teacher ...
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2answers
267 views

Relation between size of ion and hydration energy [closed]

Suppose I take 1 tablespoon of an ionic crystal and put it in excess water. We know that shall the hydration energy of the crystal be more than the lattice energy, the crystal will separate in ions ...
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1answer
60 views

Determining the charge on an ion through mole calculation in electrolyis

During electrolysis $\pu{0.02 mol}$ of metal $\ce{X}$ is deposited on cathode when $\pu{0.12 mol}$ of electrons are passed through molten chloride of $\ce{X}.$ What is the formula of the chloride? I ...
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13 views

Nitrate reaction with iron minerals

I am trying to find literature or an answer to what happens to nitrate as it comes in contact with iron oxides. Does the nitrate get reduced to ammonium in all cases of iron(II/III) oxides? What is ...
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1answer
439 views

Do quaternary sulfur dications exist?

We know that sulfur can form sulfides $\ce{R2S}$, with two substituents bonded to it. The simplest example of this would be hydrogen sulfide. However, sulfur can also form sulfonium ions $\ce{R3S+}$,...
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1answer
103 views

What is the range of values of n in [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)n]SO4?

My textbook represents the copper ion as "tetraaminecopper(II) sulfate-1-water", so I assumed that this complex ion has only 1 water of crystallization. Then, in the Wikipedia article, they represent ...
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213 views

Why isn't O=N-O-O the best lewis structure for NO3-?

I'm practicing lewis structures and I'm stuck on the one for NO3 -1 (nitrate ion). I understand that N has to be the central atom because it is the least electronegative, but I'm confused why all the ...
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1answer
231 views

What happens if you put a piece of copper into a solution containing Al3+ ions?

This is a question in my studies, and I am a little bit confused! I would think it happens nothing because copper is below aluminium in the reactivity series, right?
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1answer
54 views

Which is more stable in gas phase, free radicals or ions?

Answering some kinetics questions I came across this statement: Free radicals are more stable in the gas phase than ions. Is this correct or not? Why? Is there a different trend in liquid or ...
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1answer
42 views

Electrolysis - What is the basis for the discharge rules?

At the cathode, the one that is discharged is the less reactive one (compared to hydrogen) so why at the anode is the one that’s discharged more reactive (less stable) ?
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3answers
12k views

Why doesn't H₄O²⁺ exist?

I know this question has been asked previously but I cannot find a satisfactory explanation as to why is it so difficult for $\ce{H4O^2+}$ to exist. There are explanations that it is so because of $+2$...
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1answer
61 views

Textbook Claim: “… in all cases it is the electrostatic force acting between charged particles that is responsible for all the forms of bonding.” [duplicate]

I am reading an introductory semiconductor physics textbook. The textbook states the following: Several types of atomic bonding have been identified, including ionic, covalent, van der Waals, ...
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1answer
36 views

Which ions determine ionic conductivity of a salt solution?

Let's take $\ce{ZnSO4}$ salt solution in water for example. So the ions inside my solution will be $\ce{H+}$, $\ce{OH-}$, $\ce{Zn^2+}$ and $\ce{SO4^2-}$. My questions are: Is the ionic conductivity ...
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2answers
43 views

In Ion Chromatography instrument, Does the specific conductivity (peak area) of an analyte depends upon background conductivity?

In Ion Chromatography instrument, Does the specific conductivity (peak area) of an analyte depends upon background conductivity ? Assume Specific Conductivity (peak area) of fluoride ion is 4 unit ...
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1answer
578 views

How to determine the greatest d orbital splitting?

This question comes specifically from an IB Chemistry HL Paper 1 in May 2018 TZ1, namely question 8. Which complex has the greatest d orbital splitting? It gives 4 Complexes $\ce{[Fe(H_2O)_6]^{2+}}$,...
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41 views

Kinetic Shift of Simple Cleavage

What is the kinetic shift for the simple cleavage fragmentation if the ion source residence time is 100 microseconds, the time to reach the detector after leaving the ion source is 10 microseconds? (...
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32 views

Is the analyte included in the ionic strength equation?

I don't quite understand the calculation for ionic strength of a solution. The formula includes the concentration and charges of the ions in solution, however, is the analyte (whatever we're trying to ...
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35 views

how can I predict the rate of water ions precipitation on a surface?

Consider a titanium pot that contains 1kg water with the following ions: $[Ca^{2+}]=22000$ ppm, $[Mg^{2+}]=1500$ ppm,$[Sr^{2+}]=791$ ppm,$[Na^{1+}]=48000$ ppm,$[Cl^{1-}]=120000$ ppm,$[SO_4^{2-}]=...
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2answers
312 views

Why does beryllium lose two electrons when it’s orbitals are already full?

I have a rudimentary understanding of orbitals, as in what they are, the shapes (l, I think) and of the principles. So I was doing the electronic configuration for beryllium, it has 4 electrons. So ...
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2answers
484 views

Why does MgCl2 become Mg^2+ and Cl^-? [closed]

I'm taking a biology class, and it's one-chapter intro to chemistry chapter had been driving my study group nuts. On a recent quiz, it asked the question: In water, $\ce{MgCl2}$ dissociates into $\...
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1answer
526 views

Why is Fluoride anion less stable than iodide anion?

