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Questions tagged [oxidation-state]

Oxidation state is a concept, which assigns hypothetical charges to atoms in compounds. This tag should be applied to questions which relate to that concept or to oxidation states in atoms of compounds.

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31 views

Clearing my doubt over Electronegativity and oxidation state

I was doing a question in which we were required to find the oxidation state of $\ce{H3PO3}$. I knew the structure that is: Now, Phosphorus being less electronegative than oxygen get $+2,+1,+1$ ...
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Question About Reversible Reactions and Batteries

So my book says that the batteries we have considered so far( Daniell cells) are low life span, because they reach equilibrium too fast. In the next paragraph, it says they are also made by ...
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109 views

How can batteries reach equilibrium if the reactions are irreversible?

My book says that the batteries we have considered so far (Daniell cells) have a low life span because they reach equilibrium too quickly. In the next paragraph, it states they are also made by ...
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165 views

The oxidation state of iodine in iodoxybenzoic acid

I am slightly puzzled by this seemingly trivial question. The idea behind assigning oxidation states is simply to treat every single bond made by the atoms as ionic bonds. That is to say, both the ...
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System charge number for Mg-based molecules

I know Mg (magnesium) has two valence electrons, and it is Mg2+ cation. It can have 2 ionic bonds, so I can understand about MgO and Mg(OH)2, and overall charge number of those molecules are 0. ...
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Why is this reaction not a redox? [closed]

My question may seem too simple. But I couldn't find why this is not a redox. $$\ce{Hg2(NO3)2 + 2KBr -> Hg2Br2 + 2KNO3}$$ In $\ce{Hg2(NO3)2}$ compound atoms have following states: O: -2 N: -3 Hg:...
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1answer
57 views

Are there chemicals that absorb and release upon heating oxygen more efficiently than potassium oxide? [closed]

$\ce{K2O}$ absorbs oxygen forming $\ce{K2O2},$ which decomposes to $\ce{K2O}$ and $\ce{O2}$ at 500 °C. This means that $\ce{K2O}$ can absorb up to 17% its mass of oxygen. Are there other substances ...
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57 views

Do different oxidation states of the same element have the same emission spectrum?

I looked at the flames of copper (I) chloride and of copper (II) chloride through a spectroscope and they looked the same. The flame colour is the same too. But since they have different oxidation ...
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37 views

Balancing the chemical equation using Oxidation Number Method [closed]

Permanganate ion reacts with bromide ion in basic medium to give manganese dioxide and bromate ion. Write the balanced ionic equation for the reaction. Please balance the equation using the oxidation ...
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1answer
51 views

Cup with vinegar/salt/copper solution previously in it ran through dishwasher

Someone enjoys making jewelry, and saw an online tutorial saying that you can mix equal parts of vinegar and salt, and leave copper in it for a while to oxidize it, and turn it green. After doing ...
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49 views

Why do we need to use oxidation number in order to balance a complex chemical reaction easily in an acidic or alkaline medium? [closed]

I have been trying to balance this chemical reaction in an "acidic" medium without using oxidation number or ion electron method: [$\ce{Fe^2+ + Cr2O7^2- -> Cr^3+ + Fe^3+}$]. Though I can balance ...
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657 views

What is the oxidation state of Mn in HMn(CO)5?

What is the oxidation state of $\ce{Mn}$ in $\ce{HMn(CO)5}$? If $\ce{H}$ has an oxidation state of $+1$, then $\ce{Mn}$ should have oxidation state of $-1$, which I'm not sure is possible. On the ...
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87 views

Which of the following reactions doesn't represent an oxidation-reduction [closed]

Which of the following reactions doesn't represent an oxidation-reduction? $$ \begin{align*} \ce{2 P + 5 HClO + 3 H2O &-> 2 H3PO4 + 5 HCl} \\ \ce{Zn + 2 HCl &-> ZnCl2 + H2}...
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Is it possible to synthesize permanganate electrochemically?

I have been researching the production of peroxy acids and other strong oxidizers. I was wondering if it's possible to produce permanganic acid if I were to cast an anode containing Manganese Dioxide ...
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51 views

Structure and oxidation state of bridging complexes

I am confused about the structure of bridging complexes with the bridging ligands as $\ce{OH-}$ or $\ce{NH2-}.$ Aren't they both monodentate ligands? And if they form a simple coordinate bond, then ...
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57 views

What happens to the carbon in carbon steel when it rusts?

