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Questions tagged [ions]

For questions about ions - atomic or molecular particles having a net electric charge. Do NOT use this tag just because your question involves ions but is not about the ions themselves (as in electrochemistry, etc.).

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37 views

Is there a way to create carbonate ions [closed]

The goal would be to have a solution of, for instance, ocean water and change it in a way which is equivalent to increasing the concentration of carbonate ions in the solution, with no other change. ...
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0answers
13 views

What is the number of 3d electrons of the transition metal ion in the following complex: [closed]

What is the number of 3d electrons of the transition metal ion in the following complex: [Cr(OH2)4Cl2] Im confused how to count the electron config if it is complex. is there a very easy way to ...
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0answers
21 views

Why are cations detected in capillary gel electrophoresis with a positive applied voltage and a coated fused silica capillary?

In capillary gel electrophoresis, when a positive voltage is applied to a coated fused silica capillary, why are positively charged ions (among positive, negative and neutral) detected first? What is ...
11
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2answers
686 views

Why are protons more common than hydride ion?

I'm a high school student. I noticed $\ce{H+}$ ion is commonly present in my books while I didn't find any presence of $\ce{H-}$ ions in my books. However, I found on internet that $\ce{H-}$ also ...
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1answer
85 views

Find the ion with mass number 37 if the ion contains 11.1% more neutrons than the electrons

An ion with mass number 37 possesses one unit of negative charge. The ion contains 11.1% more neutrons than the electrons in its nucleus. An ion with a mass of 37 has % negative charge compared to % ...
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0answers
29 views

Thickness of proton exchange membrane (Nafion)?

I am looking into using a proton exchange membrane for a bio-energy cell experiment. Previous scholars have been using Nafion as a PEM to place between the anode and cathode (air-cathode). the ...
-1
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1answer
84 views

Why does acetate ion react with water? [closed]

When NaCl is added to water, it dissociates into $\rm{Na^+}$ and $\rm{Cl^-}$. The newly formed $\rm{Na^+}$ and $\rm{Cl^-}$ do not react with water. When $\rm{CH_3COONa}$ (sodium acetate) is added to ...
2
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0answers
36 views

How does the membrane potential change so drastically during an action potential?

I understand that the Nernst potentials $$V = \frac{k_\mathrm{B}T}{e} \ln\left(\frac{c_\mathrm{out}}{c_\mathrm{in}}\right)$$ for all ions inside and outside a cell barely change when an action ...
3
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0answers
51 views

How does the surface to volume ratio of ions and their distribution in solution compare to that of suspended nanoparticles in nanofluids?

I am interested in understanding the heat transfer capabilities of fluids. Nano-fluids are suspensions of nanoparticles (1-100nm sized particles) in a base fluid, often water, oil or glycol. These ...
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0answers
19 views

How does a lipid such as PC, with N(CH)3+ bind to a silica gel with many OH groups?

I'm trying to determine the polarity of two lipids(phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phophatidylglycerol (PG)) and my experimental results indicate that that PC is the most polar, yet when I look at their ...
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0answers
35 views

A contradiction in the nucleophilic attack of hydride ion based on charge densities

On page 130 of Organic Chemistry by Clayden, it is stated that Nucleophilic attack by the hydride ion, $\ce{H-}$, is an almost unknown reaction. This species, which is present in the salt sodium ...
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1answer
350 views

Which is more electronegative, Anions or Cations? [closed]

Electronegativity is the tendency of atoms in covalent bonds to attract electrons closer to themselves (I'll admit I realised ions do not form covalent bonds only after I finished writing). ...
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1answer
55 views

Do hydrides, like NaH or CsH, also form H-bond? [closed]

I know that when hydrogen acts as a cation, it can form H-bonds with the electronegative ions or groups. But, is this also true for anionic hydrogens? Will they form similar bonds, other than the ...
12
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3answers
575 views

Why does water weaken ion ion attractions?

My lecturer has told me that water, having a high dielectric value, will "shield" ions and reduce ion-ion attractions. I really don't see why. Having water molecules surround these two ions ...
1
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2answers
51 views

Confusion regarding $\delta$ charge compared with electronegativity

I heard on a lecture of an online site that, let us say, we have two orbitals (1 and 2). Now, it will be like a spherical cloud. Now, what they say is that Now, we can notice that for orbital number ...
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2answers
84 views

Why doesn't base/acid reacting with water create a salt?

