Questions tagged [toxicity]

Questions on the harmful effects of various substances on the human body, or biological organisms in general.

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13
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4answers
3k views

Is Fluorine more toxic than Chlorine?

Fluorine is more reactive than Chlorine. But does it mean that Fluorine can cause more damage to living tissues? If so, why wasn't Fluorine used in WW1 instead of Chlorine?
0
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4answers
59 views

What toxic gases are emitted during the combustion of potassium ferrocyanide? [closed]

I have read that Hydrogen Cyanide is emitted if Potassium Ferricyanide is combusted, but would this be the same case for Potassium Ferrocyanide? I am preparing to perform some case hardening on steel ...
-2
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0answers
37 views

How safe is a container that was used to store sodium hydroxide for a year? [closed]

I love recycling and found an empty container of sodium hydroxide on the beach. Can I use it for watering my plants and compost heap. I am worried if there are any traces left in it that could kill ...
1
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0answers
70 views

Why are all of the group 16 hydrides/hydrogen chalcogenides except H2O toxic?

I mean ($\ce{H2O}$) is non-toxic and is needed everyday but all of the other group 16 hydrides (hydrogen sulfide ($\ce{H2S}$), hydrogen selenide ($\ce{H2Se}$), hydrogen telluride ($\ce{H2Te}$) and ...
45
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5answers
44k views

Is there any substance that's a 4-4-4 on the NFPA diamond?

A lot of the organometallics are rather... interesting compounds to work with. The most famous (among those who care, anyway) is tert-butyllithium or t-BuLi. It is the textbook example of a pyrophoric ...
3
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0answers
286 views

Cubic zirconia additives and toxicity

What are cubic zirconia (CZ) gemstones usually colored with? According to wikipedia the following dopants are being used: Cerium Chromium Neodymium Erbium Titanium. Chromium is quite colorful and ...
74
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5answers
18k views

How do people know HCN smells like almonds?

I was told by my chemistry teacher that $\ce{HCN}$ smells like almonds. She then went on to tell a story about how some of her students tried to play a prank on her by pouring almond extract down the ...
1
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0answers
37 views

Avoiding chemical reactions with carbonated alcoholic drinks

I'm making a cooling beverage dispenser for carbonated drinks. The keg remains room temperature and the beverage rises through a pipe that's coiled up inside a cooling unit filled with water or ...
3
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2answers
87 views

Biological activity of the isotopes of the same element

I have a question regarding biological activity of different isotopes of the same elements, notably $\ce{^206Pb}$ and $\ce{^208Pb}$. Lead is known to be toxic, such that it can replace calcium from ...
3
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2answers
97 views

What is the mechanism of AChE inhibition by Onchidal?

A naturally-occuring neurotoxin, called Onchidal, produced by a species of sea slug acts as an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. The structure of Onchidal is presented below: How and ...
0
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1answer
49 views

What compound(s) contribute to bleach's smell and are they dangerous?

Just a few hours ago, I had to deal with a mold problem on some untreated wood and was told by a hardware store worker that bleach was an effective way to deal with the problem, following up with some ...
2
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0answers
18 views

Chemical safety information: Where to look to find out how poisonous poisons are?

Could someone point me toward a primer on how to read the toxicity warnings on standard chemical data sheets? Or alternatively, where one should look for more precise information than is contained on ...
5
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1answer
65 views

How are the toxic components in a mixture identified?

I was doing research on buckwheat sprouts (as to whether I should include them in my diet) and I came across a website that said eating too much can cause fagopyrism, which is caused by compounds ...
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0answers
21 views

How do I understand exactly how hazardous a material is based on SDS?

I work with a lab occasionally and get asked often if a chemical is safe to breathe, how hazardous is it if it lands on skin, etc. For the most part, I'll try to go to an SDS and look it up. The ...
2
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0answers
23 views

How do structural differences between neostigmine and TL-599 contribute to differences in toxicity?

Stevens and Beutel studied the activity of several carbamate anticholinesterases. Among other things, they found that the (4-trimethylammonio)phenyl dimethylcarbamate iodide (The para-analog of ...
11
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1answer
446 views

How long burned tobacco/cigarette smoke remain toxic?

It's hard to evaluate Environmental Tobacco Smoke lifecycle, it can certainly react, be absorbed by organisms, or be diluted in rain, and be emitted again from the ground. But in the end, I'm ...
5
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0answers
38 views

Why are S-thiocarbamates less toxic than carbamates?

