Questions tagged [atomic-structure]

For questions about the various atomic structure theories, including the Bohr theory. Not to be confused with the actual arrangement of atoms in macroscopic solids ([solid-state-chemistry]) or newer quantum concepts ([quantum-chemistry])

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Wave function in Schrodinger's model

I am trying to wrap my head around the Schrodinger's quantum mechanical model of an atom. According to the NCERT$^1$, the Schrodinger's equation is given by: $$\hat{H}\Psi=E\Psi$$ where $\hat{H}$ is ...
Chem-geek0's user avatar
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Defination of Longest wavelength of a spectral series [closed]

Basically, what I know is that according to the rydberg equation, the longest wavelength of a spectral series always corresponds to the alpha line. However my chem teacher says that it is not defined ...
InvertedPurple's user avatar
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The existence of a principal quantum level or energy shell after the loss of an electron from the outer shell of an atom

With the loss of an electron from $\ce{Li}$ ($\mathrm{1s^2\ 2s^1}$), we get $\ce{Li+}$ ($\mathrm{1s^2}$), then the 2nd shell where the electron had been revolving in $\ce{Li}$ will get disappeared or ...
Shreya Murasing's user avatar
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1 answer
102 views

Can certain spectral lines be common between two spectrums

I have studied regarding atomic spectroscopy in my class and the Rydberg's formula. Suppose if I take $\ce{H}$ and $\ce{He+}$ and an electron jumps from from 2nd to 1st shell in $\ce{H}$ and from 4th ...
Aditya Pandey's user avatar
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1 answer
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Electronic configuration and symmetry labels of 3d$^7$ ions

In 3d$^7$ ions, e.g. Co$^{2+}$, the ground state is $^4$F, and it contains different levels due to the crystal field, such as $^4T_{1g}$, $^4T_{2g}$ and $^4A_{2g}$. Can anyone tell me what exactly ...
Chris Bohr's user avatar
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1 answer
70 views

How does the concept of the electron shell (also called energy level) and the orbital coexist? [closed]

Running into a bit of confusion trying to understand the atomic structure and the root cause is mostly related to orbitals and energy levels. At a basic level, I was taught that electrons orbit the ...
7777's user avatar
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Choosing energy levels for finding quantum numbers

When an element has multiple energy levels (i.e Titanium has $(Ar)3d^24s^2$), what energy level do we use to find the quantum numbers? Is it generally assumed the LAST energy level is used? or is it ...
Mathipulator's user avatar
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If charge is quantised, how can It delocalize?

As I was trying to understand resonance, I got to know that it was imaginary phenomenon and it is just a tool to explain mechanisms and structures that are unexplained by Lewis dot structures or ...
Dheeraj Gujrathi's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
125 views

Convergence limit of emission spectra for atoms with multiple electrons

In high school chemistry, students are taught that the convergence limit in the emission spectrum of an element can be used to determine the first ionization energy. However, what about the second, ...
Rafael's user avatar
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Eigenfunctions of total angular momenta as linear combinations of Slater-determinants

In the Hartree scheme for many-electron atoms, the approximated Hamiltonian (in a.u.) $$\hat{H} = \sum_{i=1}^Z \left(-\frac{1}{2} \nabla_i^2 -\frac{Z}{r_i} + V_\text{H}\left(r_i\right)\right)$$ is ...
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Graph of kinetic energy of ejected electron vs intensity

While studying photoelectric effect I got a doubt in the graph of kinetic energy of ejected electron vs the intensity of electromagnetic radiation. Everywhere this graph is given as But here for 0 ...
S K's user avatar
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1 answer
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Atomic terms and perturbation theory

I have a question about the derivation of the possible atomic terms of an atom. Consider an atom with $N$ electrons in the central-field approximation, with hamiltonian $$ H_{0} = \sum_{i=1}^{N} \left[...
AlfredV's user avatar
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Stark and Zeeman effects and their causes

In high school we are taught that Zeeman and Stark effect directly lead to the findings of further divisions of an electron's shell in an atom. What is exactly the reason that causes the spectral ...
Substitute_Y's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
257 views

Why hot iron turns from red to white and then blue? [closed]

While reading structure of atom chapter no. 2 from ncert class 11th chemistry part 1 book, I got a doubt. In the book it says on page 40 that: Hot objects emit electromagnetic radiations over a wide ...
S K's user avatar
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3 answers
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Distance of Orbitals from Nucleus relation with Energy level and penetration power

I have studied that according to Aufbau rule the energy of subshells is dependent on the sum of $ n $ and $l$ values. This would imply that the energy of subshells in a shell varies as $$ ns \lt np \...
bm27's user avatar
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Can't the wavelength of an electron increase or decrease to "fit" the wave perfectly in any radius?

