Questions tagged [toxicity]

Questions on the harmful effects of various substances on the human body, or biological organisms in general.

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Why are all of the group 16 hydrides/hydrogen chalcogenides except H2O toxic?

I mean ($\ce{H2O}$) is non-toxic and is needed everyday but all of the other group 16 hydrides (hydrogen sulfide ($\ce{H2S}$), hydrogen selenide ($\ce{H2Se}$), hydrogen telluride ($\ce{H2Te}$) and ...
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4answers
59 views

What toxic gases are emitted during the combustion of potassium ferrocyanide? [closed]

I have read that Hydrogen Cyanide is emitted if Potassium Ferricyanide is combusted, but would this be the same case for Potassium Ferrocyanide? I am preparing to perform some case hardening on steel ...
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Avoiding chemical reactions with carbonated alcoholic drinks

I'm making a cooling beverage dispenser for carbonated drinks. The keg remains room temperature and the beverage rises through a pipe that's coiled up inside a cooling unit filled with water or ...
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4answers
3k views

Is Fluorine more toxic than Chlorine?

Fluorine is more reactive than Chlorine. But does it mean that Fluorine can cause more damage to living tissues? If so, why wasn't Fluorine used in WW1 instead of Chlorine?
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2answers
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Biological activity of the isotopes of the same element

I have a question regarding biological activity of different isotopes of the same elements, notably $\ce{^206Pb}$ and $\ce{^208Pb}$. Lead is known to be toxic, such that it can replace calcium from ...
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1answer
49 views

What compound(s) contribute to bleach's smell and are they dangerous?

Just a few hours ago, I had to deal with a mold problem on some untreated wood and was told by a hardware store worker that bleach was an effective way to deal with the problem, following up with some ...
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38 views

Accidentally sprayed the wrong product in my mouth [closed]

I sprayed the wrong product in my mouth the other day. It was a spray hand cleaner. Noticed the mistake right away and immediately spit it out and then rinsed my mouth. But even so, my tongue and ...
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18 views

Chemical safety information: Where to look to find out how poisonous poisons are?

Could someone point me toward a primer on how to read the toxicity warnings on standard chemical data sheets? Or alternatively, where one should look for more precise information than is contained on ...
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1answer
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How are the toxic components in a mixture identified?

I was doing research on buckwheat sprouts (as to whether I should include them in my diet) and I came across a website that said eating too much can cause fagopyrism, which is caused by compounds ...
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How do I understand exactly how hazardous a material is based on SDS?

I work with a lab occasionally and get asked often if a chemical is safe to breathe, how hazardous is it if it lands on skin, etc. For the most part, I'll try to go to an SDS and look it up. The ...
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How do structural differences between neostigmine and TL-599 contribute to differences in toxicity?

Stevens and Beutel studied the activity of several carbamate anticholinesterases. Among other things, they found that the (4-trimethylammonio)phenyl dimethylcarbamate iodide (The para-analog of ...
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Why are S-thiocarbamates less toxic than carbamates?

According to Haley and Rhodes, neostigmine bromide (alternatively known as Prostigmine) has an LD50 in mice of around 0.165 mg/kg by IV injection. Pubchem claims that this is also the LD50 for ...
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1answer
30 views

How does lead toxicity from jewelry happen vs. occupational exposure?

It is known that lead levels in jewelry is a problem, especially for children (https://dtsc.ca.gov/toxics-in-products/lead-in-jewelry/). As a parent with jewelry-loving children I am aware that ...
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3answers
72 views

Does aluminium foil, warmed up by sunlight, harm human health? [closed]

I must lightproof and block sunlight in new bedroom. I can't afford blinds or window coverings. I don't use garbage bags, because a plastic bag baking in the sun may emit harmful chemicals (see Home ...
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148 views

Is it OK to dispose of potassium hydrogen phthalate into the sewer system?

