Questions tagged [atomic-structure]

For questions about the various atomic structure theories, including the Bohr theory. Not to be confused with the actual arrangement of atoms in macroscopic solids ([solid-state-chemistry]) or newer quantum concepts ([quantum-chemistry])

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2
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0answers
29 views

Who came up with the box and arrow diagrams for electron configurations?

In general chemistry texts, the electron configurations are sometimes shown in boxes with up and down arrows to show the concept of paired spins. My impression for years was that Hund used such ...
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Can we find the colour of an organic compounds using schrodinger's equation and MO theory? [on hold]

please help me with this question. i am just filling in words because they need the body to be atleast 30 characters long. thank you
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He+ electronegativity [on hold]

$\ce{He+}$ can create multiple chemical substances bonded with chemical elements. Which value should it have? Would it be more electronegative than oxygen? Why do we give only neutral atoms ...
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40 views

Why atom make bond? [on hold]

Now my question is why atoms make bond . By this you may answer me that to get noble gas configuration, but why they get stable by getting noble configuration? Now, my reason for atom should not get ...
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48 views

H-1 and H-2 comparison [duplicate]

Why do H-1 and H-2 have different ionization energies and radii ? Is this due to the magnetic dipole moment of the neutron in H-2? Source:"Since the mass of a deuteron is about twice that of a proton,...
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15 views

Ratio of Total energy to Kinetic energy in hydrogen atom when the reference is changed

If in the hydrogen atom Potential Energy at $\infty$ is chosen to be $13.6$eV then the ratio of Total energy and Kinetic Energy(with the sign) for $1$st Bohr Orbit is? My Attempt I just simply gave ...
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32 views

Doubt in a question related to electronic transitions in Bohr's orbits

Question In Bohr series of lines of hydrogen spectrum, the third line from the red end corresponds to which one of the following inner-orbit jumps of the electron for Bohr orbits in an atom of ...
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1answer
41 views

Why potential energy is neglected in this problem for calculating the energy difference between two stationary Bohr Orbits? [closed]

Question An electron in a hydrogen like atom makes a transition from a state in which its de-Broglie wavelength is $\lambda_1$ to a state in which its de-Broglie wavelength is $\lambda_2$, then ...
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31 views

How did Thomson calculate the momentum of electron when he didn't know the mass of electron?

"This was proven in 1903 by J. J. Thomson who calculated that the momentum of the electrons hitting the paddle wheel would only be sufficient to turn the wheel one revolution per minute." This is a ...
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26 views

Are Slater’s rule and lanthanide contraction contradictory?

According to most textbook and the Wikipedia page of lanthanide contraction, the phenomenon is due to poor shielding of nuclear charge by 4f electrons. However, the σ value of 4f electrons to 6s is 1....
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1answer
43 views

Why does zinc sulfide glow when hit by electrons? [duplicate]

In cathode ray tube experiment in order to check the direction of flow of electrons a hole was made in a note and behind it phosphorescent material zinc sulfide it was coated. Why does zinc sulfide ...
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31 views

What will happen if electron as a wave undergo destructive interference while travelling in its Orbit?

Today I came across a justification of Bohr's angular momentum quantization using the De- Broglie's hypothesis. The justification said that since the electrons are having wave nature also then while ...
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71 views

Finding atomic number given energies of emitted photons

A hydrogen-like atom (atomic number $Z$) is in a higher excited state of quantum number $n$. This excited atom can make a transition to the first excited state by successively emitting two photons of ...
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29 views

How to calculate the energy of the first stationary state of Li(2+)? [duplicate]

The ionisatiom energy of $\ce{He+}$ is $\pu{19.6 \times 10^-18 J/atom}$. The energy of the first stationary state of $\ce{Li^2+}$ is? When I calculate the energy of the first stationary state of ...
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1answer
60 views

How does de Broglie actually prove Bohr's postulates?

