Questions tagged [protons]

Protons are subatomic particles with the symbol p or p+. They have a positive electric charge of 1 elementary charge. Questions referring to interactions of protons in solutions should rather use the acid-base tag.

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How did early chemists work out the number of protons in the nucleus?

I was reading about the history of the periodic table and the description of an element’s atomic number as its proton number. I couldn’t find the source again but it was stated that they figured out ...
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The use of H mass in mass defect and nuclear binding energy computations

I've noted that introductory general chemistry texts compute the mass defect (or mass difference) for radioisotopes using the proton mass $m_\ce{H}=m_{\text{p}}\approx1.00783 \ \text{u} $, instead of $...
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My textbook writes hydronium ion as [H(H2O)]+, is this correct? [closed]

[...] Thus, it bonds to the oxygen atom of a solvent water molecule to give trigonal pyramidal hydronium ion, $\ce{H3O^+}$ $\ce{\{[H (H2O)]^+\}}$ (see box). In this chapter we shall use $\ce{H^+(aq)}$ ...
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Measurement of the number of electrons, protons and neutrons inside an atom

How do we measure the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons inside an atom? What experiments can be conducted to determine, for example, that an iron atom contains 26 protons?
doca's user avatar
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Why does the oxygen in NaOH (sodium hydroxide) acquire an electron from the sodium if it's going to become unstable and give away the electron? [closed]

Mind you that the oxygen is already stable, having an even number of electrons and protons? Is the oxygen really neutral when it has an even number of electrons and protons?
Phillip Grigsby's user avatar
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2 answers
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Hydrogen Isotopes and Bronsted Lowry Acid

a Bronsted Lowry Acid is defined as an acid that donates a proton. However it's actually a Hydrogen Ion, since hydrogen only has 1 proton and 1 electron, a positive Hydrogen Ion would have no electron ...
Arno's user avatar
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why chemical bond between Na and Cl happens [closed]

We know that if Cl and Na get too close, they produce ionic bonding. Cl has 17 proton and 17 electrons and is considered stable. Na has 11 protons and 11 electrons and is considered stable. I ...
Chemistry's user avatar
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when would copper material have free electrons [closed]

If you imagine a wire of copper(note that I am not talking about electricity at all). Just only a wire of copper or copper metal or whatever full of copper atoms. We know that each copper atom has 1 ...
Chemistry's user avatar
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Are elements made out of many atoms? [closed]

So im reading a chemistry book right now, and always thought an element is made out of ONE atom, with special properties that make it this element. Amount of Protons, neutrons and electrons. But this ...
Sosse's user avatar
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Does effective nuclear charge decrease down the group?

I've read that the effective nuclear charge increases down the group. This seems incorrect. As we go down the group the number of protons increases and the shielding constant also increases. We can ...
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NH protons not appearing in H NMR spectrum of 3,4-dihydropyrimidone derivative (solvent: CDCl3)

My synthesized compound is 3,4-dihydropyrimidone derivative, which has 2 nitrogen in the ring. The $\ce{NH}$ protons are not appearing in the H NMR spectrum and the solvent used was deuterated ...
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how to make a PEM (proton exchange membrane) out of Nafion Dispersions?

I would like to use a Nafion membrane for a fuel cell project, but the Nafion sheets are hard to integrate. Therefore, I would like a gel type of Nafion that can take the shape of the container I put ...
Anwer Ak's user avatar
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Is water hydronium and hydroxide? [closed]

In our chemistry lesson when learning about the Bronsted-Lowry definition for acids and bases, we came across the reaction... H2O + H2O -> H3O+ + OH- ...Where water is amphiprotic which means it ...
Amruth Arunkumar's user avatar
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How do the odd proton-number elements originate?

I have a question about the origin of the odd proton-number elements in the periodic table, please. As it is generally thought that the big bang produces hydrogen first, and then hydrogen combined to ...
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At physiological pH, why isn't the amide of glutamine protonated? [closed]

If the amide in the R group of glutamine has a pKa of 15, then pKa is certainly greater than physiological pH. We'd expect it to be pronated, then, but basically all diagrams of glutamine at ...
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Neutron–proton ratio and isotope stability

I have studied that most of the isotopes (not all of them!) with a neutron–proton ratio of $\ge 1.5$ are unstable; but it is obvious that this is not true in some cases like carbon-14 or technetium-99....
Peshawa_Aziz's user avatar
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What is the mass of a proton?