An acid/base nwutralization will create a salt + water. If one uses water itself as the acid or base, and have an acid/base neutralization, how come that doesn't create a salt? For example:$$ \ce{HCN(...
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1answer
46 views

Why flame testing different ions give different colors? [closed]

In my textbook, there was an experiment that described how to flame test different ions and I was just curious why they give off different colors. My knowledge is very basic being just a high school-...
1
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1answer
63 views

Basic behavior of ammonia in aqueous medium [closed]

Thanks to the reversible reaction $$\ce{NH3 + H2O <=> NH4+ + OH-},\tag{R1}$$ we know that ammonia acts as a weak base. However, I was wondering why it ends up forming ammonium $\ce{NH4+}$ and ...
0
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1answer
56 views

Smallest unit of Sodium Chloride [duplicate]

Since ionic solids are not molecular, can a single sodium chloride unit exist and if so, what is such a unit called? I am aware of the concept of "formula units", but as far as I can tell, ...
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0answers
44 views

Comparative Solubility of Double Salts

Is there a tendency that could be used to generally forecast how a double salt might dissolve in aqueous medium compared to the simple salts of its constituents? Example: There is metal A, metal B and ...
0
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2answers
412 views

Can H+ ion exist independently? [duplicate]

Can H+ ion exist independently since it does need to form any bonds.Why do we say that it needs to be in H30+ ion form?
2
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1answer
97 views

Do some particles get ionised to 2+ or higher in a mass spectrometer or do they only get ionised to 1+?

In a mass spectrometer the sample is vapourised, then ionised, then accelerated. My textbook says that the high energy electrons from the electron gun knock electrons off the sample molecules and ...
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2answers
368 views

How to make acetic acid more volatile so that it can be removed by vigorous aeration of an acetic acid-water mixture? [closed]

I want to remove acetic acid from a mixture of acetic acid and water by aeration. The concentration of acetic acid is 200 ppm (mg/L). The pH of the water is more than 5. I want to reduce the acetic ...
1
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1answer
181 views

Why does lattice enthalpy decrease with increasing ionic size?

Lattice enthalpy decreases as ions get larger, but I have found two explanations: The charge density is greater in smaller ions, so greater attraction The ions are themselves able to get closer ...
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1answer
55 views

Behavior of ionic salts in solution

The electrons of an isolated sodium chloride bound pair in vacuum reside at a semi-classical level in their ground state, so that the Born-Oppenheimer approximation applies, and the 'molecule' acts ...
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1answer
177 views

In metallic bonding, what causes a metal to lose its outer electrons and become an ion? [duplicate]

In metallic bonding, what causes a metal to lose its outer electrons and become an ion? I am trying to understand metallic bonding, atoms and ions.
0
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1answer
114 views

Do solid insoluble ions react with soluble ions in aqueous solution? [closed]

Do solid and insoluble ions (like aluminium phosphate) react with soluble ions in aqueous solution (like potassium sulfate)? When would a solid ion react with an ion in aqueous solution in general?
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1answer
23 views

Ion Representations

Some books put dots around ions, enclose them in braces and then put an integer over them to signify the negative charge, in such representations, the integer is only a way to represent the charge and ...
2
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0answers
93 views

Equilibrium Constants for Diatomic Gases at High Temperatures

I'm new here and I haven't taken chemistry beyond high school, so please forgive the ignorance. I am reading a book about hypersonic aerodynamics, and I am trying to connect some chemistry knowledge ...
6
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2answers
511 views

What happens to boiled (BMIM)PF6?

[BMIM]PF6, or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, is commonly used as an ionic liquid. As has been shown by the accepted answer to this question, sodium chloride that has been made to ...
0
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1answer
56 views

Why are bonded ions more stable than separate ions? [closed]

I was reading on the Born-Haber cycle when I encountered a problem. The textbook seemed to suggest that since energy must be supplied to separate an ionic compound into it's composite ions, then the ...
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2answers
791 views

How do ions conduct electricity? [closed]

I mean to ask what do ions actually do while conducting electricity? Do they simply take up the electrons and transport it? If it is so, I do not understand how anions can take up more electrons if ...
0
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2answers
112 views

Writing Ionic Equation

According to the rules of writing ionic equation, only compounds in aqueous state can be split or dissociated into their ions, whereas elements or compounds in solid, liquid or gas state remain as ...
2
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0answers
358 views

Are all ions stable? [closed]