We know Bohr said that the angular momentum of an electron is an integral multiple of $nh/(2π).$ And in de Broglie's wave equation, he said the circumference of the path of the electron traveling as a ...
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1answer
77 views

Radial Probability Distribution Curve versus ψ² versus r curve for 1s orbitals

My question is basic, but I have already referred to a couple of books. This is an excerpt from Linus Pauling's book: the most probable distance of the electron from the nucleus, which is the ...
5
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1answer
167 views

Why the term 'unified' in “unified mass unit”? [closed]

Why different unit symbols - amu, u and dalton are used for representing atomic mass? And what does the term 'unified' mean in "unified mass unit"? Thank you.
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32 views

How did Planck reach the conclusion that energy comes in packets based on black body curves? [closed]

I understand that if wavelength continues to decrease energy emitted by an atom would get to infinite, but how does the max wavelength at a particular temperature translate to discrete energy packets. ...
3
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3answers
94 views

Bohr's model of an atom

This question is not very mighty. But I'm having a problem wrapping my head around the Bohr's atomic structure. The textbook says electrons revolve around the nucleus in fixed energy shells, with each ...
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2answers
64 views

What does Brightness/ intensity of spectral lines depend on?

My book states that it depends upon "The number of photons of same frequency or wavelength ABSORBED or EMITTED" From what I understood, if many hydrogen atoms within the discharge tube EMIT the same ...
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1answer
29 views

What is the unit of the Rydberg Constant? [duplicate]

In the image, the Rydberg constant seems to have two units. How is that possible?
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1answer
99 views

What are orbitals actually? [closed]

If s, p, d and f subshells have these kinds of boundary surface diagram, then why don't they include the probability of finding electrons in their preceding shells? As in, if d subshells have ...
11
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1answer
155 views

Cause of uniform glow in cathode ray tubes

I got the following extract from a chemistry book (emphasis mine): It is observed that current does not flow through the gas at ordinary pressure even at high voltage of 5000 volts. When the ...
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56 views

How can the potential energy at the infinite energy level in an atom be zero?

I have recently learnt about atomic structure and the Bohr model of the atom and have observed a discrepancy between it and my previous knowledge based on physics. For simplicity, assume the atom is ...
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0answers
24 views

Strongest overlap among s–s, p–p, s–p [duplicate]

So, I was wondering, when overlap of orbitals takes place, among s–s, s–p, p–p which type of overlapping is stronger? Because in s–s more volume is being used in overlap, but the electron density is ...
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2answers
111 views

How is the potential energy between two atoms measured?

In class, we learned about the interatomic potential graph. How does one actually measure the potential energy between two atoms experimentally to ensure the graph is correct? What device is used?
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1answer
36 views

Which principle goes against the concept of Bohr's fixed orbits? [closed]

Can you also state the principle which goes against it?
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1answer
78 views

Maximum number of atoms in the ground state

I was given the following question. A sample contains $100$ identical and hypothetical $H$-like atoms ( $Z$ may be fractional). Out of the given atoms, some are in the ground state, while others ...
3
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1answer
45 views

Electronic configuration of the actinides

I was reading about actinides and I need some help in understanding this paragraph from Concise Inorganic Chemistry by JD Lee - The electronic structures of the actinides do not follow the simple ...
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1answer
38 views

Deducing the shell when transition occurs such that two photons are discharged

Find $n$ (quantum number) corresponding to the excited state of $\ce{He+}$ ion if on transition to ground state the ion emits two photons in succession with wavelengths $\pu{108.5 nm}$ and $\pu{30.4 ...
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1answer
136 views

What happens to the first ionization potential when a hydrogen-like atom captures a particle?

This is a textbook problem from Resonance DLPD Physical Chemistry, Page #83: The mass of a proton is $1836$ times the mass of an electron. If a subatomic particle of mass $207$ times the mass of an ...
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1answer
39 views

Identifying orbital given electron probability density plot

Being a high-school student, I only have a qualitative understanding of the wave mechanical model of atom. Below are my inferences regarding the plot shown in the above picture: The concerned ...
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1answer
47 views

Does one atom of an element show the properties of a bulk of that element? [duplicate]

For example, does one atom of gold have a golden color?
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1answer
116 views

Why is a carbon to iodine pi-bond less stable than a carbon to fluorine pi-bond?

