Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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24 views

Meaning of “MS1 and MS2 resolution” and “MS1 and MS2: Unit” in a tandem mass-spectrometry parameter list

I'm translating a Certificate of Suitability that very briefly describes procedures used to measure several impurities in a drug substance. There is a short description of the parameters of a Gas ...
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27 views

Where can I find a list (even if only partial) of excipients that cause a medication to be indivisible? [closed]

Certain tablet formulations should not be divided or halved because the tablets are film-coated for low pH resistance (i.e. for safe passage in the stomach) or because the active ingredient is not ...
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51 views

When can you use the direct flame of a Bunsen burner, and when must you boil a beaker of water first?

I'd like to ask when you would do the following: use the direct Bunsen flame to heat a substance; place the substance in a test tube, which is placed in a beaker of water, then boil the water with the ...
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29 views

can you explain the structure of gemtuzumab ozogamicin? where are the linker boundaries?

could someone help me to decipher the structure of this molecule? I am trying to understand the structure of gemtuzumab ozogamicin: The anti-CD33 antibody is acylated with the bifunctional AcBut ...
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36 views

Bioinformatics tools for predicting synthetic reaction for identified drugs?

We are aware of many bioinformatics open source tools like AUTODOCK, Smina for drug discovery through structure based virtual screening. I was wondering if there are validated bioinformatics tools ...
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112 views

Interference of Ca-EDTA with fluoride delivery in mouthwash

The goal of fluoride mouthwash is to deliver $\ce{F-}$ to the surface of the teeth to turn hydroxyapatite in the dental enamel into fluorapatite. Typically sodium fluoride or stannous fluoride are ...
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1answer
28 views

Wouldn't a better term for smoking Crystal meth be condensing or vaporizing?

There isn't actually any chemical reaction taking place. The meth is heated, first it melts, then it vaporizes, but in the process it doesn't mix with other chemicals. It just merely changes state. ...
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332 views

Synthetic route to hydroxychloroquine

This drug hydroxychloroquine has become a new burning topic of discussion as a chemistry enthusiast: I know that in an industrial preparation we need to account fpr a lot of factors like temperature, ...
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2answers
51 views

How to publish a review article on drugs in a reputed journal? [closed]

What are the things needed to publish a review article in a journal starting from scratch ? Is it possible if i am not associated to any institution ? How long does it take and what are all the ...
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22 views

Difference between docking and scoring?

I'm taking an undergraduate level class on computer based drug design. The class is more for biology students than people with a strong understanding in physics and computer science. With that said,...
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1answer
46 views

Drug design methods - docking software, binding affinity [closed]

Lately I've seen videos and some articles explaining drug design. I would also like to specifically cite this guy, who isn't the most credible guy in the planet, but some of the stuff in the video ...
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1answer
72 views

How does gefitinib affect the EGFR(ecptor) and why is there relapse

Gefitinib has been shown to be an effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor in a fraction (~$10$%) of non-small cell lung cancer patients. These patients are characterized as having a mutation (usually a ...
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39 views

Do any pharmaceuticals increase in potency or toxicity over time?

Pursuing a question raised in these comments: Are there any known pharmaceuticals that increase in potency or toxicity during storage, or over periods of months to years? If not, what if we broaden ...
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14 views

Find drugs that have a particular solvent in a database [closed]

Is there a database where I can filter drugs for animal/human use by what ingredients/solvents they have? I'm specifically looking for all the drugs with a specific solvent/chemical compound.
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2answers
155 views

Why are drugs mixed with their sodium salts?