I have been using potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) for creating primary standards. I have looked into the Flinn catalog, and the disposal consideration is classified as "organic acids, must be ...
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1answer
38 views

Could there ever be a way to safely handle visible amounts of elements like astatine, francium, or protactinium? [closed]

This is something I'd actually be interested in doing if possible. I've asked about artificial stability here https://physics.stackexchange.com/questions/584595/could-there-at-least-theoretically-ever-...
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2answers
64 views

Do hydrogen sulfide and oxygen produce pure sulfur or sulfur dioxide? If both, under which circumstances does each scenario occur? [closed]

If both of the following hydrogen sulfide and oxygen chemical equations can occur, under what circumstances is the harmless pure sulfur and the toxic sulfur dioxide produced? $\ce{2H2S + O2 -> 2H2O ...
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1answer
67 views

Is elemental lead as toxic as lead compounds? [duplicate]

On the internet, nobody mentions about lead's oxidation state when talking about lead poisoning. I assume it's Pb(II) and Pb(IV), as chelation therapy is suggested as a treatment. Also, its ...
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1answer
123 views

Using the right equipment for successful detection of Novichok [closed]

Apparently, Navalny’s biomaterials were flown to Moscow's Nii Sklif lab which didn't find any traces of the poison. But they used an American Agilent Technologies GC-MS [1], while Bundeswehr ...
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A dataset of drugs or molecules that failed the FDA approval process

I am looking for a dataset of bad drugs, the opposite of FDA approved drugs. There is this database of withdrawn drugs, but these drugs were withdrawn after making it into the market. Is there any ...
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2answers
960 views

What chemical properties of ethanol make it usable for drinks as compared to that of methanol? [closed]

Methanol ($\ce{CH3OH}$) and ethanol ($\ce{C2H5OH}$) both are the organic compounds having an alcoholic group. The alcoholic beverages (liquors and spirits) for human consumption (albeit injurious to ...
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3answers
4k views

How toxic chemically is plutonium (Pu), neglecting the radioactive damage?

In Rhodes' The Making of the Atomic Bomb, he says that, while Pu is not that radioactive (which is surprising -- maybe he means compared with radium and some other elements), it is very toxic. I would ...
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2answers
97 views

What is the mechanism of AChE inhibition by Onchidal?

A naturally-occuring neurotoxin, called Onchidal, produced by a species of sea slug acts as an irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase. The structure of Onchidal is presented below: How and ...
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1answer
127 views

Why is methyl parathion less toxic than ethyl parathion?

According to the PubChem pages on ethyl parathion and methyl parathion (pages 11 and 12 of the toxicity section, respectively), methyl parathion is significantly less toxic than ethyl parathion. The ...
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347 views

Will a dangerous amount of lead leach into soil from a galvanised corrugated steel raised bed? [closed]

I have searched, found similar questions but none answer my specific need. I have built a raised garden bed to grow vegetables (ironically due to a high lead content in our garden soil - planning to ...
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Why are carbamates capable of inhibiting acetylcholinesterase?

Certain carbamate compounds, such as the insecticide carbaryl or the Edgewood carbamates such as EA-3990, can inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Unlike organophosphorus compounds, however, they ...
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2answers
1k views

Fumes by Melting Aluminium Soda Cans [closed]

I am planning to melt and cast aluminium from soda cans. I went to quora page that deals with "burning" aluminium can, which can release toxic gases as the cans are coated with plastic inner lining. ...
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1answer
54 views

Treating styrene in the atmosphere

I was actually inspired to ask this question in certain circumstances. In the outskirts of my city, there happened to be a styrene gas leak early morning today which killed thirteen and hospitalized ...
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1answer
125 views

Non-toxic organic bases? [closed]

I am trying to find out if there are any non-toxic organic bases that could be given orally on a non-empty stomach to treat acidosis. From my research, histidine and diluted choline hydroxide were the ...
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2answers
70 views

How can I remove the bitartrate anion from an organic bitartrate salt?

I have a compound, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) bitartrate, which I originally purchased as a supplement and possible smart drug. I bought an absurd amount of it. It didn’t do anything for me as a ...
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1answer
74 views

Cadmium Selenide, Cadmium Sulfide, Cinnabar and Lead Oxide toxicity

I have a question about the toxicity of the pigments Cadmium Selenide (Cadmium Red), Cadmium Sulfide (Cadmium Yellow), Mercury Sulfide (Cinnabar or Vermillion) and Lead Oxide (Lead White). Not long ...
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Do any pharmaceuticals increase in potency or toxicity over time?