According to Haley and Rhodes, neostigmine bromide (alternatively known as Prostigmine) has an LD50 in mice of around 0.165 mg/kg by IV injection. Pubchem claims that this is also the LD50 for ...
0
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1answer
30 views

How does lead toxicity from jewelry happen vs. occupational exposure?

It is known that lead levels in jewelry is a problem, especially for children (https://dtsc.ca.gov/toxics-in-products/lead-in-jewelry/). As a parent with jewelry-loving children I am aware that ...
0
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1answer
73 views

Cadmium Selenide, Cadmium Sulfide, Cinnabar and Lead Oxide toxicity

I have a question about the toxicity of the pigments Cadmium Selenide (Cadmium Red), Cadmium Sulfide (Cadmium Yellow), Mercury Sulfide (Cinnabar or Vermillion) and Lead Oxide (Lead White). Not long ...
21
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3answers
4k views

How toxic chemically is plutonium (Pu), neglecting the radioactive damage?

In Rhodes' The Making of the Atomic Bomb, he says that, while Pu is not that radioactive (which is surprising -- maybe he means compared with radium and some other elements), it is very toxic. I would ...
-4
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3answers
71 views

Does aluminium foil, warmed up by sunlight, harm human health? [closed]

I must lightproof and block sunlight in new bedroom. I can't afford blinds or window coverings. I don't use garbage bags, because a plastic bag baking in the sun may emit harmful chemicals (see Home ...
0
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0answers
144 views

Is it OK to dispose of potassium hydrogen phthalate into the sewer system?

I have been using potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) for creating primary standards. I have looked into the Flinn catalog, and the disposal consideration is classified as "organic acids, must be ...
-4
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1answer
38 views

Could there ever be a way to safely handle visible amounts of elements like astatine, francium, or protactinium? [closed]

This is something I'd actually be interested in doing if possible. I've asked about artificial stability here https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/584595/could-there-at-least-theoretically-ever-...
14
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1answer
6k views

Receiving milk for working in harmful environment

I just got a job in a chemical/biological lab (post-Soviet Country). Chemists here receive milk for "harmfulness of the work" (i .e. their work involves working with all kind of substances/reactives). ...
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2answers
63 views

Do hydrogen sulfide and oxygen produce pure sulfur or sulfur dioxide? If both, under which circumstances does each scenario occur? [closed]

If both of the following hydrogen sulfide and oxygen chemical equations can occur, under what circumstances is the harmless pure sulfur and the toxic sulfur dioxide produced? $\ce{2H2S + O2 -> 2H2O ...
0
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1answer
64 views

Is elemental lead as toxic as lead compounds? [duplicate]

On the internet, nobody mentions about lead's oxidation state when talking about lead poisoning. I assume it's Pb(II) and Pb(IV), as chelation therapy is suggested as a treatment. Also, its ...
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2answers
19k views

Is palladium really that poisonous?

In Iron man 2, the protagonist Tony Stark was anxious about his blood toxicity due to palladium core that was keeping him alive was slowly poisoning his blood. It is written here that: The ...
0
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1answer
123 views

Using the right equipment for successful detection of Novichok [closed]

Apparently, Navalny’s biomaterials were flown to Moscow's Nii Sklif lab which didn't find any traces of the poison. But they used an American Agilent Technologies GC-MS [1], while Bundeswehr ...
2
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0answers
184 views

How do we know a nerve agent is tasteless?

According to the BBC, the nerve agent sarin is a tasteless liquid. How do we know that this liquid has no taste, given that anyone to have (not) tasted it in any meaningful quantity presumably died ...
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2answers
2k views

Can ethyl alcohol fumes be suppressed by a household air purifier/filter?

Can ethyl alcohol fumes be suppressed by a household air purifier/filter? In general, how are the fumes suppressed? How is it done? Can somebody direct me to some information regarding this? I've ...
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0answers
33 views

A dataset of drugs or molecules that failed the FDA approval process

I am looking for a dataset of bad drugs, the opposite of FDA approved drugs. There is this database of withdrawn drugs, but these drugs were withdrawn after making it into the market. Is there any ...
5
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2answers
959 views

What chemical properties of ethanol make it usable for drinks as compared to that of methanol? [closed]

Methanol ($\ce{CH3OH}$) and ethanol ($\ce{C2H5OH}$) both are the organic compounds having an alcoholic group. The alcoholic beverages (liquors and spirits) for human consumption (albeit injurious to ...
6
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5answers
14k views

Is tin and tinware toxic?

