Questions tagged [ions]

For questions about ions - atomic or molecular particles having a net electric charge. Do NOT use this tag just because your question involves ions but is not about the ions themselves (as in electrochemistry, etc.).

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Is the article correct? Is the process really endothermic, if the slope is positive and so the enthalpy change is negative? Am I not seeing something?

In the article, they say the enthalpy change is positive and so is the entropy change, so the Gibbs free energy depends on the temperature. They state that the Gibbs free energy is also positive. ...
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1 answer
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How are polyatomic ions formed?

I know that there should be a covalent bond between polyatomic ions, such as $\ce{SO4^2-}$. But what causes it to suddenly gain electrons and become an ion?
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How does Sulfur form 6 covalent bonds with Oxygen in sulfate?

I am confused, because essentially sulfur has 6 valence electrons. Oxygen also has 6 valence electrons. I don't understand how sulfur could form bonds with 4 oxygen atoms. Doesn't that mean it has ...
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Lattice energy as a factor that helps determine which charge the atoms take on?

I do not quite understand the following line of reasoning: Why does Na not form $\ce{Na^{2+}}$ ions? To obtain $\ce{Na^{2+}}$ ions, the first and second ionization energy must be applied: 496 + 4563 ...
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Why does the same electron transition release photons of different frequencies for some elements?

Question: For elements in the same period with different numbers of valance electrons, why does the same electron transition release photons of different frequencies? Example: For valance electrons ...
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1 answer
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Most stable monoatomic ion of nitrogen [closed]

I often see that the most stable monoatomic ion of nitrogen is N$^{3-}$ (for example on Khan Academy), and I remember being taught something similar, along the lines of atoms wanting complete octets. ...
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86 views

Solubility and solubility product in relation to the number of ions in a formula

I was taught that if a salt was formed by ions with higher charges, the lattice energy would be also higher (Born-Landé), and the solubility in water would be lower, as it takes more energy to break ...
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1 answer
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Is lead iodide a strong electrolyte?

So, lead iodide is insoluble. I see conflicting answers online. Some say it's a weak electrolyte because it is insoluble, others say it is a strong electrolyte because it is an ionic compound and any ...
6 votes
2 answers
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Does the MS oxygen peak at m/z = 16 correspond to $\ce{O+}$ or $\ce{O2^{2+}}$?

In a mass spectrum, while annealing with $\ce{O2}$ of a sample in UHV, I observe peaks at $m/z = 16$ and $32 (= 16 \times 2)$. While the latter is $\ce{O2^+}$, I'm unsure what the peak at $m/z = 16$ ...
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What is the overall oxidation number of polyatomic ions?

In a polyatomic ion, the sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms is equal to the overall charge on the ion. However, does this polyatomic ion have an overall oxidation number? We also know that the ...
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2 answers
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Can ions be acids or bases?

Consider a sulfate ion, its considered a weak base. Yet I thought bases and acids were compounds meaning they were always electrically neutral? Why is a sulfate ion then considered a base? And how ...
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1 answer
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Can two cations bond?

I want to know if you forced two cations together (maybe by heating it up in a plasma or something) would they bond and share atoms like in a covalent bond? What’s more, instead of taking just the ...
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Do ion-exchange membranes *always* require ions to pass in both directions?

In an answer to this question, it was asserted that: Student always tend to forget that a solution must remain electrically neutral by all means. If you want a certain ion to leave water, you must ...
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Is there a material that ions can pass through but water can’t?

I was wondering whether there is a material that can pass ions (such as the ions existing in seawater) but not water. I am aware that water molecules are smaller, so they can pass through some ...
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1 answer
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Why is desalination waste usually disposed back into the sea instead of converting it into chemical products?

I was reading about the desalination processes such as reverse osmosis and capacitive deionization and their alternatives. They all work on removing ions from water and disposing them back to sea/...
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Why is it wrong to draw the Lewis structure of a molecule's atoms and then figure out the Lewis structure of that molecule

When drawing for example the Lewis structure of nitrate ion (NO3)^-1 whould it be wrong to draw nitrogen and oxygen separately and then try to figure out the structure of the ion? In that case does ...
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1 answer
527 views

Why is ammonium ion net positively charged? [closed]

I know that this might look a very dumb question but I have been spent my days to think about it and couldn't understand and finally decided to ask. Consider Sharing of electrons to form covalent or ...
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Where can I find data for ionic radii? [duplicate]

Where can I find data for the ionic radius of various ions? I am looking specifically at yttrium ions, zirconium ions, niobium ions, molybdenum ions, chlorine ions, hafnium ions, tantalum ions, and ...
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Will an electrolyte eventually stop conducting electricity? And if so, gradually over time or suddenly?

