Questions tagged [pharmacology]

The study of drugs/medicines on living organisms. The study of drug action.

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Can glycerol slow down the kinetics of an inhibitor going to a binding pocket of a target enzyme?

I am currently doing enzymatic inhibition assays and in my current setup I observe that a commercial inhibitor is showing inhibition as expected. Still, the inhibition is not as strong as the ...
raptorlane's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
42 views

Stability of n-Dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside in buffer solutions for assay experiments

I have a buffer system which contains multiple salts and in addition DTT and n-Dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside. I understand that DTT is hydrolysing quite fast and this component must be used always fresh ...
raptorlane's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
65 views

What can I do if a peptide won't go in solution in a biological assay?

I have working on the realisation of on assay, that is intended to examine the activity of a protein. The assay works in a way, in which the product of the target enzyme is transfered by a support ...
raptorlane's user avatar
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13 views

Identifying Key Chemical Series, Pharmacophores, and Scaffolds in a Large SDF Dataset

fellow computational chemists! I have encountered a challenge that I'd like to discuss and seek advice on. Suppose I have a substantial dataset in SDF format containing thousands of molecules. My goal ...
Poccia's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
342 views

Do we know how Tylenol works? [closed]

I saw this xkcd comic and one of the unsolved entries was "How does Tylenol work?". So I googled and found a lot of explanations for what acetaminophen does. A bunch of articles says it ...
DeepDeadpool's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
98 views

Is there a formal definition of “identical” molecules?

I was reading about atropisomers and their impacts on drug design, and I started wondering whether we have a formal definition for identical molecules. Atropisomers are not the same molecules because ...
Akash's user avatar
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What are the compounds that this article refers to?

The linked article studies the effects of a set of organophosphorus compounds on the bioelectrical activity in the digestive system. The OP compounds studied are referred to in the abstract as IMFF, ...
user73910's user avatar
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-4 votes
1 answer
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How is it possible for Enzymes to get absorbed undigested [closed]

We as medical practitioners frequently prescribe enzymatic preparations like Trypsin-Chymotrypsin, which actually are proteins. Often I wonder how come a protein gets absorbed undigested, through our ...
Jagbir Singh Kanet's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
513 views

Ritalin/Concerta/Methylphenidate is an amphetamine?

FIDE (the governing body of international chess competition) says here: The most relevant banned substances for chess are: • Amphetamines – e.g. Adderall, Ritalin (...) Image: I think either ...
BCLC's user avatar
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51 views

Translating from milligrams in the pill to Ki at the receptor

Many places (e.g. Wikipedia) report the action of a drug on the various receptors, transporters, ion channels, and the like in terms of the Ki(nM). (This is for drugs that act primarily through such ...
andrewH's user avatar
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3 votes
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How stable is Remdesivir when vial vacuum is broken and/or it is reconstituted with sterile water?

I was recently looking at how long can Remdesivir be stored in its different forms. I came up across several articles provided by the FDA and Gilead Sciences and others. What caught my eye was the ...
ATheCoder's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
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Carbon 11 radiolabeled inhaled Beta-2 agonist or corticosteroids, is it possible?

Background Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive imaging modality that can provide in vivo quantitative information of biological processes at a biochemical level. PET relies upon ...
Mick Friel's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
46 views

API formulations - are excipients required

I have the following API's Itraconazole, Ivermectin, Fenofibrate, Pyrvinium Pamoate,  Sulfasalazine, Artesunate,  All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Doxycycline,  Atovaquone,  Extremestane, Syrosingopine and ...
Francis.C's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
78 views

Why are nanoliposome encapsulated antibiotics still so unavailable despite being so effective?

I wasnt sure how the phrase the headline question really nor if this is the right place to ask it, but i'm primarily interested in the chemical synthesis aspect and the experience of chemists ...
Furious Gamer's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
1k views

Chemical difference between dexedrine and methamphetamine [closed]

I am a newbie at chemistry and wondering what the key difference between dexedrine and methamphetamine HCL is. I know that methamphetamine has an extra methyl group compared to Adderall. But what ...
Chemguy1122's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
2k views

Is 1% m/m the same as 1% w/w?

Hydrocortisone cream seems to be sold as 1% w/w, but my cream is 1% m/m, which is confusing. Are they the same units or the same concentrations?
user103727's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
87 views

How are the toxic components in a mixture identified?