Carbon steel is iron containing some carbon in various forms of iron carbide. When it rusts (oxidises), the iron becomes part of all kinds of crystalline and amorphous iron oxides and hydroxides, ...
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Amphoterism and the Metal and Non-Metal Oxides/Hydroxides. Why does amphoterism occur in these? [closed]

I am having trouble understanding why Beryllium Oxide and Aluminum Oxide are amphoteric. Also, while they are not oxides, Aluminum and Beryllium Chloride as well. Most of the things I have been ...
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Why is there visible liquid (possibly water) on matches when they're burning?

I was just burning a normal standard match and I observed visible liquid running down the wooden shaft as the fire burns and consumes it, what could explain such phenomenon ? could it be that the wood ...
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2answers
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What is the physical meaning of fractional oxidation numbers of elements in compound

Many times I encounter oxidation numbers like -1 in the peroxide for oxygen, -1/2 in superoxide, and in some other compounds some elements have 8/3 or such like that...what is the physical meaning of ...
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0answers
38 views

Oxidising nature of hydrogen peroxide [closed]

It is said that $\ce {H2O2}$ behaves like a reducing agent in an external oxidizing environment but along with $\ce {H2SO4}$ a strong oxidizing agent it oxidizes $\ce {FeSO4}$ to $\ce {Fe2(SO4)3}$ in ...
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1answer
32 views

Are there processes of electric discharge to oxide As(III) into As(V)? [closed]

I want to know if there were any known experiment of electric discharge to oxyde the ion arsenic(III) into the ion arsenic(V).
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Nitrate reaction with iron minerals

I am trying to find literature or an answer to what happens to nitrate as it comes in contact with iron oxides. Does the nitrate get reduced to ammonium in all cases of iron(II/III) oxides? What is ...
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92 views

Reference for electronegativities of different metal oxidation states

A long time ago I was researching the effect of the self regulatory response in Fe and Co. I found that my results made sense based on the idea of the electronegativity of the ions considered. I found ...
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2answers
105 views

Unusual oxidation numbers for alkaline earth metals?

Are there compound of alkaline earth elements showing unusual oxidation numbers? For the sake of the question, every oxidation number different from +2 counts as unusual, most exciting would be ...
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1answer
83 views

Are there known compounds of caesium with oxidation number >1?

Given that the left neighbor of caesium, xenon, does have fluorides and oxides, it is not inconceivable that caesium can have oxides or fluorides with an oxidation number higher than 1. Are such ...
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51 views

How to find oxidation state of Co and Cr in [Co(NH₃)₄(NO₂)₂][Cr(NH₃)₃(NO₂)₃]?

Which of the following options represents the oxidation state of $\ce{Co}$ and $\ce{Cr}$ in the given complex? $$\ce{[Co(NH3)4(NO2)2][Cr(NH3)3(NO2)3]}$$ (A) $2, 3$ (B) $3, 2$ (C) $3, 3$ ...
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215 views

Finding the n-factor of C₂O₄²⁻

In the reaction $\ce{C2O4^2- → CO2}$ the $n$-factor of $\ce{C2O4^2-}$ is: So I think the answer to this question is $2$ because in $\ce{C2O4^2-}$ the oxidation number of carbon is $+3$ and in $\ce{...
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91 views

Negative oxidation state

Why doesn’t aluminum have negative oxidation states? In almost all compounds of aluminum which I know of has positive oxidation state. It has valence EC [Ne] 3s2 3p1 , my teacher told it usually ...
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1answer
59 views

Why oxidation state decreases

oxides of group 1 elements are Li2O , Na2O2 , KO2 , RbO2 Oxygen’s oxidation state in each compound is -2 , -1 , -1/2 ,-1/2 respectively I.e oxide-> peroxide-> superoxide my question The oxidation ...
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Why do heavier d block elements are more stable in higher oxidation states than lighter d block elements? [duplicate]

I read that it is because it is easier to ionise the elements as the electrons involved are those of d orbitals which have same degeneracy. First of all, i found it very vague. Secondly, what about ...
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Reactivity of Ni Vs. Pd - available oxidation states

I'm hoping someone can help me tighten up my understanding of the origins of the differences between Ni and Pd catalysis. I understand that Ni has higher charge density and this is the reason for it'...
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28 views

Can an element have variable oxidation states in a compound?

Take propanoic acid for example. If I assign oxidation states to the 3 carbons in it using the idea that the more electronegative element gets all the electrons in the bonds it makes, the 3 carbons ...
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1answer
602 views

How to determine the greatest d orbital splitting?