I understand that an electrolyte does not conduct electrons, but rather that the positive and negative dissolved ions are attracted by electric charge to the cathode and anode where they receive and ...
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Dominance of electronic factors in cupric ion

I know that Cu+ ( cuprous ) ion is less stable than Cu²+ ( cupric ) ion . There are some reasons explaining this by high hydration enthalpies and low ionization enthalpies . Even though , these ...
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1 answer
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Can uv light cause heterolytic cleavage?

All sources I've read stated that UV-light can only cause homolytic cleavage (homolytic fission), producing radicals while not mentioning whether it was possible for it to cause heterolytic cleavage ...
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1 answer
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Why are hydrated lithium ions' radii larger than hydrated sodium ions' radii?

Why are hydrated lithium ions' radii larger than hydrated sodium ions' radii i.e. $r_\ce{Li+(aq)}>r_\ce{Na+(aq)}$? If ionic radii increase down the group i.e. $r_\ce{Li+}<r_\ce{Na+}<r_\ce{K+}$...
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2 votes
0 answers
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How do the assumptions of the Nernst equation impact its accuracy?

I was just wondering what impact the assumption that the equilibrium membrane potential for an ion is dependent on just the ion itself (if it is the only thing that is permeable). For instance, if I ...
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1 answer
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Which ion has a greater paramagnetic property?

I just recently began studying the Molecular Orbital Theory in Chemistry and I just learnt about the paramagnetic and diamagnetic nature of molecules based on their unfilled and filled orbitals. Now ...
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3 answers
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Do Ions with less stability have less energy of ionization than those who are stable?

Problem. I've come up with the strange example of the third energy of ionization of both $\pu{Mg}$ and $\pu{Al}$, the standard logic that is to be applied on any problem of "which element has ...
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11 votes
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Why are protons more common than hydride ion?

I'm a high school student. I noticed $\ce{H+}$ ion is commonly present in my books while I didn't find any presence of $\ce{H-}$ ions in my books. However, I found on internet that $\ce{H-}$ also ...
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Find the ion with mass number 37 if the ion contains 11.1% more neutrons than the electrons

An ion with mass number 37 possesses one unit of negative charge. The ion contains 11.1% more neutrons than the electrons in its nucleus. An ion with a mass of 37 has % negative charge compared to % ...
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1 answer
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Thickness of proton exchange membrane (Nafion)?

I am looking into using a proton exchange membrane for a bio-energy cell experiment. Previous scholars have been using Nafion as a PEM to place between the anode and cathode (air-cathode). the ...
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1 answer
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Why does acetate ion react with water? [closed]

When NaCl is added to water, it dissociates into $\rm{Na^+}$ and $\rm{Cl^-}$. The newly formed $\rm{Na^+}$ and $\rm{Cl^-}$ do not react with water. When $\rm{CH_3COONa}$ (sodium acetate) is added to ...
2 votes
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How does the membrane potential change so drastically during an action potential?

I understand that the Nernst potentials $$V = \frac{k_\mathrm{B}T}{e} \ln\left(\frac{c_\mathrm{out}}{c_\mathrm{in}}\right)$$ for all ions inside and outside a cell barely change when an action ...
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3 votes
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How does the surface to volume ratio of ions and their distribution in solution compare to that of suspended nanoparticles in nanofluids?

I am interested in understanding the heat transfer capabilities of fluids. Nano-fluids are suspensions of nanoparticles (1-100nm sized particles) in a base fluid, often water, oil or glycol. These ...
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A contradiction in the nucleophilic attack of hydride ion based on charge densities

On page 130 of Organic Chemistry by Clayden, it is stated that Nucleophilic attack by the hydride ion, $\ce{H-}$, is an almost unknown reaction. This species, which is present in the salt sodium ...
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Which is more electronegative, Anions or Cations? [closed]

Electronegativity is the tendency of atoms in covalent bonds to attract electrons closer to themselves (I'll admit I realised ions do not form covalent bonds only after I finished writing). ...
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1 answer
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Do hydrides, like NaH or CsH, also form H-bond? [closed]

I know that when hydrogen acts as a cation, it can form H-bonds with the electronegative ions or groups. But, is this also true for anionic hydrogens? Will they form similar bonds, other than the ...
12 votes
3 answers
808 views

Why does water weaken ion ion attractions?

