Questions tagged [oxidation-state]

Oxidation state is a concept, which assigns hypothetical charges to atoms in compounds. This tag should be applied to questions which relate to that concept or to oxidation states in atoms of compounds.

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Is there any method to make sure a electroplated layer of iron oxidizes into magnetite (Fe3O4) instead of hematite (Fe2O3)?

I am currently electroplating iron on copper using a DIY setup in my lab. Steel sheet as anode with electrolyte having 5% acetic acid with sodium carbonate to form sodium acetate and added some NaCl ...
assasinchop7's user avatar
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Why does balancing the oxidation of dichromate(VI) to chromium(III) require six iron atoms?

The problem: Balance the following chemical equation using oxidation numbers: $$ \ce{Fe^2+ + Cr_2O_7^2- -> Fe^3+ + Cr^3+} $$ What I have tried: $$\ce{\overset{+II}{Fe}^{2+}(aq) + \overset{+VI}{Cr}...
Nora's user avatar
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Why does balancing the reduction of dichromate(VI) to chromium(III) require four water molecules among the products?

Problem Balance the following chemical equation using oxidation numbers: $$\ce{Cr2O7^2–(aq) + HNO2(aq) –> Cr3+(aq) + NO3–(aq)}$$ Solution (in Swedish) $$\ce{\overset{+VI}{Cr}_2O7^2–(aq) + H\...
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How to calculate oxidation number for silver hexafluorophosphate (AgPF6)? [closed]

I'm doing some exercise of assigning oxidation numbers and I am stuck with this compound: $$\ce{AgPF6}$$ According to the guidelines fluorine is always -1. But how do I know how to split the +6 among ...
Spi-Phi Quotes's user avatar
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1 answer
215 views

Oxidation states of Thiosulphate [duplicate]

I was given this question and don't understand why the two sulphur atoms have different oxidation states - and how to actually figure it out. Could someone please explain it to me? I've attached the ...
Koko Faen's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
174 views

Stability of H3MnO4, H2MnO4, HMnO4

I cannot seek out the reason why while $\ce{H3PO4}$ (phosphorus oxidation +5) is relatively stable and obtainable but $\ce{H3MnO4}$ (the same oxidation state +5) is rarely mentioned and perhaps ...
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Effect on Metal-Phosphine Bond if Metal centre gets oxidised

Looking at the Octahedral complex, the chromium is a $d^6$ complex and, if the Chromium bond gets oxidised, it will have lesser electrons to donate to phosphine's $\sigma^{*}$ orbital. This effect is ...
DocManIM's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
156 views

Find cell configuration notation for permanganate in acidic medium

They gave us an unbalanced reaction of permanganate and iodide in acidic medium, and ask to balance the reaction using redox methods and the write the cell configuration notation for the resultant ...
creepshow's user avatar
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What is the oxidation state of atoms in interstitial transition compounds?

My teacher said that even though interstitial compounds are neither ionic nor covalent, we still define an oxidation state for them. The example she gave was $\ce{TiC}$. She said the carbon is in $-4$ ...
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Why does Ascorbic Acid on paper turn brown when heated?

I am finding conflicting information about how ascorbic acid degrades and turns brown when used as "invisible ink" on paper and then heated. Some say the heat accelerates the natural ...
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Can Sodium form Anions? [duplicate]

I am at the beginning of self-studying chemistry and one question I have is quite simple yet I can't seem to get an answer that people agree on, or I am not searching for it properly. The question is ...
SomeChemist's user avatar
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Oxidation Number of the middle carbon in $\ce{C3O2}$ (Carbon Suboxide)

By taking the oxidation state of the terminal oxygen atoms as -2, and oxidation state of the carbon atoms adjacent to these oxygen atoms as +2, we are left with the oxidation state of the middle ...
AtoZ's user avatar
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Oxidizing property of permanganate [closed]

If permanganate is a stronger and efficient oxidizing agent in acidic medium than alkaline medium. Then why does it oxidise iodide(-1) to iodate(+5) in alkaline medium but iodide to iodine(0) in ...
Mithun M R's user avatar
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When HI reacts with H2SO4, why is the sulphate ion reduced to hydrogen sulphide instead of sulfur dioxide?

When $\ce{HI}$ reacts with $\ce{H2SO4}$, it can be represented by the following chemical equation: $$\ce{8HI + H2SO4 -> 4I2 + H2S + 4H2O}$$ However, when $\ce{HBr}$ reacts with $\ce{H2SO4}$, the ...
Jelly Qwerty's user avatar
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4 answers
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Specifying which compound is oxidized/reduced in a redox reaction [closed]

I wrote the oxidation numbers in a redox reaction: $\rm{2 \overset{+7}{Mn} \overset{-2}{O_4^{-}}~+~5\overset{+4}{S} \overset{-2}{O_2}~+~6\overset{+1}{H}_2 \overset{-2}{O}~~\rightarrow~~ 5\overset{+6}{...
Nikhil Kumar's user avatar
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In a voltaic cell with standard hydrogen electrode is the measure half cell always the cathode?

