Questions tagged [drugs]

Drugs or pharmaceuticals are substances or combinations used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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How many natural products are there in existence? [closed]

Hi I'm doing a project on natural products and I'm wondering if somewhere there is at least an estimated number of how many exist? If this exists somewhere can you please provide a reference. ...
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1answer
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What is the solubility of quinine suphate in 98% ethanol?

I have a result from an experiment that really bothers me, yet I found no sources online that can explain the situation. While quinine is relatively soluble in ethanol because they are both non-...
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What is LSD-1, …, LSD-24, LSD-26, …?

LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was formerly often referred to as ‘LSD-25’. If it really is a (Albert Hofmann / Sandoz)'s code name (and not a combination of ‘LSD’ and usual LSD (Delysid) dosage ...
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1answer
55 views

How do I get Mass spectrometry graph, history, and Infra-red spectroscopy graph for Secnidazole?

My chemistry teacher wants me to create an academic poster for a recently-discovered biologically important organic molecule with chirality that is relatively small and is also recent. Secnidazole (...
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1answer
372 views

What kind of drugs can be absorbed through skin? [closed]

Some drugs such as nicotine can be administered through skin. I thought the layers of skin are designed to prevent in-flow of any chemical/germs. Not all drugs get absorbed in this fashion. So do ...
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Why would diclofenac have a higher skin permeability when formulated as diclofenac epolamine rather than diclofenac sodium?

There is a suggestion on the literature that the formation of ion pairs creates a permeation enhancement. Usually only non-ionised compounds penetrate the skin. Is it possible that the conjugate ...
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1answer
61 views

How do pharmaceutical manufacturers ensure 100% purity in their medications? [closed]

What purification measures are taken to ensure no side products are present in the medication? Because hardly any organic reaction is perfectly efficient, I'm guessing that multiple recrystallizations ...
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1answer
97 views

Modification to improve antibacterial activity

I have difficulties with part b). For C, it's clear to make a bulky dimethoxybenzene group in order to block the C=O group from reacting with b-lactamase. However, in A, how does the structure of ...
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1answer
1k views

What's the difference between povidone K29/32 and povidone K30?

I'm specifically looking at the two as inactive ingredients in the drug lamotrigine. How do the povidone K values differ chemically and/or in the context of lamotrigine? They're obviously designed ...
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How to characterise lipophilicity?

I was provided with a drug compound which is filling a hydrophobic pocket. The R group is changed and effects on the potency was measured; $\ce{R = -H, -CH3, -CH2F}$ were tested. As expected, the more ...
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1answer
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Why is there a comparative lack of variety in positive counterions in drugs?

Pharmaceutical salts are important in the process of drug development. Using different chemical species to neutralise the parent drug can produce a diverse series of compounds, and this process is ...
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1answer
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Are there caffeine analogs or substituents, and what are they? [closed]

I have heard of designer chemists that would take well known drugs, change a hydrogen to a methyl group, and then see what the effect would be in people. So my question is, what happens in caffeine ...
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Why do most drugs (eg: oxycodone) have seemingly arbitrary names?

How do some medicines derive their names? For instance, is the name oxycodone somewhat arbitrary? I am not well-versed in Chemistry (1st semester student) but does the prefix oxy- imply some ...
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1answer
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How does Rosuvastatin 5 S-lactone form in human body?

I've searched lots of free resources online but cannot find the answer. the top compound is Rosuvastatin. Some websites say it is metabolized by the enzyme CYP2C9, but I can't figure out how a ...
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1answer
55 views

Do serotonin drugs contain serotonin or a precursor to it, e.g. tryptophan?

With serotonin drugs, is it actually serotonin in the drug, or is it tryptophan which converts into serotonin through the biochemical conversion process after the drug is consumed? Serotonin can be ...
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How to find all published Pharmacophore Structure of a Drug target?