This question comes from a second semester undergraduate organic chemistry course. Please refer to the image below with regard to the question. My understanding of the trend in section 4a is that "...
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3answers
159 views

What are the possible magnetic quantum numbers of silver? [closed]

What are all the possible quantum numbers ml and ms of the electrons in the outermost s orbital of silver? I'm new to this concept. Can anyone walk me through this?
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2answers
151 views

Why did J.J. Thomson observe protons in his cathode ray experiment?

In this MIT lecture, at 7:22, the professor says that when J.J. Thomson added a positively charged plate on one side of the cathode ray and a negatively charged plate on the other side, he observed a ...
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1answer
64 views

Angular momentum of an electron in an atom

The Orbital Angular momentum of an electron in an atom is given by $\hbar \sqrt{l(l+1)}$ and the Spin Angular Momentum is $\hbar \sqrt{s(s+1)}$. So what is the resultant Angular momentum of an ...
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1answer
156 views

Slope of Graph of Wave Number vs inverse square of the principal quantum number(1/n^2) in Hydrogen Emission spectrum

What is the final expression we get for wave number in a hydrogen emission spectrum? Let us say for example from 6 to an orbit $n$. Considering that it is an emission spectrum, I think it would be ...
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0answers
38 views

Energy of emitted photon in Bohr's model

In Bohr's model for hydrogen atom, the energy of photon emitted by an electron is equal to the difference in potential energy of electron in the two orbits. I do not understand this part. Shouldn't we ...
4
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1answer
313 views

What is the exact definition of the radial distribution function?

I have been very confused by the radial distribution function which is often used in chemistry to predict the probability of finding an electron at a distance from the nucleus. From Atkins' Physical ...
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1answer
59 views

Software for the atom model of all elements [closed]

I want an atom model with shells but I haven't found one yet and the only software that created an atom was Cinema 4D. This software is not for beginners like me and I used a tutorial to make an atom ...
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1answer
210 views

Strong or weak force between protons and neutrons?

I had learned that what keeps the protons and neutrons bound is the strong force and the weak force has to do with radioactive decay. but today I read an article from Science Daily that contradicts ...
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1answer
85 views

Confusion about electron arrangement in elements

My textbook says, "The first shell can hold only 2 electrons. The second and subsequent shells can hold 8 electrons to give a stable noble gas arrangement." Can someone explain me if it is MAXIMUM 8 ...
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1answer
73 views

What is the real structure of atom showing every ORBITAL [closed]

Since the Bohr's atomic model was rejected and new concept of orbital was introduced so what is the real structure of an atom showing each and every orbital?
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32 views

Constructing two body Hamiltonian for Helium atom in hydrogen slater orbitals single particle basis [duplicate]

I am trying to construct a two body states to calculate the matrix elements of electronic Hamiltonian of Helium atom. $$H=-\frac{1}{2}\nabla^{2}_{1}-\frac{1}{2}\nabla^{2}_{2}-\frac{2}{\vec{r}_{1}}-\...
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2answers
67 views

Restrictions on transitions in Spectroscopy

Just for the sake of an example, let's assume a transition from one energy state to a higher energy state in atomic absorption spectrum If the energy difference between the ground state and first ...
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1answer
30 views

Why there will be only limited shells in a particular atom? [closed]

What is the maximum possible principal quantum number for an atom(any atom not a specific one) ?
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497 views

Don't understand why Rutherford was shocked by results of gold foil experiment

The way Rutherford's classic gold foil experiment has been presented (including by Rutherford himself) doesn't make sense to me. As many of you know, Rutherford famously described himself as being ...
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1answer
288 views

How are the molar mass and molecular mass of any compound numerically the same?

This observation is really annoying me, and the internet isn't providing me with any solid answers. Either their definitions of molar mass completely differ, or they don't stick to their own ...
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2answers
96 views

Is there a finite number to the possible state of electron in an atom?

Okay, I know you may say, there are infinite numbers of possible state of an electron between its ground state and ionic state, since energy levels get continuous as electron gets farther away from ...