I am a bit confused. My openstax textbook states: "When the half-cell X is under standard-state conditions, its potential is the standard electrode potential, E°X. Since the definition of cell ...
Physics's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
460 views

Can you write oxidation states with negative Roman numerals?

As I understand, Roman numerals are used for oxidation states, whereas Arabic numerals are used for the charge of full ions, with some ambiguity allowed when a metal centre is all but ionised, such as ...
Furrier Transform's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is valency of an element equal to sum of covalency and electrovalence? Why do we calculate valency and oxidation number? [closed]

About valency books say following things: 1- Valency is combining capacity of an atom with number of hydrogen atoms or double of oxygen atoms with which the atom combines. Doubt A: what is valency of ...
Level1's user avatar
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Confusion regarding what reduction/oxidation means in reactions having covalent compounds [closed]

In the formation of NaCl, Na gets oxidised because it loses an electron, while Cl gets reduced because it gains an electron. But how does this concept work in the case of covalent compounds, ...
Pumpkin_Star's user avatar
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Why middle elements of transition series show more number of oxidation states [duplicate]

Why do the elements in the middle of the transition series show more number of common oxidation states than others?
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Balancing a redox reaction equation with a mystery reactant

The answer to the following question from NSAA 2021 Chemistry Section 2 is C. Consider the following chemical equation: $$\ce{vQ + wP4 + x H2O -> yPH4I + zH3PO4}$$ where Q is a binary compound. ...
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Why Scandium (Sc) doesn't show variable oxidation states (especially +2), while other transition elements show variable oxidation states? [duplicate]

I have read answer to this question on various sites, but was not satisfied by the answers, because I am not able to understand, that if we remove initially 1 electron from scandium, then 4s would be ...
TheUnknownOfficial's user avatar
-1 votes
3 answers
258 views

Do polyatomic ions have oxidation numbers?

In a polyatomic ion, the sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms is equal to the overall charge on the ion. However, does this polyatomic ion have an overall oxidation number? We also know that the ...
CaptainAmerica Whyso's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
250 views

What are oxidation numbers of each element in CuH?

My chemistry teacher said hydrogen when bonded with metals has oxidation number (O.N.) of −1 except CuH: in CuH the hydrogen has O.N. +1 and the copper has O.N. −1. But on the internet it is ...
Nipun Kulshreshtha's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
491 views

Why chlorate(V) is one of the primary products of disproportionation reaction between chlorine gas and hot concentrated NaOH?

Cold diluted $\ce{NaOH}$ reacts with $\ce{Cl2}$ producing hypochlorite: $$\ce{2 NaOH(aq, dil, cold) + Cl2(g) -> NaClO(aq) + NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)},\tag{R1}$$ whereas hot concentrated $\ce{NaOH}$ yields ...
monke's user avatar
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How is 1 mole hypochlorite ion equivalent to 1 mole chlorine gas?

According to my book, 1 mole ClO- is equivalent to 1 mole Cl2. How is that even possible? 1 mole ClO- contains 1 mole Cl atoms. On the contrary, 1 mole Cl2 gas contains 2 mole Cl atoms. So, how are ...
tryingtobeastoic's user avatar
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Is haloform reaction considered to be disproportionation? [duplicate]

A question in an exam listed a number of compounds and the task was to find the number of compounds which will undergo disproportionation in conc. $\ce{NaOH}$. One of the compounds was $\ce{CCl3CHO}$, ...
Box Box Box Box's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can halogens show -3 or -5 or -7 oxidation state. Why? [closed]

I mean can we think it like if the electrons get excited into the d orbitals and because there are now more than one unpaired electron, why does it only loose them and why don't they accept more than ...
Ryn's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Does hypochlorous acid oxidize hydrogen peroxide?

The following reaction is from https://ncert.nic.in/textbook/pdf/kech202.pdf, p. 11: $$\ce{H2O2 + HOCl -> H3O+ + Cl- + O2}$$ I have to find if $\ce{H2O2}$ is acting like a reducing agent or an ...
Soumil Gupta's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
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Computing the overall charge of a compound with non-integer coefficients

I have a question about computing the overall charge of inorganic chemicals, where the composition is expressed using non-integer stoichiometric coefficients. Let's say we have $\ce{Hg_{0.7}Cd_{0.3}Te}...
James Arten's user avatar
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180 views

Why doesn't XeF6 displace oxygen from water?

Consider the following reactions (unbalanced): $$ \begin{align} \ce{XeF2 + H2O &→ Xe + HF + O2} \tag{a} \\ \ce{XeF4 + H2O &→ XeO3 + Xe + O2 + HF} \tag{b} \\ \ce{XeF6 + H2O &→ XeO3 + HF} \...
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2 votes
0 answers
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In Lanthanides, Why is electron removed from 4f before 5p? [duplicate]

I've been taught that electrons are removed first from valence shell electrons with highest energy. But In Lanthanides, for example taking configuration- [Xe]4f⁴6s², If we go to +3 Oxidation State, ...
Shyam's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Balancing a chemical reaction with oxidation numbers

We have been teached how to balance chemical reactions with oxidation numbers in school, but somehow I can't understand it. This is the equation to balance $$\ce{Cu(s) + NO3−(aq) + H+(aq) -> Cu^2+(...
James's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
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In the complete combustion of methane, is it methane or carbon that is oxidised?

