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Questions tagged [ions]

For questions about ions - atomic or molecular particles having a net electric charge. Do NOT use this tag just because your question involves ions but is not about the ions themselves (as in electrochemistry, etc.).

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Nitrate reaction with iron minerals

I am trying to find literature or an answer to what happens to nitrate as it comes in contact with iron oxides. Does the nitrate get reduced to ammonium in all cases of iron(II/III) oxides? What is ...
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1answer
415 views

Do quaternary sulfur dications exist?

We know that sulfur can form sulfides $\ce{R2S}$, with two substituents bonded to it. The simplest example of this would be hydrogen sulfide. However, sulfur can also form sulfonium ions $\ce{R3S+}$,...
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1answer
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What is the range of values of n in [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)n]SO4?

My textbook represents the copper ion as "tetraaminecopper(II) sulfate-1-water", so I assumed that this complex ion has only 1 water of crystallization. Then, in the Wikipedia article, they represent ...
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40 views

Why isn't O=N-O-O the best lewis structure for NO3-?

I'm practicing lewis structures and I'm stuck on the one for NO3 -1 (nitrate ion). I understand that N has to be the central atom because it is the least electronegative, but I'm confused why all the ...
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1answer
100 views

What happens if you put a piece of copper into a solution containing Al3+ ions?

This is a question in my studies, and I am a little bit confused! I would think it happens nothing because copper is below aluminium in the reactivity series, right?
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1answer
49 views

Which is more stable in gas phase, free radicals or ions?

Answering some kinetics questions I came across this statement: Free radicals are more stable in the gas phase than ions. Is this correct or not? Why? Is there a different trend in liquid or ...
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1answer
38 views

Electrolysis - What is the basis for the discharge rules?

At the cathode, the one that is discharged is the less reactive one (compared to hydrogen) so why at the anode is the one that’s discharged more reactive (less stable) ?
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3answers
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Why doesn't H₄O²⁺ exist?

I know this question has been asked previously but I cannot find a satisfactory explanation as to why is it so difficult for $\ce{H4O^2+}$ to exist. There are explanations that it is so because of $+2$...
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1answer
50 views

Textbook Claim: “… in all cases it is the electrostatic force acting between charged particles that is responsible for all the forms of bonding.” [duplicate]

I am reading an introductory semiconductor physics textbook. The textbook states the following: Several types of atomic bonding have been identified, including ionic, covalent, van der Waals, ...
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1answer
21 views

Which ions determine ionic conductivity of a salt solution?

Let's take $\ce{ZnSO4}$ salt solution in water for example. So the ions inside my solution will be $\ce{H+}$, $\ce{OH-}$, $\ce{Zn^2+}$ and $\ce{SO4^2-}$. My questions are: Is the ionic conductivity ...
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2answers
33 views

In Ion Chromatography instrument, Does the specific conductivity (peak area) of an analyte depends upon background conductivity?

In Ion Chromatography instrument, Does the specific conductivity (peak area) of an analyte depends upon background conductivity ? Assume Specific Conductivity (peak area) of fluoride ion is 4 unit ...
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1answer
352 views

How to determine the greatest d orbital splitting?

This question comes specifically from an IB Chemistry HL Paper 1 in May 2018 TZ1, namely question 8. Which complex has the greatest d orbital splitting? It gives 4 Complexes $\ce{[Fe(H_2O)_6]^{2+}}$,...
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Kinetic Shift of Simple Cleavage

What is the kinetic shift for the simple cleavage fragmentation if the ion source residence time is 100 microseconds, the time to reach the detector after leaving the ion source is 10 microseconds? (...
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20 views

Is the analyte included in the ionic strength equation?

I don't quite understand the calculation for ionic strength of a solution. The formula includes the concentration and charges of the ions in solution, however, is the analyte (whatever we're trying to ...
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0answers
33 views

how can I predict the rate of water ions precipitation on a surface?

Consider a titanium pot that contains 1kg water with the following ions: $[Ca^{2+}]=22000$ ppm, $[Mg^{2+}]=1500$ ppm,$[Sr^{2+}]=791$ ppm,$[Na^{1+}]=48000$ ppm,$[Cl^{1-}]=120000$ ppm,$[SO_4^{2-}]=...
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1answer
107 views

Why does beryllium lose two electrons when it’s orbitals are already full?