Down the halogen group , electropositive character increases , then why is it that Fluoride ion is the least stable ? The counter arguement is that fluoride ion has four lone pairs and a small size ...
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33 views

Sorting ions by radius and ionization energy

Sort the ions $\ce{F-}$, $\ce{Mg^2+}$, $\ce{O^2-}$ by their ionic radius and the minimal energy needed to remove an electron. For the radius I considered that they all have the same electron ...
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2answers
739 views

Superscript and subscript together after the same atom

In the chemical formula of some ion compounds, there is the necessity to write the charge in the superscript and the numbers of atoms in the subscript, but together at the right of the same symbol ...
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1answer
47 views

Broken iPhone battery no fire [closed]

I work on electrical and Electronics quite often and working on a iPhone the other day with a dead battery,I ruptured it open trying to remove the glue I smelled a funny smell like nail polish remover ...
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1answer
107 views

Does the hydrohelium dication exist?

It is well-known that there exists the $\ce{He2^2+}$ dication, and also $\ce{HHe+}$ and $\ce{H2+}$ cations. But I could not find any definite information about the existence or inexistence of the $\ce{...
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2answers
645 views

Do non-classical carbanions exist?

There are some non-classical carbocations, such as the 2-norbornyl cation, in which the positive charge is heavily delocalised. Have non-classical carbanions also been discovered? I have not seen any ...
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1answer
30 views

How can I get create complex metal ion solution such that the majority of the central metal ions only have one specific ligand?

I'm looking for a way to have the ligand, Chloride ion, datively bond with Copper Sulphate. I understand it is as simple as creating a solution of Hydrochloric Acid and dissolving Copper Sulphate ...
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1answer
47 views

How does NH4+ come to being?

There are 5 valence electrons in Nitrogen and in order for it to have a complete outer shell (8 electrons) it needs 3 more electrons. Why is it the case that the Nitrogen needs 4 Hydrogen instead of 3 ...
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55 views

Is there a single word antonym for dissociate? [closed]

Teaching ionic and covalent compounds, and one of the differences is that some ionic compounds will dissociate when dissolved but covalent compounds usually do not (salt water vs. sugar water, just ...
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2answers
39 views

Why don't ions form crystal lattices in water and other polar solvents?

Ionic compounds are in the form of crystal lattices, and when they are dissolved in a polar solvent, they are bonded with the corresponding cations/anions of the polar solvent. For example, $Na^+$ ...
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1answer
94 views

Why do you drop the charge in the crossover method?

When I do the crossover method of crossing ions, my teacher always tells us to drop the charge, but won't tell us why. I was wondering if we add it back in later, and if not, why does it disappear?
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2answers
331 views

Simple question about mixing two electrolytes [closed]

Suppose we have two 0.1M solutions in water. What is their conductivity and how will it change when we mix them, and why? A) NaCl and KCl: Okay, so both are strong electrolytes and conduct well but ...
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1answer
53 views

What citrate is a common anticoagulant?

When I underwent plateletpheresis, something that the staff called "citrate" was added to my blood as an anticoagulant. Everything I can find about this product online refers to it as just "citrate". ...
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1answer
43 views

Can the ions of dissolved salts be physically separated with a strong enough external electric field?

Say you had a arbitrary amount of sodium chloride dissolved in water. Could an external electric field (e.g. the electrically charged plates in Millikan's oil drop experiment) physically pull apart ...
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2answers
130 views

Why are some ions mutagenic and others are not?

It is my understanding that when ionic species (such as $\ce{He^2+}$, or alpha particles) enter the human body, they tend to react with biomolecules, causing damage by (for example) mutating DNA. If ...
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1answer
387 views

How can I interpret the CH4+ structure?

I am trying to teach myself about Electron Ionization, and am very confused about the formation of the CH4+ Ion. Do the dotted lines between the C and the H, and between the two Hydrogens indicate a ...
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1answer
41 views

How to determine net charge of a polycation using Wade's rules?

In order to determine the net charge of polycations, which adopt a Wade-like structure (octahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, ...), Wade's rules can be used. For example, the charge $x$ of the ...
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1answer
51 views

What does it mean when something is said to “contain ions”?

(I'm looking for a very basic level explanation because my only chemistry experience is one fast-paced high school course.) So, according to the professor of that course, ions are never found in ...
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59 views

What is the arrangement of water molecules in a hydration shell around an anion?

I believe I read somewhere that the hydration shell of ions always has hydrogen on the outside, but I can't relocate the exact whereabouts of this. Thus, I decided to ask here, as to what the ...
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56 views

How to divide the peaks of two anion ions using ion chromatography?

I used an ion chromatography system (Dionex IC-2000) to determine the inorganic ions and acid from the samples collected in the atmosphere. For measuring $\ce{SO4^2-, NO3, Cl-}$, and low molecular ...