Pursuing a question raised in these comments: Are there any known pharmaceuticals that increase in potency or toxicity during storage, or over periods of months to years? If not, what if we broaden ...
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1answer
32 views

Does toxicity depend on state of matter? [closed]

Does the toxicity of an element depend on the state of matter (liquid, solid, gas)? Could there be an element, which is totally non-toxic when it is solid, but toxic when it is liquid. Which elements ...
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41 views

How is mercury in drinking water detected? [closed]

A document I've been reading states that: Both the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal and the Maximum Contaminant Level were set at 2 parts per billion because current technology allows public water ...
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Risks of using organic mercury compounds in analytical chemistry

I'm interested in speciation analysis. Hearing of fatal accidents with organic mercury compounds made me wonder about the risks for the analytical chemist trying to determine Hg species in foodstuff. ...
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2answers
84 views

Does water in big cities get heated (boiled) for treatment?

I live in Bangkok and read how water comes to customers here: I understand from the chart that water go through Thon Buri treatment plant (west Bangkok) and Mahasawat treatment plant (east Bangkok) ...
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1answer
209 views

Indigo and the Environment: is it that bad?

TL;DR: In what aspects are the products of the indigo vat dyeing process (sodium sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate ions) harmful to the environment or to living beings? I was recently looking into ...
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2answers
406 views

How does one tell (or conclude) if a substance is carcinogenic?

It's common to read statements like: Tetrachloroethene ($\ce{CCl2=CCl2}$) was earlier used as a solvent for dry cleaning, but since it contaminated ground water and is a suspected carcinogen, ...
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2answers
6k views

Why is potassium ferrocyanide considered safe for consumption, when it is just one reaction away from the highly toxic potassium cyanide?

According to this answer, heating potassium ferrocyanide will decompose it into potassium cyanide. Now, potassium ferrocyanide is an approved anti-caking agent, and hence used in table salt, for ...
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1answer
43 views

If heavy metals bind to sulfur why isn't sulfur used as a safer way to chelate them? [closed]

I was wondering about sulfur as an alternative life-threatening chelators. Why isn't sulfur used as a chelator if heavy metals have an affinity for it?
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Water replacement for pressure-testing [closed]

Due to circumstance, our Data Centre build has some delays and it currently looks like we're going to have to perform a hydrostatic test of our sprinkler system with live computers in it. As I have ...
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1answer
118 views

Cup with vinegar/salt/copper solution previously in it ran through dishwasher

Someone enjoys making jewelry, and saw an online tutorial saying that you can mix equal parts of vinegar and salt, and leave copper in it for a while to oxidize it, and turn it green. After doing ...
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3answers
5k views

Chilling water in copper vessel

Does chilling drinking water in copper bottle result in any chemical reaction that turns it dangerous for consumption in any way? Few days back, in summer, I carried kokum juice in copper bottle. I ...
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1answer
96 views

How to determine toxicity of a substance? [closed]

I often read description of various compounds or elements as being poisonous. Now I know that through experience we have discovered the toxicity of various substances like lead, chlorine or phosgene ...
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1answer
9k views

Does melting HDPE plastic produce toxic fumes? (melting, not burning)

● The question isn't about burning HDPE but melting it at the proper temperature. (At 120 to 180°C depending on it's density, it becomes gooey. According to the source below the "extrusion" ...
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3answers
1k views

Are risks (hexavalent chromium) during Chrome plating temporary, or remain with the product?

Since some chrome plating production processes generate hexavalent_chromium compounds, which are reportedly highly toxic/carcinogenic, I wonder: Do the hexavalent chromium substances only occur (...
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1answer
2k views

Is the flint used in disposable lighters toxic?

Especially the sparks that result when using them. I heard this from a friend and can't seem to find an answer on Google.
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1answer
168 views

Is it safe to heat fluorite (CaF2) to 140 °C?

For the manufacture of the optical system, we need to heat the fluorite ($\ce{CaF2}$) lenses to $\pu{140 °C}$. Is it possible: for some poisonous gas to be emitted? ($\ce{F2, HF}$ or other) for ...
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0answers
367 views

What makes dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) so penetrative through latex and human skin?

I've read the story of Karen Wetterhahn and how she was poisoned and died from two drops of dimethylmercury that accidentally fell on her latex glove, and I was wondering what is the chemical ...
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1answer
3k views

Why is carbon monoxide not a greenhouse gas?

Carbon monoxide is considered to be a toxic gas and, given that it is usually found along with $\ce{CO2}$, why it is not considered a greenhouse gas?