Questions tagged [resonance]

Resonance refers to the representation of the electronic structure of a molecular entity in terms of contributing structures. The tag should be applied to any question that concern resonance structures or resonance energy. This tag should not be applied to questions about aromatic compounds (use the [aromatic-compounds] tag instead)

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Rate of solvolysis for given allylic chlorides [closed]

We clearly have to judge the resulting carbocation stability in this question and that's what I tried doing. (I) results in a primary allylic carbocation in both possible resonating structures. (II) ...
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How do we find hybridization when molecule has resonance?

Consider the following image which shows the resonance structures of $\ce{CO_3^{2-}}$ ion. What is the hybridization of $\ce{O}$? How do we proceed in such cases? In one resonance structure, the top ...
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Resonance structure with allylic lone pair

Draw the appropriate resonance structure for 5-aminolevulinic acid: As there is an allylic lone pair, my first arrow goes from the lone pair to form a π-bond, and the second goes from the π-bond to ...
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Hybridisation of the O atom in the hydroxyl group of ethanoic acid

Currently studying high school organic reaction mechanisms and encountered a question. It goes like this: The C=O bond and the C–O bond of an ethanoate ion is equal at 127 pm, while the C=O bond of ...
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How does Hyperconjugation stabilize a Carbon Free Radical? [closed]

I tried drawing the resonance structures but just cannot see how donating two electrons to a carbon that only needs one electron make it more stable? I stumbled upon this question asked years ago ...
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Does the same name represents all resonance and hybrid structure of a molecule?

The name chlorobenzene represents the following molecule. But the molecule shows resonance and its resonating structures are So does the same name represents all the resonance structures? Does it ...
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Does 'aromaticity' apply to individual resonance structures or the hybrid?

When we define the aromaticity of a compound, is it meant to describe the resonance hybrid of the compound, or for individual resonance structures of the compound? I think the latter is wrong because ...
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Resonance structures of cyclopentadienide [closed]

I tried several ways to produce resonance structures of the following base to prove how strong it is. I am giving a picture reflecting my thoughts. I didn't complete the structure because it seems ...
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What is the order of decreasing stability among following molecules?

I am almost certain that (IV) is most stable and (III) is least stable. How to compare between (I) and (II)? Is it something related to angle strain? I am also confused if you can compare between ...
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How can you explain the pKa of the first protolysis of phosphoric acid without using resonance [duplicate]

The pKa1 of phosphoric acid is 2.14. As far as I am concerned, phosphoric acid does not have any double bounds and, as a main-group element, obliges to the octet-rule. This does create formal charges ...
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Do degenerate states have exchange energy?

I have read that exchange energy exists between non-degenerate levels $1s$ and $2s$ or between $1s$ and $2p_x$ in the Helium atom in the first excited level: $$K_s = \left< 1s(1)2s(2)|H'|1s(2)2s(1) ...
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Acidic strength comparison of squaric acid and rhodizonic acid

These two are dibasic acids with the following structures (squaric acid and rhodizonic acid in order). Empirical evidence proves that squaric acid is more acidic than rhodizonic acid. It is a ...
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Comparing stability of two carbocations [duplicate]

Which of the following ions(A and B respectively) is more stable? How can we explain this on the basis of resonance? Here's what the solution said: Structure (A) is a primary carbocation and has no ...
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Is it correct to say that benzene is more stable than cylcohexatriene due to delocalization?

I'm virtually all chemistry books I own say that benzene is more stable than the theoretical cyclohexatriene, by 150 kJ to be specific, due to the delocalization of pi electron density around the ring....
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Acidity of triphenylmethane

The question is : Why does triphenylmethane have such a high pKa value (going up to $33$) My reasoning suggests that the conjugate base is highly stabilized and hence triphenylmethane should be a ...
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1 answer
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What does one mean by saying "in conjugation"

In my chemistry class in high school we just started with resonance and my teacher said that its the phenomenon of moving around of negative charges, lone pairs or pi electrons with no change in ...
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Does benzene sulphonic acids show steric inhibition of resonance / ortho effect?

I have read about ortho effects in aniline (steric inhibition of protonation) and benzoic acids but have not seen anything about Sulphonic Acids ($\ce{-SO3H}$) do they also show considerable ortho ...
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Is there really any difference between Resonance and Mesomeric effect?