I realise this is a rather pedantic question, but I'm wondering which application of terminology is more correct here. I know that, in the complete combustion of methane, methane is the reducing agent....
Vandelay's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
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Do molecules containing enough oxygen to burn themselves exist?

Is there a molecule with enough oxygen in it (for example, something like $\ce{HCOOOH}$) such that it can undergo complete combustion without requiring any additional oxygen? For example the above ...
Bruce M's user avatar
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2 answers
193 views

Will strong base corrode aluminium in absence of oxygen? [closed]

From what i understand, putting iron in a vacuum chamber (airtight container) will stops further oxidation take place. However in aluminium, with only oxygen, aluminium will form thin oxide film that ...
digda's user avatar
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2 answers
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Why are group 13 compounds in the +1 oxidation state more ionic than those in the +3 oxidation state?

I know that for group 13 metals in the p block, the stability of +1 OS is generally more than the stability of +3 OS as it is energetically not favourable to attain the higher OS of +3 and such ions ...
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
184 views

Oxidation of sulfuric acid to Marshall's acid and its half cell reaction

$\ce{H2O2}$ can be prepared by successive reactions: $\ce{2NH4HSO4 -> H2 + (NH4)2S2O8}$ $\ce{(NH4)2S2O8 + 2H2O -> 2NH4HSO4 + H2O2}$ The first reaction is an electrolytic reaction and second is ...
Priyanshu Choubey's user avatar
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1 answer
735 views

How can one change the color of Iron Oxide by changing the composition or hydration?

How does the color of rust change depending on its makeup and state, or more to the point, how would one put the rust into that state? For example, Wikipedia shows Iron(III) Oxide as being red in the ...
JShoe's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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What are the safest non-toxic elements I can own? [closed]

As in a recent question, I mentioned I collect elements. My collection already has quite a few elements and a rare alloy (I have silicon, molybdenum, tungsten, gold, platinum, silver, copper, ...
Mister SirCode's user avatar
15 votes
4 answers
2k views

Can osmium react with oxygen at room temperature?

I’m an avid collector of elements (I love shiny rocks - don’t judge). I’m looking to buy some osmium, as it’s one of the heaviest and hardest metals out there. However, people online told me to avoid ...
Mister SirCode's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
680 views

Oxidation number of methylene blue

I came across methylene blue's structure when it reacts with oxygen. The left is the reduced state, and the right is the oxidized state. However, when I looked at them carefully, the oxidation number ...
Wang's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
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The oxidation number of N and Cl in NOClO4 ​

My doubt is not about the solution itself, actually I was able to find the solution myself. We could split NOClO4 as (NO+) + (ClO4-) and then proceed, but here I "knew" this split. Is there ...
Fr0zen's user avatar
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2 answers
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Is Co(2+) easily oxidised to Co(3+)? [closed]

I think this question lacks some required informations but that's exactly what was given on my question paper. I thought of explaining this in descriptions of crystal field theory but I couldn't solve ...
Ramisa's user avatar
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-5 votes
1 answer
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What exactly is oxidation number with regards to [Fe(CN)6]-4 [closed]

I read that $\ce{Fe}$ has an oxidation state of $+2$ in $\ce{[Fe(CN)6]^{4-}}$. Does that mean $\ce{Fe}$ gives away $2$ electrons? Doesn't $\ce{(CN)6}$ form coordination bonds with $\ce{Fe}$ meaning $\...
jake dawson's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
547 views

What are compounds where oxygen has oxidation state -1/3 called?

I have heard of oxides, peroxides and superoxides where oxygen oxidation number is $-2, -1, -\frac{1}{2}$ respectively. But I came across a molecule with the formula $\ce{KO_3}$, oxygen has $-\frac{1}{...
Natru's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
573 views

How do I balance a hydrogen peroxide redox equation? [closed]

I have this equation: $$\ce{H2O2 + MnO4- + H+ -> O2 + Mn^2+ + H2O}.$$ How do I balance it, since O has two different oxidation states on one side?
Oscar Yuleton's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why does mercury(II) nitrate form only when using concentrated nitric acid?

In the reaction between mercury and nitric acid, mercury(II) nitrate only forms when concentrated nitric acid is heated up and added to it, if the acid is dilute, mercury(I) nitrate forms. I ...
Krys's user avatar
  • 171
-4 votes
1 answer
305 views

Why sodium metabisulphite is not an oxidising agent? [closed]

We know that the maximum possible oxidation state of sulphur is $+6$. Whereas the oxidation states of sulphur in sodium metabisulphite are $+3$ and $+5$. Can't these oxidation states reduces to a ...
Infinite's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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Does boron exhibit +1 oxidation state?

My teacher told that boron exhibits only a $+3$ oxidation state, but he also wrote the unbalanced reaction $$\ce{B + C -> B4C}.$$ Carbon has greater electronegativity than boron leaving us with $\...
Mitul Tandon's user avatar

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