I was doing research on buckwheat sprouts (as to whether I should include them in my diet) and I came across a website that said eating too much can cause fagopyrism, which is caused by compounds ...
Dan 's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Understanding Scatchard Plots

Im having trouble understanding Scatchard plots. Y Axis = Bound/Free Ligand X Axis = Bound Ligand The graph has a negative slope. Why when there is almost no Bound (Y axis = 0) do we get a high ...
Kevin Lee's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the meaning of the slope in a graded dose-response curve?

A graded dose-response relationship is shown below with the drug concentration on the $\log$ scale on the $x$ axis and the response on the $y$ axis : According to this website: Slope: a useful ...
Positron12's user avatar
30 votes
1 answer
4k views

Why is heroin a more potent drug than morphine, despite having a similar structure?

The structures of heroin and morphine are quite similar, with heroin being formed by acetylation of morphine: Why is heroin so much more potent than morphine, when their structures are so similar? ...
Aniruddha Deb's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
362 views

Meaning of "MS1 and MS2 resolution" and "MS1 and MS2: Unit" in a tandem mass-spectrometry parameter list

I'm translating a Certificate of Suitability that very briefly describes procedures used to measure several impurities in a drug substance. There is a short description of the parameters of a Gas ...
CowperKettle's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Hydrolysis of phosphoryl-oximes

When acetylcholinesterase that has been inhibited by an organophosphorus compound is reactivated by an oxime, a phosphoryl-oxime is formed, which is then somehow hydrolyzed in the blood. One study ...
user73910's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Difference between docking and scoring?

I'm taking an undergraduate level class on computer based drug design. The class is more for biology students than people with a strong understanding in physics and computer science. With that said,...
CodeDependency's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
90 views

How does gefitinib affect the EGFR(ecptor) and why is there relapse

Gefitinib has been shown to be an effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor in a fraction (~$10$%) of non-small cell lung cancer patients. These patients are characterized as having a mutation (usually a ...
user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
79 views

Do any pharmaceuticals increase in potency or toxicity over time?

Pursuing a question raised in these comments: Are there any known pharmaceuticals that increase in potency or toxicity during storage, or over periods of months to years? If not, what if we broaden ...
feetwet's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Estimating protein binding and disassociation

I don't have a background in the area of drugs or pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics but I am trying to understand about protein binding. I was going through this paper. If $C_b$ is the ...
sam_rox's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
305 views

Has anyone encountered the use of Omega to represent equilibrium?

One of my lecturers last year (a pharmacologist by training) used the symbol $\Omega ^m$ as a shorthand for equilibrium. He implied it was common practice but I've never come across it elsewhere. I ...
atbm's user avatar
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0 answers
34 views

Racemic mixture vs enantiomers in drugs [duplicate]

a racemic mixture has 50-50% of the 2 different enantiomers. There are racemate drugs out there in the world. The misunderstanding I have is that usually 1 out of the 2 enantiomers molecules have a ...
user307640's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
41 views

Cyanogenic and Fluorine Compounds in Pharmaceutical Science

I was wonder what it was specifically that make things such as Lexapro safe when it came to its Fluoride and nitrile bonds. Why doesn't Lexapro break down into cyanide? Is it just minimal because the ...
Joshua's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
975 views

Does Amoxicillin (as trihydrate) degrade in stomach acid? [closed]

I crushed my antibiotics (amoxicillin + potassium Clavulanate). Does it deform in the stomach acid and therefore become useless? Or does the acid have no effect and the amoxicillin goes directly into ...
user307640's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
25 views

Chemical interaction between Pterostilbene and Nicotinamide Riboside

Some supplement companies are putting a combinations of nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene into the same capsule. Considering the stomach acid, water, body temperature, etc. I am wondering if ...
Retardi Grade's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
79 views

What is the maximum amount of medicine that could accumulate in the body if the compound has a half-life of 24 hours? [closed]

If a patient is prescribed 25 mg per day of a compound that has a half-life of roughly 24 hours, what is the maximum accumulated amount of the medicine that would build in the patients body?
doremi's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
39 views

Unknown possibly handmade glassware- description in information below

Okay, Another random item from the cupboard (unknown users or discipline of life sciences unknown) could be anything up to 40 years old.... This appears to be a 2 neck quickfit adapter (B19 and B14) ...
hreeve1's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
48 views

Could there be a class of drugs beyond, similar to barbiturates and benzodiazepines? [closed]

I'm talking about group of drugs similar to them but different though.Is there anything beyond benzodiazepines?
michael smith's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
180 views

Does an airborne chemical stimulant exist?