I have been in the classes of two different teachers of organic chemistry and they both agree on the fact that there is a difference between the mesomeric effect and resonance effect (they didn't ...
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Why does chlorine show a mesomeric effect in haloarenes and an inductive effect in haloalkanes?

Chlorine shows the +R effect in haloarenes and the -I effect in haloalkanes. Does chlorine do the same for all cyclic compounds or only for aromatic rings? Is this just another experimentally seen ...
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Conjugation and resonance

I'm new to Organic chemistry, and I'm just starting to learn about resonance. I learnt that resonance and conjugation are related - if a system is conjugated, with alternating sigma and pi bonds/pi-...
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6 votes
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Is the lone electron pair of an amide nitrogen part of the π system when building a Hückel matrix?

Is the lone electron pair of the nitrogen atom part of the conjugated π system in the α,β-unsaturated amide pictured below? Is there a general rule for choosing when to include a nitrogen atom in a ...
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How to understand the role of the lone pair on the molecular structure when it participates in resonance?

I'm a little confused as to why we ignore the effect the lone pair has on the geometry of the molecule when it is participating in resonance. Wouldn't it be the case that the molecule is actually in ...
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Nitrogen with shortest bond length in histidine?

The question asks what nitrogen in the ring of histidine has the shortest bond length. I was thinking that since it has resonance, the initial thought of the nitrogen with the $\pi$ bond is incorrect. ...
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1 answer
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Why is there a hydride shift in the hydration of 1-methyl-5-phenyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydronaphthalene?

I was attempting a question here in which you had to find a product after the hydration of alkenes. Can someone explain why was there a hydride shift in this reaction? According to me, initially, the ...
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Mesomeric effect in -NHCOR and -OR

I've read in Wikipedia about +M strength of groups which goes: –O - > –NH2 > –NHCOR > –OR > –OCOR > –Ph > –CH3 > –F > –Cl > –Br > –I Now in every other website states ...
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Why hydrogen bonding in some acids make them a stronger acid when it is present even before deprotonation?

If we take the example of salicylic acid, hydrogen bonding is present in the acid as follows: Even after deprotonation, it has intramolecular hydrogen bonding as follows: My question: p-...
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If -OMe has a small steric size then why does it increase the acidity of 2-methoxybenzoic acid? [duplicate]

I've read OP Tandon's book of GOC which states: Acidity order of the below-mentioned structures is: ortho- > meta- > benzoic > para- and the reason for the highest acidity of ortho- being ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Stability of meta ethyl and meta methyl benzene carbocations respectively

It is known that Methyl has a greater +I effect than Ethyl, but here, in this case, the condition is satisfied in the para benzene carbocations whereas, in the meta forms, it is the opposite. Shouldn'...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Carbocation formation and stability from bromo compounds

When heated,the following bromo-species all form carbocations via $\sigma$ bond cleavage. For each structure draw the corresponding carbocation and briefly describe how it is stabilised. This is my ...
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change in bond Length due to resonance [duplicate]

for example, if we consider benzene ring ; all the pi bonds will show resonance and therefore a partial pi bond character will be observed over all the bonds in the ring my question is is the c1-c2 ...
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In benzene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene, which one has greater C=C bond length? [closed]

In benzene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene, resonance will occur, so both will have a partial pi character. Technically, all bonds in benzene have partial pi character, whereas in 1,3-cyclohexadiene, some have ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Determining the most stable enolic form of 1-phenylbutane-1,3-dione?

Question Which form of 1-phenylbutane-1,3-dione is more stable? Answer 3-hydroxy-1-phenylbut-2-en-1-one My question I've been told that between the above two, 3-hydroxy-1-phenylbut-2-en-1-one is ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Carbocation stability + determining position of attack on a carbocation in SN1 reaction

It's implied that the right structure is the more stable carbocation because it undergoes the second half of an SN1 reaction, but I'm not entirely sure why: I'm also not sure why the $\ce{MeOH}$ ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Does the amplitude of the RF pulse affect the NMR signal?