My science teacher says that all ions are stable, which seems wrong to me. For example $\ce{He^{-1}}$ is an unstable ion of helium, and although it might not exist in the real world, it is still ...
1
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1answer
63 views

A gram of salt added to pure (distilled) water introduces around $2 \times 10^{22}$ ions? [closed]

I am currently studying Practical Electronics For Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk. Chapter 2.5.2 Resistivity and Conductivity, claims the following: Adding an ionic compound in the ...
1
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0answers
495 views

Why is the strontium ion smaller than the potassium ion? [closed]

The ionic radius of the $\ce{Sr^2+}$ ion is $\mathrm{132\,pm}$, while the ionic radius of the $\ce{K^+}$ ion is $\mathrm{152\,pm}$. Why is this the case? I would have thought that since $\ce{K^+}$ has ...
4
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2answers
520 views

For a copper/copper sulfate half reaction, do sulfate anions move to the anode and lose electrons?

In my (high school) textbook, there's an example on finding the charge on 1 mole of electrons, which involves performing the electrolysis of an aqueous copper (II) sulfate using a copper anode and a ...
1
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3answers
122 views

How to decrease the percent of ammonia that is converted to the ammonium ion in water? [closed]

Ammonia is a weak base that reacts with water according to this equation: NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ⇌ NH4+(aq) + OH −(aq) Will Fe(NO3)3 decrease the ...
2
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0answers
165 views

Total Dissolved Solids and Alkalinity [closed]

I need to calculate total dissolved solids (TDS) of various groundwater samples from chemical analyzes. I have concentrations of ions/molecules in mg/L. I’ve found various formulas to calculate TDS ...
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1answer
2k views

Why is the chlorine ion more stable than the chlorine atom? [closed]

In heterolytic cleavage, for instance, $\ce{NaCl}$ breaks in two fragments $\ce{Na+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$. If chlorine is fully filled because it takes one electron from sodium, then why does chlorine make ...
0
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1answer
17 views

Heterogeneous ion solution

I am a college student and for my chemistry of solutions class, I had a lab where we had to titrate orange juice to check the calcium content. However, the experimental results are 20% off the ...
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0answers
29 views

A question about potential difference across a membrane

Membrane potential of living cells arising from the difference of concentration of ions on both sides of the membrane, but why didn't someone use selective polymers as AEM (Anion Exchange Membrane) ...
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2answers
73 views

Why is the ionic product of water $K_w$ the same in acid, water, and alkali? [duplicate]

Seen on the web: The concentration of [H+] and [OH−] both vary based on the the composition (acid/alkaline) of the solution, but the remarkable thing is that their product does not. When [H+] goes ...
13
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2answers
2k views

Can glass be deionized?

Is there a chemical treatment that could remove sodium and calcium ions from the surface of soda-lime glass to turn it into quartz glass, increasing the hardness?
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1answer
57 views

For group 13 elements M³⁺, why is the formation of MCl₄⁻ more favorable than for group 12 elements M²⁺?

I'm not a chemist and I'm trying to understand a chemistry point from a talk I went to recently. Any help would be much appreciated. The speaker was talking about $+3$ (Group 13) elements in the ...
0
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2answers
1k views

Magnesium oxide dissolving in distilled water [closed]

Magnesium oxide is a salt, and salts dissolve in distilled water, due to water being polarized. Therefore I would expect that you would find free ions, which is confirmed by the water conducting ...
1
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1answer
98 views

Does a halonium ion for astatine exist?

I've just begun reading about halonium ions and I noted that only the first four halogens are acknowledged to be able to form halonium ions, but hydrogen astatide can be formed. I can't seem to find ...
3
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2answers
201 views

Electron Ionization and the Franck-Condon Diagram: vibrationally excited and vibrationally ground states

I am currently studying Mass Spectrometry: A Textbook, third edition, by Jürgen H. Gross. On page 41, the author says the following: As explained by the Franck-Condon diagram, hardly any molecular ...
2
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0answers
25 views

A question about nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

In the structure of NAD+, why does the nitrogen of pyridine bind covalently to the the first carbon of glucose while the anion stabilizing the nicotine amide ion is the phosphate group? In other words,...
2
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1answer
3k views

What is the Lewis structure of the azide ion?

On a chemistry homework, we're asked to draw the Lewis structure of $\ce{N3-}$. My answer: Nitrogen ordinarily has five electrons in its valence; $\ce{N-}$ has six. This makes a total of 16 ...

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