I have come across quite a few drugs that are of the form $\ce{HA + NaA}$, where $\ce{A}$ is your target organic compound. A few examples of this are: Carmicide which is a mixture of Sodium Citrate ...
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1answer
38 views

Estimating protein binding and disassociation

I don't have a background in the area of drugs or pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics but I am trying to understand about protein binding. I was going through this paper. If $C_b$ is the ...
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1answer
73 views

Conversion of barbituric acid to veronal

This is just out of curiosity. I have no intention or authority to do conversions. I am studying chemistry of tranquilizers, in that an important class is of barbiturates, which are also hypnotics. ...
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31 views

Understanding Overage in Tablet coating process

I understand that overage is included in preparation of tablets to account for losses in the delivery lines. But how do I apply them into calculations ? For example, I am trying to find out the amount ...
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23 views

(API) Assay & (API) Content Uniformity on tablets weight in pharmaceutical processes

From what know, Both assay and content uniformity are directly proportional to tablet weight. I want to know what’s the difference in these two different forms of API testing in tablets. I only know ...
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30 views

Racemic mixture vs enantiomers in drugs [duplicate]

a racemic mixture has 50-50% of the 2 different enantiomers. There are racemate drugs out there in the world. The misunderstanding I have is that usually 1 out of the 2 enantiomers molecules have a ...
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21 views

Chemical interaction between Pterostilbene and Nicotinamide Riboside

Some supplement companies are putting a combinations of nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene into the same capsule. Considering the stomach acid, water, body temperature, etc. I am wondering if ...
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22 views

Cleaning of chlorbutyl plungers

This is my first post, so please bear with me. At work I have some chlorobutyl plungers that I need to clean from any residual material that might be left after production. A colleague of mine told ...
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1answer
116 views

Preparation of Effexor

I take venlafaxine (Effexor) as medication, and having wrapped up 2 semesters of Organic Chemistry I thought it might be fun to design a synthesis for it. A picture of venlafaxine: I came up with the ...
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1answer
229 views

Is scopolamine same as scopolamine hydrobromide?

Is scopolamine extracted with methanol or acetone from Datura or Brugmansia scopolamine free base or scopolamine hydrobromide? If you take a look at the Wikipedia page for hyoscine, the Synonyms part ...
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68 views

How many natural products are there in existence? [closed]

Hi I'm doing a project on natural products and I'm wondering if somewhere there is at least an estimated number of how many exist? If this exists somewhere can you please provide a reference. ...
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1answer
335 views

What is the solubility of quinine suphate in 98% ethanol?

I have a result from an experiment that really bothers me, yet I found no sources online that can explain the situation. While quinine is relatively soluble in ethanol because they are both non-...
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0answers
696 views

What is LSD-1, …, LSD-24, LSD-26, …?

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was formerly often referred to as ‘LSD-25’. If it really is a (Albert Hofmann / Sandoz)'s code name (and not a combination of ‘LSD’ and usual LSD (Delysid) dosage ...
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1answer
65 views

How do I get Mass spectrometry graph, history, and Infra-red spectroscopy graph for Secnidazole?

My chemistry teacher wants me to create an academic poster for a recently-discovered biologically important organic molecule with chirality that is relatively small and is also recent. Secnidazole (...
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1answer
1k views

What kind of drugs can be absorbed through skin? [closed]

Some drugs such as nicotine can be administered through skin. I thought the layers of skin are designed to prevent in-flow of any chemical/germs. Not all drugs get absorbed in this fashion. So do ...
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2answers
75 views

Why would diclofenac have a higher skin permeability when formulated as diclofenac epolamine rather than diclofenac sodium?

There is a suggestion on the literature that the formation of ion pairs creates a permeation enhancement. Usually only non-ionised compounds penetrate the skin. Is it possible that the conjugate ...
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1answer
249 views

How do pharmaceutical manufacturers ensure 100% purity in their medications? [closed]

What purification measures are taken to ensure no side products are present in the medication? Because hardly any organic reaction is perfectly efficient, I'm guessing that multiple recrystallizations ...
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1answer
103 views

Modification to improve antibacterial activity

I have difficulties with part b). For C, it's clear to make a bulky dimethoxybenzene group in order to block the C=O group from reacting with b-lactamase. However, in A, how does the structure of ...
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1answer
2k views

What's the difference between povidone K29/32 and povidone K30?

I'm specifically looking at the two as inactive ingredients in the drug lamotrigine. How do the povidone K values differ chemically and/or in the context of lamotrigine? They're obviously designed ...
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0answers
42 views

How to characterise lipophilicity?