I know that the NMR signal depends on the static magnetic field strength $ B_0 $ (by Boltzmann equation) and its gyromagnetic factor. While NMR occurs when the RF pulse frequency matches the equation: ...
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1 answer
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Acidic nature comparison; benzoic acid and phenylacetic acid

The $\ce{pK_a}$ values of benzoic acid and phenylacetic acid are around 4.2 and 4.31 respectively. In benzoic acid, you have the resonance being the dominating effect, destabilizing a conjugate base ...
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Can chlorine show negative mesomeric effect due to presence of d orbital? [closed]

I was wondering in this problem that if chlorine will show positive mesomeric effect as it is at para-position and strength of inductive effect decreases with distance from carbon atom and chlorine ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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How to go about deciding the acidic strength of a functional group in an aromatic compound?

The question requires me to identify the decreasing order of the acidic strength of the following functional group. But I'm afraid I don't know how to distinguish one from the other since all the ...
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Why negative charge delocalises away from electronegative atoms

In the mechanism for the Wolff-Kishner reduction, after the $\ce{OH-}$ abstracts a proton, the resulting negative charge delocalises away from the nitrogen atom to the carbon, and the subsequent ...
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Among Benzyl carbocation (Ph-CH2+) and Methyl methoxy carbocation (CH3-O-CH2+), why is the latter more stable?

Benzyl Carbocation could form multiple conjugation, then why isn't that stabler? In Methyl methoxy carbocation, Oxygen donates the lone pairs but so does the double bond in the benzyl Carbocation.
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8 votes
1 answer
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How to compare stability between 5‐methylcyclohexa‐1,3‐diene and 3‐methylenecyclohexene?

Problem Compare stability of 1 and 2: Answer My approach Both have the same number of π-bonds. Both have one resonance structure. Both are non-aromatic. In 1 there are three α-hydrogens, whereas ...
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2 votes
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Choosing hyperconjugation when resonance doesn't give a reason for stability

Which of the following structures would be least stable? I initially approached it like this: As both are allylic carbocations, and that both are in fact resonating structures of the same molecule, ...
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4 votes
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Why can't NAD+ undergo single-electron reduction?

$\ce{FAD}$ can undergo single-electron reduction to form a stable radical, which can then be reduced again to $\ce{FADH2}$. This is supposedly possible due to resonance stability, where the unpaired ...
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1 vote
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Why is oxalic acid more acidic than benzoic acid?

I came across this fact while reading my book and was confused. Looking at the structures, I had the intuition that benzoic acid would be more acidic as the conjugate base formed will resonate all ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Confusion in comparing the contribution of resonating structures to resonance hybrid [closed]

So I was comparing the $+M$ effect of $\ce{-CH^-_2}$, $\ce{-NH^-}$ and $\ce{-O^-}$. Answer was given as: $$ \ce{-CH^-2 > -NH^- > -O^-}$$ So, I attach them with ethene and made their respective ...
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4 votes
0 answers
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What are "Secondary Orbital Interactions" in Organic Chemistry? [closed]

We used these to analyze the stability of molecules in an Organic Chemistry Course. My teacher analyses the stability of compounds on 3 levels: Atom level by studying the hybridization of the main ...
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1 vote
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Why does allyl anion have only two resonance structures?

There are only two resonance structures of allyl anion with negative charge distributed over positions 1 and 3: $$\ce{\overset{-}{C}H2-CH=CH2 <-> CH_2=CH-\overset{-}{C}H2}.$$ What's the criteria ...
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Would this be a correct resonance structure?

In the (B) option, second resonance structure is supposed to be valid. But according to my textbook, many adjacent charges would make the resonance structure too unstable and hence it would not be ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the difference between resonance and π conjugation

I have seen electron delocalization mentioned frequently in 2 separate contexts: resonance (ozone, carbonate / nitrate...) and π-conjugation systems (aromatic compounds). While the 2 initially sound ...
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3 votes
2 answers
509 views

Why does delocalization (only) occur in molecules represented by resonance hybrids?

Before I start this question, I am aware tha Electrons in all molecules are delocalized to some extent Delocalization is a the phenomenon and resonance is an attempt to explain it. When I asked this ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Priority of the stabilising factors of resonating structures of Organic compounds

When finding the stability order of resonationg structures of certain molecules.. there is some confusion since some structures satisfy certain factors and others satisfy certain other factors. I want ...
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