My textbook explains that the deviation from integer atomic mass is caused by mass difference between proton and neutron, which are $1.67262·10^{-27}$ kg and $1.67493 ·10^{-27}$ kg, respectively. If ...
AA-lurveleven's user avatar
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Thickness of proton exchange membrane (Nafion)?

I am looking into using a proton exchange membrane for a bio-energy cell experiment. Previous scholars have been using Nafion as a PEM to place between the anode and cathode (air-cathode). the ...
Anwar Elhadad's user avatar
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Why is it that protons and electrons undergo the same amount of deflection in an electric field if they have the same energy?

The question I have is with respect to this diagram. Which depicts a stream of protons and electrons entering a proton field with equal energy. Why is it that in the case where the energy of protons ...
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Using a H NMR spectrum to determine the structure of a protein supplement

This question is about the H NMR spectrum of creatine. Creatine is a supplement taken by athletes to increase body mass. Recently, supplements containing derivatives of creatine have been marketed. ...
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Did JJ Thomson know about Eugen Goldstein’s experiment discovering canal rays?

We learn that JJ Thomson discovered the electron in 1897. Several years EARLIER in 1886, Eugen Goldstein performs the same experiment but with the anode and cathode switched to produce positively ...
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Why does a proton react with water to form hydronium ion and why does that ion has an overall positive charge? [closed]

Take this is an example: $$\ce{HCl(aq) -> H^+(aq) + Cl^-(aq)}$$ and $$\ce{HCl(aq) + H2O -> H3O+ + Cl^-(aq)}$$ Clearly the proton latches on to the water molecule but why? Also, why does the ...
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How can x-rays show how many protons are in a nucleus?

My textbook states that: Henry Moseley found using x-rays that the atomic number of each element has a characteristic positive charge. I don't know much about x-rays and can't find an answer online or ...
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If D₂O (Deuterium Oxide) in large quantities, is exposed to explosive amounts of Neutrons or Protons, can it possibly go Nuclear? [closed]

If you exposed large amounts of Protons or Neutrons to Deuterium Oxide, could it possibly explode or implode. Im basing this off a Chemical Simulation, in which simulated Protons are exposed to ...
Mister SirCode's user avatar
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1 answer
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What does it mean to accept or donate a proton? [closed]

I've been trying to find out the answer to this question but can't seem to find it anywhere. I would like a very simple explanation.
E. Hanna's user avatar
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3 answers
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Why does radioactive matter decay in series of half-lives?

I was studying types of nuclear decay, and I came across the concept of "half-life". And I started wondering why does nuclear matter decay in half-lives? In other words, why does the rate of nuclear ...
Saif Taher's user avatar
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2 answers
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Why do we use [H⁺] and [OH⁻] in balancing redox reactions instead of using [H₃O⁺] and [OH⁻]? [duplicate]

For what reason is it universally agreed upon that we use $$\ce{H+ + OH-}$$ ions in balancing water on either side of the reaction, but not the $$\ce{H3O+}$$ ions?
user243851's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
403 views

Rechargeable Battery Based on Neutralization Reaction of Acid and Base [closed]

The neutralization reaction, such as $\ce{HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O}$, generates heat, which is around $\pu{57.30 kJ/mol}$. Can we use this energy to design a battery? This idea occurs in my mind for a ...
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Why did J.J. Thomson observe protons in his cathode ray experiment?

In this MIT lecture, at 7:22, the professor says that when J.J. Thomson added a positively charged plate on one side of the cathode ray and a negatively charged plate on the other side, he observed a ...
Michael Chu's user avatar
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Why are the protons in the nucleus not repelled by each other? [duplicate]

Since we know that like charges repel each other and the protons in the nucleus have equal and like charges, but they are held intogether instead of being repelled. Why?
user73034's user avatar
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Can there be any substance whose number of electrons and protons are different at neutral state

I want to ask that if there any substance that has the different number of electrons and protons at its neutral state
Nick's user avatar
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Do bond lengths change upon protonation of a molecule such as an H2O molecule?