I tried to find info on tin toxicity but there is not much. Wikipedia here says that it is not very poisonous; but there could be cases. My question is: is it dangerous to say have a coffee boiled ...
33
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2answers
158k views

How do I extract cyanide from apple seeds?

I'm working on a crime story about cyanide poisoning from apple seeds. I just would like to have an idea of what processes and extraction techniques might be involved in getting cyanide from the seeds....
2
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1answer
127 views

Why is methyl parathion less toxic than ethyl parathion?

According to the PubChem pages on ethyl parathion and methyl parathion (pages 11 and 12 of the toxicity section, respectively), methyl parathion is significantly less toxic than ethyl parathion. The ...
3
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1answer
513 views

What is the Chemical Compound that has a NFPA 704 (Fire Diamond) of 2-2-1-ox?

I recently saw this fire diamond configuration of: 2 - Flammability; 2 - Health; 1 - Reactivity; OX - Extra Information I have been attempting to find a database of terms, but after turning up with ...
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0answers
327 views

Will a dangerous amount of lead leach into soil from a galvanised corrugated steel raised bed? [closed]

I have searched, found similar questions but none answer my specific need. I have built a raised garden bed to grow vegetables (ironically due to a high lead content in our garden soil - planning to ...
2
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0answers
35 views

Why are carbamates capable of inhibiting acetylcholinesterase?

Certain carbamate compounds, such as the insecticide carbaryl or the Edgewood carbamates such as EA-3990, can inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Unlike organophosphorus compounds, however, they ...
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2answers
468 views

What liquid substance impedes cellular respiration?

I'm doing a biology assignment and need to identify a clear liquid substance that impedes cellular respiration. It needs to be toxic and either absorbed through the skin or inhaled.
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2answers
1k views

Fumes by Melting Aluminium Soda Cans [closed]

I am planning to melt and cast aluminium from soda cans. I went to quora page that deals with "burning" aluminium can, which can release toxic gases as the cans are coated with plastic inner lining. ...
17
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2answers
6k views

Why is potassium ferrocyanide considered safe for consumption, when it is just one reaction away from the highly toxic potassium cyanide?

According to this answer, heating potassium ferrocyanide will decompose it into potassium cyanide. Now, potassium ferrocyanide is an approved anti-caking agent, and hence used in table salt, for ...
2
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1answer
54 views

Treating styrene in the atmosphere

I was actually inspired to ask this question in certain circumstances. In the outskirts of my city, there happened to be a styrene gas leak early morning today which killed thirteen and hospitalized ...
13
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8answers
5k views

Are there any good examples of commonly ingested molecules that contain particular toxic individual elements?

In the house on my own and an article popped up on my feed with the following statement: While the Government has insisted the chemical is safe, cadmium is recognised as a cause of lung cancer ...
9
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2answers
9k views

Is bamboo based plastic less likely to leak chemicals?

Some plastics have been known to leak plasticizers (bisphenol and phthalates) into the food they contain, especially when heated. Because such compounds are suspected of being endocrine disruptors it ...
1
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1answer
123 views

Non-toxic organic bases? [closed]

I am trying to find out if there are any non-toxic organic bases that could be given orally on a non-empty stomach to treat acidosis. From my research, histidine and diluted choline hydroxide were the ...
0
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2answers
70 views

How can I remove the bitartrate anion from an organic bitartrate salt?

I have a compound, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) bitartrate, which I originally purchased as a supplement and possible smart drug. I bought an absurd amount of it. It didn’t do anything for me as a ...
2
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0answers
51 views

Do any pharmaceuticals increase in potency or toxicity over time?

Pursuing a question raised in these comments: Are there any known pharmaceuticals that increase in potency or toxicity during storage, or over periods of months to years? If not, what if we broaden ...
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1answer
32 views

Does toxicity depend on state of matter? [closed]

Does the toxicity of an element depend on the state of matter (liquid, solid, gas)? Could there be an element, which is totally non-toxic when it is solid, but toxic when it is liquid. Which elements ...
1
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0answers
41 views

How is mercury in drinking water detected? [closed]

A document I've been reading states that: Both the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal and the Maximum Contaminant Level were set at 2 parts per billion because current technology allows public water ...
1
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0answers
37 views

Risks of using organic mercury compounds in analytical chemistry

I'm interested in speciation analysis. Hearing of fatal accidents with organic mercury compounds made me wonder about the risks for the analytical chemist trying to determine Hg species in foodstuff. ...