Questions tagged [pharmacology]

The study of drugs/medicines on living organisms. The study of drug action.

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17 views

stability of cabergoline /dostinex [closed]

How stable is the following molecule, cabergoline? I'm wondering about the potency of expired medication (Dostinex) in which it is the active ingredient.
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Stability of cabergoline [closed]

[![cabergoline ][1]][1] How stable is this molecule, the medication cabergoline? Wondering how safe it is past expiration.
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How much the computation chemistry can predict the stability and properties of the (metallo-)organic molecules? [closed]

I have this vision for the pandemia preparedness platform (aka CERN/ITERA/Mars mission for preparedness) https://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/91025/can-we-prepare-for-pandemics-by-predicting-...
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Difference between docking and scoring?

I'm taking an undergraduate level class on computer based drug design. The class is more for biology students than people with a strong understanding in physics and computer science. With that said,...
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How does gefitinib affect the EGFR(ecptor) and why is there relapse

Gefitinib has been shown to be an effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor in a fraction (~$10$%) of non-small cell lung cancer patients. These patients are characterized as having a mutation (usually a ...
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Do any pharmaceuticals increase in potency or toxicity over time?

Pursuing a question raised in these comments: Are there any known pharmaceuticals that increase in potency or toxicity during storage, or over periods of months to years? If not, what if we broaden ...
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Estimating protein binding and disassociation

I don't have a background in the area of drugs or pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics but I am trying to understand about protein binding. I was going through this paper. If $C_b$ is the ...
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Has anyone encountered the use of Omega to represent equilibrium?

One of my lecturers last year (a pharmacologist by training) used the symbol $\Omega ^m$ as a shorthand for equilibrium. He implied it was common practice but I've never come across it elsewhere. I ...
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Racemic mixture vs enantiomers in drugs [duplicate]

a racemic mixture has 50-50% of the 2 different enantiomers. There are racemate drugs out there in the world. The misunderstanding I have is that usually 1 out of the 2 enantiomers molecules have a ...
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Cyanogenic and Fluorine Compounds in Pharmaceutical Science

I was wonder what it was specifically that make things such as Lexapro safe when it came to its Fluoride and nitrile bonds. Why doesn't Lexapro break down into cyanide? Is it just minimal because the ...
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Does Amoxicillin (as trihydrate) degrade in stomach acid? [closed]

I crushed my antibiotics (amoxicillin + potassium Clavulanate). Does it deform in the stomach acid and therefore become useless? Or does the acid have no effect and the amoxicillin goes directly into ...
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Chemical interaction between Pterostilbene and Nicotinamide Riboside

Some supplement companies are putting a combinations of nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene into the same capsule. Considering the stomach acid, water, body temperature, etc. I am wondering if ...
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How to determine if ChEMBL compound is an `agonist` or `antagonist` in assay?

In the ChEMBL database, there is an assays table that contains a standard_type column. In our case, we care only about ...
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What is the maximum amount of medicine that could accumulate in the body if the compound has a half-life of 24 hours? [closed]

If a patient is prescribed 25mg per day of a compound that has a half-life of roughly 24 hours, what is the maximum accumulated amount of the medicine that would build in the patients body?
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Unknown possibly handmade glassware- description in information below

Okay, Another random item from the cupboard (unknown users or discipline of life sciences unknown) could be anything up to 40 years old.... This appears to be a 2 neck quickfit adapter (B19 and B14) ...
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Could there be a class of drugs beyond, similar to barbiturates and benzodiazepines? [closed]

I'm talking about group of drugs similar to them but different though.Is there anything beyond benzodiazepines?
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Does an airborne chemical stimulant exist?

I recently read the creepypasta entitled "The Russian Sleep Experiment". In this story they lock five test subjects in a room with the intention of keeping them awake for 30 days by releasing a ...
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Trichloroacetyl carbamate cleavage to unsubstituted carbamate

I studied that when alcohol is treated with isocyanate and then undergone hydrolysis (or methanolosis), carbamate is formed. But when we use carbamate as trichloroacetyl isocyanate, why hydrolysis ...
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Why do most drugs (eg: oxycodone) have seemingly arbitrary names?

How do some medicines derive their names? For instance, is the name oxycodone somewhat arbitrary? I am not well-versed in Chemistry (1st semester student) but does the prefix oxy- imply some ...
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How does Rosuvastatin 5 S-lactone form in human body?

I've searched lots of free resources online but cannot find the answer. the top compound is Rosuvastatin. Some websites say it is metabolized by the enzyme CYP2C9, but I can't figure out how a ...
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Could muscarine be an antidote to atropine poisoning?

According to Wikipedia, "Muscarine poisoning is characterized by miosis, blurred vision, increased salivation, excessive sweating, lacrimation, bronchial secretions, bronchoconstriction, ...
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1answer
595 views

calculate the number of shots of Captain Morgan’s rum

I am facing a challenge, and this is my first question in this stack exchange. I have worked out the following problem but the answer I got (number of shots) is ridiculous. Could any of the chemist ...
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76 views

Is there a drug that can encapsulate benzene in the liver? [closed]

I'm doing a project on the prevention of leukemia and upon researching on the metabolism of benzene in the liver (since high levels of benzene can lead to leukemia), I thought of a question that was ...
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Which poison was used in the failed attempt to assassinate Khaled Mashal of Hamas?

This question is both historical and chemistry-related, but I'm posting it here because I am more interested in the chemical part: In 1997, Israel tried to assassinate Khaled Mashal, a high-rank ...
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BCS class of nifedipine

So I had an exam today in which one of the questions was in what class (I-IV) of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) the drug nifedipine falls in. Class I drugs are considered highly ...
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What method is used to discover oxidation state of drug binding cysteine residue?