I was reading about how de Broglie's electron-wave theory explained the quantisation of energy in a Bohr atom. What I understand is as follows: If the wave is to be arranged in the form of a circle ...
Arham Jain's user avatar
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Are there compounds distance functions to define a compounds space metrics

Is there exist something like a distance function for compounds, computing a number for any two given molecules? Such a function would measure dissimilarity at the atomic structure and bonds levels, ...
nightcod3r's user avatar
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65 views

Can someone elaborate what it means when its said that electron shells do not exist in multi electron systems?

I'm an undergraduate student in chemistry. I'm trying to grapple with all the new stuff we're learning and making sense of it. Now I want to know if electron shells really "exist" in multi ...
Stu's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why are orbits shown out of plane in popular cartoons of atomic structure? [closed]

The (former) U.S. Atomic Energy Commission had a seal showing a symbolic view of the atom that is unrealistic but instantly recognizable: Source: https://blog.nuclearsecrecy.com/2012/04/13/friday-...
Karsten's user avatar
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How does O2- have the largest radius [closed]

Why is the correct option O^2-, aren't all of them equal since they all have the same number of energy shells and same number of electrons in them
foozi2007's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
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Is there a difference between Hartree-Fock method and LCAO?

I have to dive in some quantum chemistry for a quantum machine learning project and I came across the so-called Hartree-Fock method. In one of the reference I used, they considered electrons as ...
QMLSorbonne's user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
433 views

What is the difference between alloying and doping? [closed]

When compared to doping, how is alloying different? What modifications to the structure are brought about by both of these?
Udeshwari's user avatar
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1 answer
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How can Planck’s equation and the wave equation simultaneously coexist with contradicting each other? [closed]

The equations: E=hf (Planck’s equation, where E is the energy, h is the Planck’s constant and f is the frequency) and V=fλ (where v is the speed (in a vacuum), f is frequency and λ is the wavelength) ...
Kirandk's user avatar
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How does bond formation affect the energetics of the bond?

I am an 11th grade student who has just started learning about bonds in compounds. My question pertains to a line written in JD Lee's Concise Inorganic Chemistry for JEE (Main and Advanced) It was ...
Fiziks's user avatar
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2 answers
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Why silicon doesn't have the electronic configuration [Ne] 3s¹ 3p³?

I have read that half or fully filled orbitals provide more stability to the element due to symmetry and exchange energy.It is the reason for electronic configuration of Cr-[Ar]4s¹3d⁵. Then, why doesn'...
j sivesh's user avatar
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1 answer
676 views

What Are Angular Nodes , Radial Nodes, Nodal Plane and Nodal Surfaces? [duplicate]

Actually, i am confused between all of them. some says that angular node is same as nodal planes and radial nodes is same as nodal surfaces... and what's the difference between nodal planes and nodal ...
Piyush Baweja's user avatar
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1 answer
74 views

Electrons in Bohr's atomic model [duplicate]

Why electrons don't fall into the nucleus in bohr's atomic model? Is there a reason or explanation or is just a consideration?
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
210 views

Why the electronic configuration of samarium is ending with 4f⁶6s²

What is coming in my mind is that 4f^7 6s^1 should be more stable as it allows two orbitals to be half filled rather than 4f^6 6s^2 in which only one orbital is completely filled....can someone please ...
Ved's user avatar
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Why is it impossible to determine number of visible emission spectrum of He+

We know that atoms emit spectral lines on excitation and de excitation. I was doing one high school question based on this theory Number of visible lines when an electron returns from 5th orbit upto ...
InfinityLies's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
233 views

Why is radial probability density exactly zero at the center?

I have read that the radial probability density is exactly zero at $r = 0$ because the radial probability density is $$P(r) = \psi^2\,\mathrm dv,\tag{1}$$ where $\mathrm dv$ is the volume of spherical ...
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0 answers
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Which ionic radius is most relevant for anticipating co-crystalization?

In the context of anticipating the likeliness that elemental impurities co-crystalize into the crystals containing an element of similar radius (see this question), which is the relevant radii to ...
Hans's user avatar
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2 answers
312 views

Proof for equation of radial probability distribution curve

So my textbook says the equation for this is $$P(r) = 4\pi r^2\Psi^2 $$ It also gives the volume of the shell formula $$\mathrm{d}V = \frac 43 \pi(r+\mathrm{d}r)^3 - \frac 43 \pi r^3$$ which I ...
G.S.'s user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
278 views

Which quantum numbers does the orbital angular momentum depend on? [closed]

I learned from a question that I recently solved that the orbital angular momentum depends on both the azimuthal and magnetic quantum numbers. I did not expect this because the formula for the orbital ...
user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
435 views