I have a rudimentary understanding of orbitals, as in what they are, the shapes (l, I think) and of the principles. So I was doing the electronic configuration for beryllium, it has 4 electrons. So ...
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2answers
181 views

Why does MgCl2 become Mg^2+ and Cl^-? [closed]

I'm taking a biology class, and it's one-chapter intro to chemistry chapter had been driving my study group nuts. On a recent quiz, it asked the question: In water, $\ce{MgCl2}$ dissociates into $\...
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1answer
163 views

Why is Fluoride anion less stable than iodide anion?

Down the halogen group , electropositive character increases , then why is it that Fluoride ion is the least stable ? The counter arguement is that fluoride ion has four lone pairs and a small size ...
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0answers
25 views

Sorting ions by radius and ionization energy

Sort the ions $\ce{F-}$, $\ce{Mg^2+}$, $\ce{O^2-}$ by their ionic radius and the minimal energy needed to remove an electron. For the radius I considered that they all have the same electron ...
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2answers
695 views

Superscript and subscript together after the same atom

In the chemical formula of some ion compounds, there is the necessity to write the charge in the superscript and the numbers of atoms in the subscript, but together at the right of the same symbol ...
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1answer
46 views

Broken iPhone battery no fire [closed]

I work on electrical and Electronics quite often and working on a iPhone the other day with a dead battery,I ruptured it open trying to remove the glue I smelled a funny smell like nail polish remover ...
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1answer
92 views

Does the hydrohelium dication exist?

It is well-known that there exists the $\ce{He2^2+}$ dication, and also $\ce{HHe+}$ and $\ce{H2+}$ cations. But I could not find any definite information about the existence or inexistence of the $\ce{...
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2answers
573 views

Do non-classical carbanions exist?

There are some non-classical carbocations, such as the 2-norbornyl cation, in which the positive charge is heavily delocalised. Have non-classical carbanions also been discovered? I have not seen any ...
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1answer
29 views

How can I get create complex metal ion solution such that the majority of the central metal ions only have one specific ligand?

I'm looking for a way to have the ligand, Chloride ion, datively bond with Copper Sulphate. I understand it is as simple as creating a solution of Hydrochloric Acid and dissolving Copper Sulphate ...
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1answer
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How does NH4+ come to being?

There are 5 valence electrons in Nitrogen and in order for it to have a complete outer shell (8 electrons) it needs 3 more electrons. Why is it the case that the Nitrogen needs 4 Hydrogen instead of 3 ...
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49 views

Is there a single word antonym for dissociate? [closed]

Teaching ionic and covalent compounds, and one of the differences is that some ionic compounds will dissociate when dissolved but covalent compounds usually do not (salt water vs. sugar water, just ...
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2answers
33 views

Why don't ions form crystal lattices in water and other polar solvents?

Ionic compounds are in the form of crystal lattices, and when they are dissolved in a polar solvent, they are bonded with the corresponding cations/anions of the polar solvent. For example, $Na^+$ ...
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1answer
42 views

Why do you drop the charge in the crossover method?

When I do the crossover method of crossing ions, my teacher always tells us to drop the charge, but won't tell us why. I was wondering if we add it back in later, and if not, why does it disappear?
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2answers
172 views

Simple question about mixing two electrolytes [closed]

Suppose we have two 0.1M solutions in water. What is their conductivity and how will it change when we mix them, and why? A) NaCl and KCl: Okay, so both are strong electrolytes and conduct well but ...
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1answer
46 views

What citrate is a common anticoagulant?

When I underwent plateletpheresis, something that the staff called "citrate" was added to my blood as an anticoagulant. Everything I can find about this product online refers to it as just "citrate". ...
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1answer
37 views

Can the ions of dissolved salts be physically separated with a strong enough external electric field?

Say you had a arbitrary amount of sodium chloride dissolved in water. Could an external electric field (e.g. the electrically charged plates in Millikan's oil drop experiment) physically pull apart ...
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2answers
115 views

Why are some ions mutagenic and others are not?

It is my understanding that when ionic species (such as $\ce{He^2+}$, or alpha particles) enter the human body, they tend to react with biomolecules, causing damage by (for example) mutating DNA. If ...
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1answer
219 views

How can I interpret the CH4+ structure?