I recently read the creepypasta entitled "The Russian Sleep Experiment". In this story they lock five test subjects in a room with the intention of keeping them awake for 30 days by releasing a ...
user1973385's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
64 views

Trichloroacetyl carbamate cleavage to unsubstituted carbamate

I studied that when alcohol is treated with isocyanate and then undergone hydrolysis (or methanolosis), carbamate is formed. But when we use carbamate as trichloroacetyl isocyanate, why hydrolysis ...
Amir's user avatar
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15 votes
2 answers
3k views

Why do most drugs (eg: oxycodone) have seemingly arbitrary names?

How do some medicines derive their names? For instance, is the name oxycodone somewhat arbitrary? I am not well-versed in Chemistry (1st semester student) but does the prefix oxy- imply some ...
user54747's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
518 views

How does Rosuvastatin 5 S-lactone form in human body?

I've searched lots of free resources online but cannot find the answer. the top compound is Rosuvastatin. Some websites say it is metabolized by the enzyme CYP2C9, but I can't figure out how a ...
ChemicalFool's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
275 views

Could muscarine be an antidote to atropine poisoning?

According to Wikipedia, "Muscarine poisoning is characterized by miosis, blurred vision, increased salivation, excessive sweating, lacrimation, bronchial secretions, bronchoconstriction, ...
JSCoder says Reinstate Monica's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

calculate the number of shots of Captain Morgan’s rum

I am facing a challenge, and this is my first question in this stack exchange. I have worked out the following problem but the answer I got (number of shots) is ridiculous. Could any of the chemist ...
Rene Duchamp's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
87 views

Is there a drug that can encapsulate benzene in the liver? [closed]

I'm doing a project on the prevention of leukemia and upon researching on the metabolism of benzene in the liver (since high levels of benzene can lead to leukemia), I thought of a question that was ...
Dewan Protiva's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
4k views

Which poison was used in the failed attempt to assassinate Khaled Mashal of Hamas?

This question is both historical and chemistry-related, but I'm posting it here because I am more interested in the chemical part: In 1997, Israel tried to assassinate Khaled Mashal, a high-rank ...
Don_S's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
1k views

BCS class of nifedipine

So I had an exam today in which one of the questions was in what class (I-IV) of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) the drug nifedipine falls in. Class I drugs are considered highly ...
user21398's user avatar
  • 463
5 votes
1 answer
71 views

What method is used to discover oxidation state of drug binding cysteine residue?

I was reading this article and found this sentence: KC group found that some cancer cells became resistant to Boehringer Ingelheim’s covalent TKI afatinib (Giotrif) due to the oxidation of its ...
mpribis's user avatar
  • 199
11 votes
2 answers
1k views

Could the difference between absorption time of Diclofenac Sodium and Diclofenac Potassium be related to the cation?

Diclofenac is a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) that comes in a variety of formulations. Two of the most common forms are diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium (the links ...
Don_S's user avatar
  • 1,410
-3 votes
1 answer
209 views

How is the selectivity of a drug ensured? [closed]

How is a drug created that would target a particular site? I always wonder when I take a pill for headache, how the pill knows that its my head and not my knee. Or is it that it interacts with all ...
Prakhar's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is there any difference between Meprobamate and Equanil?

My textbook mentions Meprobamate and Equanil separately, under Anxiolytic drugs and even provides two (not-so) different structures to back their claim. However, Wikipedia would beg to differ: ...
paracetamol's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
250 views

Is there a difference between anti-anxiety and anti-depression drugs? [closed]

[PREFACE- I've already asked this on Health.SE, but I've drawn a blank there. The place is practically deserted. Also, this is NOT a personal medical question; I'm simply trying to understand the ...
paracetamol's user avatar
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15 votes
3 answers
18k views

What does it mean for meth or any other compound to be 'pure'?

In Breaking Bad, Walter White can cook $99.1\%$ pure meth. In general what does it mean for a substance to be pure? In this case, what exactly does it mean for meth to be pure? Does higher purity mean ...
BCLC's user avatar
  • 291
11 votes
0 answers
91 views

Is there a structured data source containing information on the World Health Organisation's Stability Testing Policies?

Hoping to automate some product testing guidance software, I've been attempting to find a (hopefully live, up-to-date) Database, Web-service, or other structured data source containing the ...
user32052's user avatar
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