Excitation of hydrogen atom

I studied the Bohr's model of atom that says electron can jump to higher energy level by absorbing photon, but the quantum model says we have more than that (quantum numbers). Therefore, when the ...
Zhentian's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
464 views

Huge variation of the atomic size of Uranium

I've already posted this question in Physics Stack Exchange, but the answer that I received (actinide contraction similar to lanthanide contraction) is not convincing for me, or at least is not ...
gryphys's user avatar
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0 answers
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A question regarding hydrogen emission and absorption spectrum

I have read in many articles as well as my textbook that when an electric discharge is passed through a sample of hydrogen gas it excites the electrons and glows emitting light.When this light is ...
AJknight's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
403 views

Explanation of the missing 1-s orbital electrons of carbon in the molecular orbital diagram of methane

Consider the molecular orbital diagram of methane, for example found here: I would like to know what happens with the two 1s orbital electrons of carbon in the molecular orbitals it is forming. Is it ...
WizardMath's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
872 views

Comparison between Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen and Alkali Metals

I posted a question on Chemistry Stack Exchange a while back. It was related to the naming of atomic orbitals. One of the answers to it mentioned a research experiment. The link to the question is ...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
169 views

Size of Orbitals, Making Intuitive Sense of Quantum Model, Nomenclature of Subshells in the Quantum Model

Alright, so I am doing the Quantum Mechanical (or what some people call the Wave Mechanical model) of an atom. There's this part where we have different zones of the probablity of finding electrons, ...
user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
2k views

How to find the orbital a given wavefunction represents?

We were given the following question in chemistry class (under the topic “Atomic Structure”): Which orbital does the following wavefunction represent? $$φ(r) = \frac{1}{81(6π)^{1/2}}\left(\frac{Z}{a}\...
Aaryan's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
48 views

Ambiguity on determining a relativistic Dirac orbital's "shape" when it has two angular components

Wikipedia says that a relativistic Dirac atomic orbital is a 4-component vector, with two angular parts and two spin parts. It also says, indirectly, that 'the top two components of a 2p(1/2) orbital ...
Kanghun Kim's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
86 views

How are the energies of, e.g. the 4p orbitals of the first transition series, determined?

Take a first row transition metal, say manganese. The 4s and 3d orbitals are occupied in Mn; each orbital's energy can can be definitely determined by ionising that orbital, obtaining the resulting Mn+...
Kanghun Kim's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why are higher-energy orbitals larger in size/radius?

I know the different atomic orbitals of atoms are derived from the wave function in the Schroedinger equation. Because I'm not a mathematician, though, I can't decipher the Schroedinger equation and ...
Vandelay's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
505 views

How do the odd proton-number elements originate?

I have a question about the origin of the odd proton-number elements in the periodic table, please. As it is generally thought that the big bang produces hydrogen first, and then hydrogen combined to ...
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0 votes
1 answer
4k views

How do we write spin multiplicity for Mn(2+), Mn(7+)?

Mn has atomic number = 25 Since it is an exception to electronic configuration , unlike having = $\mathrm{3d^7}$ , it has electronic configuration = $\mathrm{3d^5,4s^2}$. Formula for spin multiplicity ...
Goku777's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
59 views

What kind of electronic configurations are possible?

Let us take $d^6$ orbital as an example: A) ↑ | ↑ | ↑ ↓ | ↑ | ↑ | Now , this one 1 way. My Q is that how is it possible that in the 3rd box , we have a paired electron but not in the 1st one. Like it ...
Goku777's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
222 views

What will the correct value of spin quantum number for last electron of Na+ ion?

Electronic configuration of $Na^+$ ion is $1s^2,2s^2,2p^6,3s^0$. I have noticed usually , we take spin quantum number as +1/2 first & then -1/2. So , like for the above Q:It is for first 3e=+1/2 &...
Goku777's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
138 views

Average distance of 1s electron from nucleus in He⁺ ion

What would be the average value of $r$, i.e. $\langle r\rangle$, in the $\mathrm{1s}$ orbital of $\ce{He+}?$ $$ \text{a}.~\frac{3}{2}a_0 \qquad \text{b}.~\frac{3}{4}a_0 \qquad \text{c}.~3a_0 \qquad ...
MAS's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
150 views

When people say "The energy of an orbital depends on its ℓ value due to screening effect" , what is screening what?

My book says: Both the attractive and repulsive interactions depend upon the shell and shape of the orbital in which the electron is present. For example electrons present in spherical shaped, s ...
anon's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
76 views

Energy levels of carbon and selection rules

Here is an atomic physics problem I am trying to solve: The carbon ground state is $[He](2s)^2(2p)^2$. Suppose to excite an electron to the configuration $[He](2s)^2(2p)(3s)$. The spectroscopic terms ...
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