Other than literature review how do you find the structures of Pharmacophore of a drug target? I am searching Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK) inhibitors and I have reviewed lots of literature but ...
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Effect of direct exposure to sunlight on various drugs

Today, we were discussing optical activity in class and our teacher said that some drugs are kept in dark coloured bottles to avoid direct exposure to sunlight. Same is the case with some other drugs ...
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Difference between Sildenafil and Sildenafil citrate

The data I found seems to show no difference between Sildenafil and Sildenafil citrate. But if they are the same things, why Pfizer use Sildenafil citrate instead of Sildenafil as their product Viagra?...
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1answer
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Could muscarine be an antidote to atropine poisoning?

According to Wikipedia, "Muscarine poisoning is characterized by miosis, blurred vision, increased salivation, excessive sweating, lacrimation, bronchial secretions, bronchoconstriction, ...
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1answer
127 views

Effect on solubility by dissolution of other substance (no common ion)

In one of our recent classes on mass and momentum transfer, we studied qualitatively how blood drug concentrations vary after consuming a tablet containing that drug. We considered the following: ...
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2answers
567 views

How is molecular orbital theory used in drug research?

I was reading up on MO theory and came across a particular section: Application: Computational Chemistry In Drug Design While the descriptions of bonding described in this chapter involve many ...
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0answers
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Is there a drug that can encapsulate benzene in the liver? [closed]

I'm doing a project on the prevention of leukemia and upon researching on the metabolism of benzene in the liver (since high levels of benzene can lead to leukemia), I thought of a question that was ...
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1answer
1k views

Which poison was used in the failed attempt to assassinate Khaled Mashal of Hamas?

This question is both historical and chemistry-related, but I'm posting it here because I am more interested in the chemical part: In 1997, Israel tried to assassinate Khaled Mashal, a high-rank ...
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What is the most likely reaction between minocycline and tramadol in physiological conditions?

Minocyline (left) and Tramadol (right) are two commonly prescribed medications containing typical organic functional groups. What would an expert chemist surmise as the first or most-likely reaction ...
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1answer
470 views

What concentration of small molecule binding is considered weak or strong?

In the chemistry literature, I often see a stated concentration (nanomolar, micromolar, millimolar) followed by qualitative judgment on the potency of the small molecule for protein inhibition. What ...
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1answer
496 views

BCS class of nifedipine

So I had an exam today in which one of the questions was in what class (I-IV) of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) the drug nifedipine falls in. Class I drugs are considered highly ...
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1answer
242 views

Theoretical synthesis of dimetinden

I tried to find a way to synthesize Dimetinden (N,N-dimethyl-2-[3-(1-phenylethyl)-1⁠H-inden-2-yl]ethan-1-amine) with an Indensynthesis https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10....
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3answers
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Determine from pKa if acid or base

I'm studying medicine, not chemistry, but I hope you can help me anyway. I just had to solve a question where it is given that the drug Propranolol has a $\text{p}K_{\text{a}}$ of 9.5 and the un-...
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1answer
278 views

Analysis of methylphenidate (Ritalin) HCl extended release tablets

For a project I have to determine the drug concentration release profile of self-made methylphenidate HCl (MHCl) extended release tablets (hydrophilic matrix). We are thus doing a dissolution test as ...
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1answer
92 views

What does penicillin react with? [closed]

Just wondering what penicillin reacts with and if so, can you please write a word equation. I've tried to do some research on it but had no luck. would mean a lot if someone could help me out
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1answer
2k views

What is the chemical equation for penicillin? [closed]

For our chemistry homework, we have to write the chemical equation for Penicillin.
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1answer
485 views

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation?

What is the difference between an assay and an extemporaneous preparation? Can an extemporaneous preparation be labelled as the BP mixture?
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Why are a calico strainer and chloroform used in a British Pharmacopoeia assay of milk of magnesia?

