Questions tagged [electron-affinity]

The amount of energy released when an electron is added to a species in the gaseous phase to form a negative ion. Not to be confused with [ionization-energy].

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What is the origin of the expression for the electron affinity at temperatures above absolute zero? [duplicate]

Please explain the formula mentioned in this paragraph. "In many books, the negative of the enthalpy change for the process is defined as the ELECTRON AFFINITY (A) of the atom under ...
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Electron Gain Enthalpy of Noble Gases

Why does He(helium) has less positive electron gain enthalpy than Neon(Ne). The size of atoms increase down the zero group and also the effective nuclear charge increase down the group. Therefore the ...
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Why does tennessine have a larger (predicted) electron affinity than nihonium?

According to Wikipedia, tennessine has an electron affinity (EA) of $\pu{+166 kJ mol-1}$ and nihonium $\pu{+67 kJ mol-1}$. Normally this would make sense since tennessine is in group 17 and nihonium ...
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First ionization energy and electron gain enthalpy of dihydrogen / stability comparison of dihydrogen ions [duplicate]

Subset of: How can antibonding orbitals be more antibonding than bonding orbitals are bonding? Stability of $\ce{H2^{-}}<\ce{H2^{+}}<\ce{H2}$ Stability of $\ce{N2^{-}}<\ce{N2^{+}}<\ce{N2}...
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Why is Electron Gain Enthalpy of only Be and Mg positive, in group 2?

While going through my book, I came across the following observation: $\Delta H_{eg1}$ is positive for Be and Mg Where $\Delta H_{eg1}$ is the first electron gain enthalpy. It seemed quite ...
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Why do selenium , tellurium and polonium have more negative electron gain enthalpy than oxygen?

In my book(NCERT Chemistry Part I, Textbook for Class XI[1]) a list of values of electron gain enthalpies of various elements is given. According to that list, oxygen has less negative electron gain ...
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Why does titanium have lower affinity than scandium?

Electron affinity of atoms in the same row usually increases with the atomic number until the shell or half-shell gets full, and then it drops down. Some transition metals are exceptions from the rule,...
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Why does boron have a lower affinity than oxygen? [closed]

Electron affinity of oxygen is 141 kJ/mol and electron affinity of boron is 27 kJ/mol. I suspect it is because boron nucleus is much better shielded than oxygen nucleus (in the p-shell), but I am not ...
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How can chlorine be 'only' the third-most electronegative element yet have the highest electron affinity?

From Wikipedia: It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and the third-highest electronegativity on the Pauling scale, ...
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Find the Ionisation Potential and Electron affinity of X

$N_0/2$ atoms of $X_{(g)}$ are converted into $\ce{X^+_{(g)}}$ by energy $E_1$. $N_0/2$ atoms of $X_{(g)}$ are converted into $\ce{X^-_{(g)}}$ by energy $E_2$. Hence ionisation potential and electron ...
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Why do neutral metal atoms have affinity towards electrons? [duplicate]

Since first electron affinity is almost always negative, neutral atoms of most elements (including metals) must have an affinity towards electron. But shouldn't metals want to lose electron(s) rather ...
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Regarding comparison of ionization energies [closed]

Why is the ionization energy of $\ce{Mg^2+}$ greater than the ionization energy of $\ce{Ne}$ (neon)? My teacher said the answer was $\ce{Mg^2+}$ but I have no idea why as my general knowledge tells ...
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Why energy is released when an electron is added to a neutral atom? [duplicate]

Question : Why energy is released when an electron is added to a neutral atom? I read somewhere “When electrons are added to an atom, the increased negative charge puts stress on the electrons ...
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More Anti-bonding or less bonding electrons?

Is a molecule more stable with less bonding electrons or more anti-bonding electrons? This question arose when I was asked the stability comparison between $\ce{N2^+}$ and $\ce{N2^-}$.
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When is the process exothermic and when is it endothermic? [closed]

When electrons are being added/removed from atoms or ions how can I tell if the process is exothermic or endothermic? For example in the question below, how could I tell for sure which of the ...
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What exactly is lattice energy?