This question comes specifically from an IB Chemistry HL Paper 1 in May 2018 TZ1, namely question 8. Which complex has the greatest d orbital splitting? It gives 4 Complexes $\ce{[Fe(H_2O)_6]^{2+}}$,...
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2answers
790 views

Why is phosphorus (v) oxides molecular formula P4O10 and not P2O5 [duplicate]

I understand that the name derives from the empirical formula; however, I do not understand why it does not exist as $\ce{P2O5}$. Is there a compound that exists with this as its molecular formula?
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139 views

Unusual oxidation states of alkali metals

When going through list of oxidation states on Wikipedia I encounterd there that sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium exhibit oxidation states of -1, but not lithium, even though its ...
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1answer
653 views

Why BiCl5 isn't stable?

I read this in a textbook: $\ce{Bi(V)}$ is very unstable and is a good oxidizing agent. Why does it happen that way? Is it because in $\pu{+5}$ oxidation state $\ce{Bi}$ pulls in more electrons ...
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407 views

What is the oxidation state of bromine in BrO3?

I came across this compound $\ce{BrO3}$ in my textbook, and was trying to find the oxidation state of bromine. This is how I proceeded: Since this is not a superoxide or a peroxide, or any other ...
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83 views

Is the reaction involving a proton transfer a redox reaction?

$$ \begin{align} \ce{H2S (aq) + NH3 (aq) &→ NH4+ (aq) + HS- (aq)}\tag{1}\\ \ce{Pb(s) + 2 FeCl3 (aq) &→ 2FeCl2 (aq) + PbCl2 (aq)}\tag{2} \end{align} $$ Which of the following statements ...
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396 views

Oxidation states of boron

I have just been looking at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oxidation_states_of_the_elements and found that boron has a -5 oxidation state. I would like to know which boron compounds form ...
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41 views

Identifying if reaction is reduction or oxidation. Is there an error in this question?

I am looking at this reaction: I am trying to determine if it is reduction or oxidation. In the initial molecule I calculate the overall oxidation numbers as: ...
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1answer
124 views

Can superoxide ion act as a ligand in a similar fashion as peroxide?

There is a question in my chemistry book: Find oxidation state of platinum ion in the complex $\ce{[Pt(O2)(en)2Br]+}$. My books says that there is peroxide, but I want to ask why it is peroxide? ...
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1answer
98 views

Pale blue species forming during electrolysis of NaHCO3

I have a solution of 3500 ml $\ce{H2O}$ + 454 g $\ce{NaHCO3}$ in electrolysis at a potential of 12.5V using a lead anode and copper cathode. The surface areas aren't measured but they are enormous. I ...
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47 views

Comparing the number of oxidation states of Vanadium and Arsenic

USNCO 2004 Question 45 states: Which element exhibits the greatest number of oxidation states in its compounds? (A) Ca (B) V (C) Cu (D) As I ruled out Ca, as I know it only exists as +2. I ...
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Oxidation state of Mn in MnO₄⁻

I have tried to understand what the oxidation state for Mn in $\ce{MnO4^-}$ is. So far i have understood that O have the oxidation state of -2 so because there is 4 O the number turns to -8. What ...
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674 views

Which is more reactive, chlorine radical or chloride ion?

Ions are very reactive for obvious reasons (i.e. Coulomb force); $\ce{Cl-}$ ions will be very quick to form an ionic bond with positive ions (unless inhibited, e.g. through being in a solution; let's ...
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139 views

Oxidation state of N in NO from resonance

I know from a textbook that nitrogen has an oxidation state of +II in NO, and this is easily verified if O is assigned -II. However, if one looks at the resonance structure and assigns covalent ...
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1answer
57 views

My confusion regarding Hydrogen peroxide

In Hydrogen peroxide, the oxidation number of oxygen is "-1" instead of "-2". But it seems to me that, the oxygen atoms have '-2' as their oxidation number as each oxygen atom here is connected to a ...
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1answer
1k views

Oxidation No. of Fe and NO in Nitroprusside ion [duplicate]

For the complex $\ce{[Fe(CN)5NO]^{2-}}$ wikipedia cites that the oxidation no. of Fe is +2 and that of NO is +1. CN being -1 the net charge thus becomes -2. However at certain places I read that NO is ...
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2answers
58 views

Materials used in cooktop heating element, and reason for black appearance

I have been interested in the structure of heating elements/coils used in cooktops. I am referring to something such as in the following picture: I have a cooktop at home with such elements, and at ...
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211 views

Stability of 3d metal fluorides and iodides in different oxidation states

I read that the fluorides of 3d metals in lower oxidation states, e.g. $\ce{VF2}$, $\ce{TiF2}$, and $\ce{CuF}$ are thermodynamically unstable. For example, $\ce{CuF}$ disproportionates to $\ce{Cu + ...