The following is an assay for milk of magnesia in the British Pharmacopoeia (emphasis added): Dissolve the sodium hydroxide in $\pu{150 cm^3}$ of purified water, add the light magnesium oxide, mix ...
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1answer
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Turn Solution to hcl salt [closed]

I have a liquid mixture in a bottle containing different substances dissolved from their salt forms (i.e. lidocaine hydrochloride, anhydrous caffeine). These compounds are dissolved in distilled water....
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2answers
836 views

What is the specific functional group in MDMA that caused addictive effect on user? [closed]

First of all, the reason I'm asking this is because I'd just done an experiment detecting MDMA in a urine sample with GC-MS for my internship program. I'm having difficulties figuring the functional ...
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1answer
305 views

Sample preparation for UV analysis of drug content in capsules/tablets

I want to analyse the drug content of a sample of gelatin capsules filled with active drug (declared dose is known) and excipients such as lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose etc. with UV ...
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1answer
346 views

In the graph provided, which of the substances is the most efficient in acting as an antacid?

If every dot represents the addition of 0.1 g of the respective base. I suppose that the best would be the one that reaches the highest pH, in the shortest time, for example Calcium Carbonate, but if ...
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1answer
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What are aryl chlorides currently used for?

In a recent paper by Gustafson et al. (DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.6b02650) the authors open with the argument that aryl chlorides are both versatile synthetic handles and common functionalities in ...
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Could the difference between absorption time of Diclofenac Sodium and Diclofenac Potassium be related to the cation?

Diclofenac is a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) that comes in a variety of formulations. Two of the most common forms are diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium (the links ...
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1answer
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How is the selectivity of a drug ensured? [closed]

How is a drug created that would target a particular site? I always wonder when I take a pill for headache, how the pill knows that its my head and not my knee. Or is it that it interacts with all ...
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1answer
776 views

Does limonene react with calcium hydroxide or acetic acid?

I can't find the results of too many experiments with Limonene. Which has many uses (e.g. making soap). I'm curious of the results of combining Limonene and Calcium Hydroxide (Lime) in one ...
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1answer
601 views

General Alkaloid Extraction Process

I'm getting into alkaloid extraction from various ethnobotanicals. It is a bit frustrating trying to extract alkaloids from ethnobotanicals without good guides out there, and I wanted to make my own ...
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1answer
260 views

Lipinski's Rule of 5 Oxygen Rules

I would like clarification on the role of oxygen as a hydrogen bond acceptor in Lipinski's Rule of 5 (for drug absorption). I have learned in my medicinal chemistry class that both electron pairs from ...
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1answer
345 views

Is there any difference between Meprobamate and Equanil?

My textbook mentions Meprobamate and Equanil separately, under Anxiolytic drugs and even provides two (not-so) different structures to back their claim. However, Wikipedia would beg to differ: ...
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1answer
144 views

Is there a difference between anti-anxiety and anti-depression drugs? [closed]

[PREFACE- I've already asked this on Health.SE, but I've drawn a blank there. The place is practically deserted. Also, this is NOT a personal medical question; I'm simply trying to understand the ...
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2answers
901 views

Why can curcumin cross the blood-brain barrier, but not congo red?

I've read that both congo red and curcumin are able to inhibit the clumping together of amyloid $\mathrm{β_{42}}$ in the brain, which would otherwise result in Alzheimer's disease. Apparently, congo ...
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1answer
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Degredation of Anusol and Sunscreen

Hopefully this is not TMI. I mistakenly used some expired Anusol recently, and noticed that the product is 12 years expired. One of the listed ingredients is Zinc Oxide, which is also used in ...
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What does it mean for meth or any other compound to be 'pure'?

In Breaking Bad, Walter White can cook $99.1\%$ pure meth. In general what does it mean for a substance to be pure? In this case, what exactly does it mean for meth to be pure? Does higher purity mean ...
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1answer
510 views

Structure of aminoglycosides

Attached is the structure of one aminoglycosides, kanamycin. I understand that the ring binds to 4 position of 2-DOS is numbered with prime (') and sugar that links to 4 or 5 position of 2-DOS is ...
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Is there a structured data source containing information on the World Health Organisation's Stability Testing Policies?

Hoping to automate some product testing guidance software, I've been attempting to find a (hopefully live, up-to-date) Database, Web-service, or other structured data source containing the ...