I was going through my chemistry textbook (Chemistry, 10th Ed. by Raymond Chang) when I encountered this explanation of lattice energy. 9.3 Lattice Energy of Ionic Compounds We can predict which ...
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Is the magnitude of ionisation enthalpy and ionisation energy is same?

In my textbook it is written that ionisation energy and ionisation enthalpy are two different quantities. ionisation energy is the amount of energy provided to extract an electron from the outermost ...
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Why does the electron affinity increase become more exothermic down group 2 and group 5?

It is generally true that the electron affinity becomes less exothermic down a group, because of the increase in atomic radius. There is a well-known exception that the electron affinity of Cl is ...
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Electron Gain Enthalpy [duplicate]

When an electron ($e^-$) is added to $\ce{Cl}$ ,i.e., $$\ce{Cl + e^- -> Cl^- + ∆_{gh}H}$$ We can see that energy is released. My question is where is this energy coming from? What happens within ...
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Amphoterism and the Metal and Non-Metal Oxides/Hydroxides. Why does amphoterism occur in these? [closed]

I am having trouble understanding why Beryllium Oxide and Aluminum Oxide are amphoteric. Also, while they are not oxides, Aluminum and Beryllium Chloride as well. Most of the things I have been ...
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Why do Hydrogen Halides(with the exception of HF) form mostly strong acids? [duplicate]

Why do Hydrogen Halides(with the exception of HF) form mostly strong acids? My guess is that the negatively charged Halide part of the molecule is attracted by the partially positive part of the water ...
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How to get the second electron affinity of tellurium?

I need the value of the second electron affinity of Te, i.e. the energy change associated with the attachment of an electron to a $\ce{Te-}$ anion $$\ce{Te- + e- -> Te^{2-}}$$ In the books (e.g. J. ...
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Relation between electron gain enthalpy and electron affinity

The correct relation between electron gain enthalpy $(Δ_\mathrm{eg}H)$ and electron affinity $A_\mathrm{e}$ at any temperature '$T$' is A) $Δ_\mathrm{eg}H = -A_\mathrm{e} - \frac{5}{2}RT$ B) $Δ_\...
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Electron affinity of nitrogen and exchange energy

When studying the effects of electron filling in chemistry, I was studying why energy is needed to add an electron to a nitrogen atom i.e. electron affinity. Nitrogen already has an electron ...
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Why it the electron affinity of beryllium is greater than nitrogen? [closed]

As we know that fully filled electronic configuration is more stable than half filled electronic configuration, so in my opinion beryllium's electron affinity should be less than nitrogen's. Is my ...
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Why do atoms have electron Affinity? [duplicate]

Atoms are stable so how can they pull electrons i.e how do they have any electron affinity at all?
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Why does oxygen have less negative electron gain enthalpy than sulphur? [duplicate]

Oxygen has less negative electron gain enthalpy than sulphur. This statement is given in my book with a short reason: due to compact size of oxygen I'm unable to understand why. I would ...
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Trends of electron affinity

Trends for electron affinity going across the group increases negatively. Does this mean Noble gases' electron negativity is more negative than halogens? I'm confuse here. Noble gases should have a ...
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Is there any mathematical formula for electron affinity and ionization potential?

I already know about the mathematical formula for electronegativity, but it requires the ionization potential and electron affinity. How can I can easily calculate the ionization potential and ...
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How to find out which organic molecules would be good electron acceptors/donors on a GaAs semiconductor surface [closed]

I'm a physicist in way over my head. I have a list of organic molecules to investigate, all common aldehydes and amines. My supervisor wishes to know which of these molecules would be good electron ...
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Order of basicity of halides [duplicate]

The order of basicity of halides is $\ce{F- >Cl- > Br- > I-}$ My teacher explained this on the basis that the smaller is the ion, the greater is the charge/size ratio, hence it more ...
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Why is fluorine more reactive than chlorine?