I was provided with a drug compound which is filling a hydrophobic pocket. The R group is changed and effects on the potency was measured; $\ce{R = -H, -CH3, -CH2F}$ were tested. As expected, the more ...
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1answer
247 views

Why is there a comparative lack of variety in positive counterions in drugs?

Pharmaceutical salts are important in the process of drug development. Using different chemical species to neutralise the parent drug can produce a diverse series of compounds, and this process is ...
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1answer
725 views

Are there caffeine analogs or substituents, and what are they? [closed]

I have heard of designer chemists that would take well known drugs, change a hydrogen to a methyl group, and then see what the effect would be in people. So my question is, what happens in caffeine ...
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2answers
3k views

Why do most drugs (eg: oxycodone) have seemingly arbitrary names?

How do some medicines derive their names? For instance, is the name oxycodone somewhat arbitrary? I am not well-versed in Chemistry (1st semester student) but does the prefix oxy- imply some ...
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1answer
327 views

How does Rosuvastatin 5 S-lactone form in human body?

I've searched lots of free resources online but cannot find the answer. the top compound is Rosuvastatin. Some websites say it is metabolized by the enzyme CYP2C9, but I can't figure out how a ...
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1answer
59 views

Do serotonin drugs contain serotonin or a precursor to it, e.g. tryptophan?

With serotonin drugs, is it actually serotonin in the drug, or is it tryptophan which converts into serotonin through the biochemical conversion process after the drug is consumed? Serotonin can be ...
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0answers
59 views

How to find all published Pharmacophore Structure of a Drug target?

Other than literature review how do you find the structures of Pharmacophore of a drug target? I am searching Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK) inhibitors and I have reviewed lots of literature but ...
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2answers
928 views

Effect of direct exposure to sunlight on various drugs

Today, we were discussing optical activity in class and our teacher said that some drugs are kept in dark coloured bottles to avoid direct exposure to sunlight. Same is the case with some other drugs ...
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2answers
3k views

Difference between Sildenafil and Sildenafil citrate

The data I found seems to show no difference between Sildenafil and Sildenafil citrate. But if they are the same things, why Pfizer use Sildenafil citrate instead of Sildenafil as their product Viagra?...
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1answer
214 views

Could muscarine be an antidote to atropine poisoning?

According to Wikipedia, "Muscarine poisoning is characterized by miosis, blurred vision, increased salivation, excessive sweating, lacrimation, bronchial secretions, bronchoconstriction, ...
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1answer
182 views

Effect on solubility by dissolution of other substance (no common ion)

In one of our recent classes on mass and momentum transfer, we studied qualitatively how blood drug concentrations vary after consuming a tablet containing that drug. We considered the following: ...
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2answers
695 views

How is molecular orbital theory used in drug research?

I was reading up on MO theory and came across a particular section: Application: Computational Chemistry In Drug Design While the descriptions of bonding described in this chapter involve many ...
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1answer
106 views

What chemicals are in anesthetic drugs [closed]

What chemicals are there in an anesthetic drug and how it reduces the pain of a person? Are the chemicals used in it safely, dangerous or both?
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76 views

Is there a drug that can encapsulate benzene in the liver? [closed]

I'm doing a project on the prevention of leukemia and upon researching on the metabolism of benzene in the liver (since high levels of benzene can lead to leukemia), I thought of a question that was ...
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1answer
2k views

Which poison was used in the failed attempt to assassinate Khaled Mashal of Hamas?

This question is both historical and chemistry-related, but I'm posting it here because I am more interested in the chemical part: In 1997, Israel tried to assassinate Khaled Mashal, a high-rank ...
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0answers
192 views

What is the most likely reaction between minocycline and tramadol in physiological conditions?

Minocyline (left) and Tramadol (right) are two commonly prescribed medications containing typical organic functional groups. What would an expert chemist surmise as the first or most-likely reaction ...
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1answer
557 views

What concentration of small molecule binding is considered weak or strong?

In the chemistry literature, I often see a stated concentration (nanomolar, micromolar, millimolar) followed by qualitative judgment on the potency of the small molecule for protein inhibition. What ...