Questions tagged [atomic-structure]

For questions about the various atomic structure theories, including the Bohr theory. Not to be confused with the actual arrangement of atoms in macroscopic solids ([solid-state-chemistry]) or newer quantum concepts ([quantum-chemistry])

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What is d-orbital collapse?

When I was perusing the works of Schwarz on atomic structure, I came across the unfamiliar term of d-orbital collapse. He describes it as a variation in energetic sequence from group 1 to 3 elements ...
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84 views

Why does exchange integral 1s2p not vanish for Helium excited state?

I am studying first-order perturbation theory applied to the first excited state of Helium. I am facing the following problem: I understand that the Coulomb integral for all 2p functions will not be $...
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40 views

Did JJ Thomson know about Eugen Goldstein’s experiment discovering canal rays?

We learn that JJ Thomson discovered the electron in 1897. Several years EARLIER in 1886, Eugen Goldstein performs the same experiment but with the anode and cathode switched to produce positively ...
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23 views

How to determine which levels correspond to each other in LS coupling and jj-coupling?

In the LS coupling scheme, L, S and J are good quantum numbers; whereas in jj-coupling scheme, j1,j2 and J are good quantum numbers. I have learnt how to get the term symbols for LS coupling, and for ...
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52 views

Why isn't osmium ferromagnetic?

When I am studying magnetic properties in IB Chemistry, what particularly puzzles me is ferromagnetism. In my textbook, what accounts for paramagnetism in transition metals is unpaired electrons in ...
3
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126 views

Are Slater’s rule and lanthanide contraction contradictory?

According to most textbook and the Wikipedia page of lanthanide contraction, the phenomenon is due to poor shielding of nuclear charge by 4f electrons. However, the σ value of 4f electrons to 6s is 1....
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50 views

How to calculate electric force on valence electron?

In order to understand the periodic trends more fully, I wanted to calculate the net force exerted on the electron (with the highest principal quantum number and azimuthal quantum number) of an atom. ...
2
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60 views

The true shape of p orbitals

I'm trying to model $\mathrm{p}$ orbitals using a 3D program. What confuses me is that there are 2 shapes of $\mathrm{p}$ orbitals. I'm not sure which one is the accurate model. And what is the ...
2
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1k views

Don't understand why Rutherford was shocked by results of gold foil experiment

The way Rutherford's classic gold foil experiment has been presented (including by Rutherford himself) doesn't make sense to me. As many of you know, Rutherford famously described himself as being ...
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42 views

Why ionic radius of H- is so large

The order of ionic radii for halogens: $$\ce{F- < Cl- < Br- < H- < I-}$$ What is the reason for such large ionic radius of hydride ion?
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1answer
51 views

Do different eigenstates of total angular momentum have necessarily different energies?

Let $H$ be the Hamiltonian of a specific atom and $J$ the total angular momentum. Since $H$ and $J$ commute, they have common eigenstate. So we can label the atomic states by their energy and total ...
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323 views

Why is there a big jump in first ionisation energy between sodium and potassium?

I know the trend in group 1 is that ionisation energy decreases down the group due to an increase in atomic radius and more energy levels are added so more shielding, but I'm not sure why there's such ...
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102 views

What will happen if electron as a wave undergo destructive interference while travelling in its Orbit?

Today I came across a justification of Bohr's angular momentum quantization using the De- Broglie's hypothesis. The justification said that since the electrons are having wave nature also then while ...
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2answers
1k views

What does Brightness/ intensity of spectral lines depend on?

My book states that it depends upon "The number of photons of same frequency or wavelength ABSORBED or EMITTED" From what I understood, if many hydrogen atoms within the discharge tube EMIT the same ...
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131 views

How can the potential energy at the infinite energy level in an atom be zero?

I have recently learnt about atomic structure and the Bohr model of the atom and have observed a discrepancy between it and my previous knowledge based on physics. For simplicity, assume the atom is ...
1
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1answer
200 views

Maximum number of atoms in the ground state

I was given the following question. A sample contains $100$ identical and hypothetical $H$-like atoms ( $Z$ may be fractional). Out of the given atoms, some are in the ground state, while others are ...
1
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1answer
166 views

Angular momentum of an electron in an atom

The Orbital Angular momentum of an electron in an atom is given by $\hbar \sqrt{l(l+1)}$ and the Spin Angular Momentum is $\hbar \sqrt{s(s+1)}$. So what is the resultant Angular momentum of an ...
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1answer
34 views

Can you determine when the orbtials of an atom will hybridize?

We know that when it comes to C its orbitals hybridize (they become sp3 , sp2 or sp) and the energy levels of an hybridized orbital of this kind is lower than that of the p orbital that formed it but ...
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22 views

Finding excited stage of electron from its potential energy

The potential energy of an electron in the hydrogen atom is $\pu{-6.8 eV}.$ Indicate the excited stage in which electron is present. Total energy would be equal to $\pu{-3.4 eV}.$ I used the formula $...
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38 views

why doesn't dz2 orbital have any nodal plane?

why dz2 orbital does not have any nodal plane whereas the other orbitals such as dxy and dzy have nodal plane? As l=1 , won't it have at least one angular node?
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120 views

Azimuthal Quantum Number and Magnetic Quantum Number

I know that azimuthal quantum numbers and magnetic quantum numbers are used to find the no. of and the orientation of subshells respectively, but why do they have to be called so? I reckon that ...
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63 views

Term symbols for excited nitrogen (2s2p^4 configuration)

Looking at the NIST levels listing for neutral nitrogen atom, one of the excited configuration is $2s2p^4$ configuration. https://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/ASD/energy1.pl?encodedlist=XXT2&de=0&...
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28 views

Does it exist a transgression to Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity principle in this given electron box notation?

The following question arises from a set of statements from which I'm asked to state whether they are true or false. This is as follows: Indicate which of the following statements are true or ...
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48 views

Ratio of Total energy to Kinetic energy in hydrogen atom when the reference is changed

If in the hydrogen atom Potential Energy at $\infty$ is chosen to be $13.6$eV then the ratio of total energy and kinetic energy (with the sign) for $1$st Bohr Orbit is? My Attempt I just simply gave ...
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53 views

Energy of emitted photon in Bohr's model

In Bohr's model for hydrogen atom, the energy of photon emitted by an electron is equal to the difference in potential energy of electron in the two orbits. I do not understand this part. Shouldn't we ...
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1answer
114 views

Bohr's postulate of quantisation of angular momentum

The Bohr's postulate of quantisation of angular momentum can be written in a formula as $mvr = nh/(2π)$ where $m$ is mass of electron $v$ is its velocity $r$ is the radius of that shell $h$ is ...
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1answer
346 views

To move one electron in one H atom from the ground state to the second excited state, 12.084 eV are needed

How much energy is needed to cause 1 mole of H atoms to undergo this transition Assume Bohr's model of quantisation The energy for transition is $$1312\left(\frac{1}{n_1^2}-\frac{1}{n_2^2}\right)$$ ...
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35 views

What is d-orbital contraction?

I know that this is a very common question but it's important to address because I thought d orbital contraction only had an effect on the effective nuclear charge ($Z_\mathrm{eff}$) but recently I ...
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29 views

How to find the number of electrons present in a particular orbital having specific value of magnetic quantum number

In this question I'm told to find the number of electrons present in nickel having m=0. The answer given is- Assuming that there is only one orbital in 3d subshell that has m=0 value which is 3dz² ...