My lecturer has told me that water, having a high dielectric value, will "shield" ions and reduce ion-ion attractions. I really don't see why. Having water molecules surround these two ions ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Confusion regarding $\delta$ charge compared with electronegativity

I heard on a lecture of an online site that, let us say, we have two orbitals (1 and 2). Now, it will be like a spherical cloud. Now, what they say is that Now, we can notice that for orbital number ...
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2 answers
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Why doesn't base/acid reacting with water create a salt?

An acid/base nwutralization will create a salt + water. If one uses water itself as the acid or base, and have an acid/base neutralization, how come that doesn't create a salt? For example:$$ \ce{HCN(...
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1 answer
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Why flame testing different ions give different colors? [closed]

In my textbook, there was an experiment that described how to flame test different ions and I was just curious why they give off different colors. My knowledge is very basic being just a high school-...
1 vote
1 answer
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Basic behavior of ammonia in aqueous medium [closed]

Thanks to the reversible reaction $$\ce{NH3 + H2O <=> NH4+ + OH-},\tag{R1}$$ we know that ammonia acts as a weak base. However, I was wondering why it ends up forming ammonium $\ce{NH4+}$ and ...
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1 answer
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Smallest unit of Sodium Chloride [duplicate]

Since ionic solids are not molecular, can a single sodium chloride unit exist and if so, what is such a unit called? I am aware of the concept of "formula units", but as far as I can tell, ...
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Comparative Solubility of Double Salts

Is there a tendency that could be used to generally forecast how a double salt might dissolve in aqueous medium compared to the simple salts of its constituents? Example: There is metal A, metal B and ...
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2 answers
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Can H+ ion exist independently? [duplicate]

Can H+ ion exist independently since it does need to form any bonds.Why do we say that it needs to be in H30+ ion form?
2 votes
1 answer
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Do some particles get ionised to 2+ or higher in a mass spectrometer or do they only get ionised to 1+?

In a mass spectrometer the sample is vapourised, then ionised, then accelerated. My textbook says that the high energy electrons from the electron gun knock electrons off the sample molecules and ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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How to make acetic acid more volatile so that it can be removed by vigorous aeration of an acetic acid-water mixture? [closed]

I want to remove acetic acid from a mixture of acetic acid and water by aeration. The concentration of acetic acid is 200 ppm (mg/L). The pH of the water is more than 5. I want to reduce the acetic ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Why does lattice enthalpy decrease with increasing ionic size?

Lattice enthalpy decreases as ions get larger, but I have found two explanations: The charge density is greater in smaller ions, so greater attraction The ions are themselves able to get closer ...
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Behavior of ionic salts in solution

The electrons of an isolated sodium chloride bound pair in vacuum reside at a semi-classical level in their ground state, so that the Born-Oppenheimer approximation applies, and the 'molecule' acts ...
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1 answer
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In metallic bonding, what causes a metal to lose its outer electrons and become an ion? [duplicate]

In metallic bonding, what causes a metal to lose its outer electrons and become an ion? I am trying to understand metallic bonding, atoms and ions.
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1 answer
291 views

Do solid insoluble ions react with soluble ions in aqueous solution? [closed]

Do solid and insoluble ions (like aluminium phosphate) react with soluble ions in aqueous solution (like potassium sulfate)? When would a solid ion react with an ion in aqueous solution in general?
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Ion Representations

Some books put dots around ions, enclose them in braces and then put an integer over them to signify the negative charge, in such representations, the integer is only a way to represent the charge and ...
2 votes
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Equilibrium Constants for Diatomic Gases at High Temperatures

I'm new here and I haven't taken chemistry beyond high school, so please forgive the ignorance. I am reading a book about hypersonic aerodynamics, and I am trying to connect some chemistry knowledge ...
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