I am trying to teach myself about Electron Ionization, and am very confused about the formation of the CH4+ Ion. Do the dotted lines between the C and the H, and between the two Hydrogens indicate a ...
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1answer
39 views

How to determine net charge of a polycation using Wade's rules?

In order to determine the net charge of polycations, which adopt a Wade-like structure (octahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, ...), Wade's rules can be used. For example, the charge $x$ of the ...
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1answer
48 views

What does it mean when something is said to “contain ions”?

(I'm looking for a very basic level explanation because my only chemistry experience is one fast-paced high school course.) So, according to the professor of that course, ions are never found in ...
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49 views

What is the arrangement of water molecules in a hydration shell around an anion?

I believe I read somewhere that the hydration shell of ions always has hydrogen on the outside, but I can't relocate the exact whereabouts of this. Thus, I decided to ask here, as to what the ...
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43 views

How to divide the peaks of two anion ions using ion chromatography?

I used an ion chromatography system (Dionex IC-2000) to determine the inorganic ions and acid from the samples collected in the atmosphere. For measuring $\ce{SO4^2-, NO3, Cl-}$, and low molecular ...
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2answers
317 views

Formula of Manganese (IV) Ion

When determining the formula of manganese (IV) oxide, since it’s made up of $\ce{Mn^4+}$ and $\ce{O^2-}$ ions, why is the formula $\ce{MnO2}$ and not $\ce{Mn2O4}$? Any help would be greatly ...
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1answer
115 views

Very elementary question about valence electrons of ionic compound

In a university entrance question, I found this question: What is the number of valence electrons of $\ce{Mg(OH)2}$? Answer = 24 I know that Mg has 2 valence electrons and O has 6. But I don't ...
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0answers
54 views

Are dopant ions on a crystal lattice free or bonded?

This question seems simple but I don't seem to find many answers right away for this. When you make a crystal doped with ions (like a luminescent phosphor) and the ions then become a defect in the ...
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1answer
82 views

Can we manipulate the rate of water's autoionization?

I just got introduced to this concept and these thoughts came into my mind. Is there a way to increase the equilibrium constant of the autoionization of water?
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1answer
49 views

Is there a blanket term for all variants (both nuclides and ions) of a chemical element?

I'm hoping to catalogue the various nuclides and oxidation states of an element but can't find a single term that describes them all, save for "chemical element variations". Is there a specific term ...
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How would you write the empirical formula of an ion?

How would you write the empirical formula of e.g. X2Y42-?
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1answer
198 views

How are alkalide ions synthesized?

How are alkalide molecules synthesized, for example, I have read in a paper that the reaction $$\ce{2Na -> Na+ + Na-}$$ is exothermic with a $\Delta H = \pu{-438 kJ/mol}$. I have also read that in ...
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1answer
68 views

How does the water pollutant sodium nitrate affect the concentrations of other ions in tap (dam) water? [closed]

Context In my assignment I've been given two water samples from the hinze dam. The first sample has been untouched, however the second has been contaminated with an unknown ionic compound. To ...
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504 views

Compare stability of transition metal cations in aqueous solution

I have to compare the stability of the following transition metal cations: $\ce{Co^3+, Fe^3+, Cr^3+, Sc^3+}$ in aqueous solution. (Source: Joint Entrance Exam (JEE) 2013 Mains India) The first thing ...
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2answers
85 views

Do we consider the dissociation of water when dealing with ion concentrations of a solution?

One mole of hydrated copper(II) sulphate, $\ce{CuSO4 . 5 H2O}$, is dissolved in water. How many moles of ions does the solution contain? 1) 1 2) 2 3) 6 4) 7 The ...
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1answer
56 views

Extracting metallic magnesium from cholorphyll

My understanding is that when chlorophyll is exposed to an increased concentration of hydrogen ions (or rather the pH is lowered), the magnesium is displaced by a hydrogen ion and chlorophyll is ...
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1answer
95 views

Why does the helium hydride ion have such a large dipole moment?

According to Wikipedia, the helium hydride ion $\ce {HeH+}$ has a dipole moment of 2.26 or 2.84. What contributes to this large dipole moment in this molecular ion?
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Bond dissociation energy of the trihydrogen cation

Recently, in one of the questions in an assignment on the topic of energetics, we were asked to explain why the bond dissociation energy for the trihydrogen cation is much larger than what we would ...