I was reading this article and found this sentence: KC group found that some cancer cells became resistant to Boehringer Ingelheim’s covalent TKI afatinib (Giotrif) due to the oxidation of its ...
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Could the difference between absorption time of Diclofenac Sodium and Diclofenac Potassium be related to the cation?

Diclofenac is a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) that comes in a variety of formulations. Two of the most common forms are diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium (the links ...
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How is the selectivity of a drug ensured? [closed]

How is a drug created that would target a particular site? I always wonder when I take a pill for headache, how the pill knows that its my head and not my knee. Or is it that it interacts with all ...
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Is there any difference between Meprobamate and Equanil?

My textbook mentions Meprobamate and Equanil separately, under Anxiolytic drugs and even provides two (not-so) different structures to back their claim. However, Wikipedia would beg to differ: ...
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156 views

Is there a difference between anti-anxiety and anti-depression drugs? [closed]

[PREFACE- I've already asked this on Health.SE, but I've drawn a blank there. The place is practically deserted. Also, this is NOT a personal medical question; I'm simply trying to understand the ...
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Is there a structured data source containing information on the World Health Organisation's Stability Testing Policies?

Hoping to automate some product testing guidance software, I've been attempting to find a (hopefully live, up-to-date) Database, Web-service, or other structured data source containing the ...
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209 views

Why does clearance increase after phenytoin overdose?

I am finding it hard to envision how an overdose of phenytoin ultimately leads to an increase of the clearance of phenytoin after the enzymes that metabolize phenytoin stop getting saturated. I know ...
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Absorption of Diazepam/Valium

Why diazepam absorbs quickly when taken with metoclopramide? Does it because diazepam is absorbed from intestine like acetaminophen? If it does, why presence of food increases the absorption of ...
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231 views

Why is the effect of competitive antagonist less than the effect of non-competetive antagonists?

Drugs can be provided as a competive or non-competitive form of agonists. But the effect of non-competitive antagonists is much more than the other, so what is the cause of that? And are there some ...
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How can I tell which parts of this example drug are necessary parts of its pharmacophore?

$\hspace{10mm}$ $\hspace{10mm}$(Click image for larger version) This picture identifies a generic drug-enzyme complex taken from an exam script. There is no name given. One part of the exam question ...
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What is the industrial yield of paracetamol?

Anyone know how I can find out the typical yield of paracetamol (acetaminophen) from the acetylation of 4-aminophenol? Please provide the source if you happen to know!
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1answer
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What is the use/function of lithium chloride as an excipient in sofradex eardrops?

Certain drugs have lithium chloride as an excipient, eg. Caprilate, NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Dilutionen N Nr 97), NeyDop N (Revitorgan-Lingual Nr 97), Nisita. An excipient is not supposed to have a ...
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214 views

Does CDCl3 also Knock People Out?

I know that chloroform can be used to make people unconscious, but would that also work with deuterated chloroform, $\ce{CDCl3}$? My instinct is "yes", but I'm not sure I'm willing to try this ...
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902 views

Regarding the mechanism for biological activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine

Graham Patrick explains the mechanism for the activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine in his book Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry as follows: Some amines such as tyramine , amphetamine ...
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Effect of enatiomers in pharmaceuticals [closed]

Often (or always?) one enantiomer of a certain drug will be effective and the other ineffective or harmful. The famous example is thalidomide, where one enantiomer caused mutilation of the unborn ...
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degradation of sertraline

The picture above is a drug called Setraline. Suggest a likely mode of degradation of sertraline hydrochloride alone in aqueous solution, giving likely structures of the degradation products. From my ...
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Are ethyl iodophenylundecylate and Ethyl-10-(Iodophenylundecanoate) the same compound?

I have no understanding of chemistry, so these to chemical formulas mean nothing to me. What I am trying to ascertain is are these compounds the same? If not, what differences are there especially if ...
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Why formulate drugs as HCl salts when HCl is in stomach acid?

I know there are issues of formulation and industrial processing that make it advantageous to produce many amine containing drugs as their salts rather than as freebases. And if giving the drug ...
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487 views

How does sugammadex (a modified cyclodextrin) draw rocuronium into its lipophilic cavity?

Sugammadex is a modified cyclodextrin: 8 member sugar ring with carboxyl thioether extensions. Rocuronium is an aminosteroid, 4 steroid rings and one protonated amine group. Sugammadex binds ...
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749 views

Why does lactulose turn dark?

Why does the standard 10gm/15ml lactulose solution turn dark when exposed to heat above 30 degrees Celsius? This is probably a simple question. It is funny that the warnings/important information on ...
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487 views

How to Experimentally Quantify the Response of a Receptor to a Ligand?

In medicinal chemistry, there are multiple reasons why one would want to experimentally determine the effect of a particular molecule on a receptor e.g. measuring how 'strongly' that molecule brings ...
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How do the fields of medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacy, and pharmacology differ?

I would like to know what the difference between medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacy and pharmacology. All of them seem to involve the development of drugs, so I am confusd as to ...
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Does potassium aluminum sulfate have any effect on sexual performance/sperm counts or anything relating to the functionality of the sexual organs?

I recently read about potassium aluminum sulfate that it has astringent property and has the ability to constrict body tissues and restrict blood flow. Since, for penis, the erection happens with the ...
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name of a pharmaceutical drug used in dentistry that has Ionic bonding? and how this bounding is made?

Hello I am looking for this information and I did not find anything, the closest thing I have found it is Fluorocarbon, but I think it is wrong, does anybody know?. Help really appreciated I am still ...
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Does isotretinoin affects contraception hormonal pills - Ethinylestradiolum, Drospirenonum

Does isotretinoin affects contraception hormonal pills - Ethinylestradiolum, Drospirenonum? Asking as a pharmacologist not a patient.