Why is fluorine more reactive than chlorine despite chlorine having a higher electron affinity?
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Trend of second Electron Affinity for N,O,F,P,S,Cl

I am aware of the definition of electron affinity and electron gain enthalpy (EGE). N has positive EGE1, and EA of P,S,Cl is more than N,O,F respectively. I want to arrange them in order of their EA2 ...
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If Oxygen has a lower electron affinity than Sulfur, then why doesn't sulfur has a lower electron affinity than selenium?

I've read that oxygen has a lower electron affinity (as shown the picture below), because it has a smaller atomic radius than sulfur and thus the electrons experience significant electron-electron ...
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Are 1st Electron Affinities positive or negative?

According to this ChemistryLibretexts website and this StackExchange answer, 1st electron affinites are negative and 2nd electron affinities are positive. However, according to this Study.com ...
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On a periodic table it shows that Zn and Cd and Hg all have 0 electron affinity. Why is that?

Question On a periodic table it shows that Zn and Cd and Hg all have 0 electron affinity. Why is that? What I've noticed I've noticed that these three elements are the end of the D orbital and they ...
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If fluorine has a lower electron affinity than chlorine, why does it have a higher ionization energy?

I have read that fluorine has a lower electron affinity than chlorine despite its lower atomic radius because its electron cloud is extremely dense. If this is the case, shouldn't the ionization ...
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electron affinities of Be and Ca

I have found in the textbook that Be has negative electron affinity while Ca has positive why? how can I compare the electron affinity values of these two.?
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Why don't gases of elements with negative electron affinities exist as ions in nature?

Fluorine has an electron affinity of about -300 kJ/mol. Lithium has an electron affinity of about 60 kJ/mol. As I understand it when $\ce{Li^-}$ loses an electron about 60 kJ/mol is released but when ...
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Electronegativity and anion stability

If two similar sized atoms have different electronegativity values, the atom with higher electronegativity holds the electrons more tightly, and thus is more stable. Example: hydroxide vs azanide (NH2-...
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Why do alkali metals have an exothermic electron affinity?

Alkali metals should have positive electron gain enthalpy as they are electropositive elements and also there atomic size is big in their periods so they should be reluctant to take electrons but they ...
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2nd Electron Affinity of halogens

I have seen questions regarding EA but they were all about the 1st EA so this question is not duplicate. I came across a statement which goes like "2nd EA of halogens is almost zero". How is this ...
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Using electron affinity to calculate lattice energy

I am trying to calculate the lattice energy of $\ce{CaBr2}$, I am uncertain of how to incorporate the electron affinity value provided for $\ce{Br2}$ into my calculation. Since electron affinity is ...
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For group 7 elements, are anions a lower energy state than being neutral atoms?

Given that electron affinity is positive, why don't these atoms attract free electrons and "prefer" to exist as anions? Never made sense to me — I could be missing something obvious.
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Can we add an electron to an atom?

Say that we have an atom which is inert, or stable. How would one go about adding one electron. Is it possible?
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Ionization energy and Electron Affnity

Which of the following statements correctly interprets the relationship between ionization energy, atomic radius Electron affinity when comparing two atoms. The correct choice as per my instructor ...
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Which element has a greater second electron affinity, sulfur or oxygen?

I found a question asking the above which states that sulfur has a lesser second electron affinity than oxygen. But since the inter-electronic repulsion in sulfur is lesser, shouldn't it be willing to ...
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Electron affinities of the chalcogens and halogens

Here are the electron affinities of the 16th and 17th groups. The general trend for electron affinity down the group is that it decreases because of the increase in atomic radius.The exception of $\...
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Why is electron gain generally exothermic?

I understand that we need to supply energy to counter the nuclear attraction when we remove electrons, and that is the reason why ionization energy is endothermic. However, why does an atom release ...
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is it possible to break the bonds of diatomic elements such as fluorine or iodine and create positive and negative ions by electron bombardment?

If I had a container in vacuum filled with $\ce{I2}$ gas and then I bombarded it with high speed electrons using an electron gun, would be able to get both $\ce{I+}$ and $\ce{I-}$ ions or would I ...