Wouldn't the hydrogen atom in a hydronium cation feel a greater proton repulsion force (nucleus-nucleus repulsions) from the oxygen atom and orient away from the oxygen atom to maximize the attractive ...
henrey2306's user avatar
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1 answer
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How does protium fusion produce helium? [closed]

In stellar nucleosynthesis, how is helium produced from a protium atom that has no neutrons?
Peter Johnmeyer's user avatar
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2 answers
144 views

Chemistry: A Chemical Dilemma [closed]

We accept that, via observations that an electron possesses a negative charge and a proton a positive charge, both of which attracting each another. My dilemma lies here, what is the reason for the ...
Dogukan Kayhan's user avatar
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2 answers
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positive rays ?? (What and why)

Question : We were recently studying the chapter on Atomic Structure and we had a topic about cathode rays and the single particle of a cathode ray is called cathode ray particle. The next topic ...
Muhammad Salman's user avatar
1 vote
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Why do objects gain electrons? [duplicate]

I have read that objects gain electrons to become negatively charged and also that they lose electrons to become positively charged. I have also read that same charges repel each other and non-same ...
pro neon's user avatar
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1 answer
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How to experimentally measure number of protons or electrons in an element? [duplicate]

How can one measure the numbers of protons or electrons (the atomic number) in a substance? Like if the element I examine is carbon I expect the result to be 6. Preferable a simple experiment which ...
hschou's user avatar
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1 answer
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What happens to the H electron during acid reaction?

In this generic acid-base reaction: $\ce{HX + B <=> X- + HB+}$ It's explained that the acid HX donates a proton H+ to its conjugate base HB+. What happens to the electron that was originally ...
charlie_sar's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is the reaction of calcium carbide with water a Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reaction or Lewis acid-base reaction?

Consider the following reaction: $$\ce{CaC2 + 2H2O -> Ca(OH)2 + 2C_{2}H_{2}}$$ If it can be considered as an acid-base reaction, is it a Brønsted-Lowry (B.L.) reaction or a Lewis reaction? If it ...
Sørën's user avatar
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4 answers
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In helium-2, would each electron experience a single positive charge from the nucleus?

If we have an atom of hydrogen-1, we know that there exists one proton with one electron and in helium-2 two protons with two electrons. My question is that do protons get shared equally with ...
user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
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Formation of Hydrogen - from a proton and an electron [closed]

If I place a proton and an electron close to each other, can they form an atom of hydrogen? Why or why not? Please explain the scenarios where this is not likely/unlikely. Personally I doubt it, ...
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Effective Nuclear Charge of Noble Gases

As stated in my textbook, the effective nuclear charge can be calculated by taking the non-valence electrons away from the atomic number, as also stated in the first calculation on Wikipedia: https://...
George Tian's user avatar
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Can it be said that on our planet we have roughly the same number of electrons as we have protons?

My question is quite simple I think. Is it true that we have approximately the same number of electrons as we have protons and the average electric charge of the molecules in our planet is roughly ...
yoyo_fun's user avatar
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Proton leak during ATP synthesis

I was told there is a proton leak during ATP production. When going through the mechanisms we went over in class, I was unable to find when this occurs. During what part of ATP production is there a ...
Melanie Shebel's user avatar
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1 answer
218 views

How right is defining elements with the number of protons? [closed]

Atomic number is the number of protons a certain atom has. It's the defining attribute of a certain element. But, How right is that? From the viewpoint of chemistry, the definition is right. Because, ...
Mockingbird's user avatar
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What is the proton NMR spectrum of p-methoxyphenol?

I think there will be two pairs of doublets, since the hydrogens adjacent to the $\ce{OCH3}$ and those adjacent to the $\ce{OH}$ group will be in different environments. The answer, however, is that ...
John's user avatar
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2 answers
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Does firing a proton beam on water make it acidic?

Lets say I fire a proton beam upon the surface of water. Lets assume I do the experiment in an air-free environment and that the proton beam doesn't reflect off the surface of water. Now, protons, ...
Pritt says Reinstate Monica's user avatar
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On what basis can we say that one nuclide is more stable than another one? [closed]

I read in a textbook that the nuclide $^{40}_{20}\ce{Ca}$ is more stable as compared to $^{30}_{13}\ce{Al}$. I checked it online and saw that most sources describe the observation with respect to odd ...
Ajay Subramanian's user avatar
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1 answer
168 views

how do protons in the nucleus of an atom overcome repuulsions [duplicate]

Why don't protons present in the nucleus of an atom repel each other being likely charged ?
Pallavi's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
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Is an acid (just) a proton donor and if not, what is the correct definition of an acid?

Why is acid called proton donor? On the internet, I found: Acids are substances that can donate $\ce{H+}$ ions to bases. Since a hydrogen atom is a proton and one electron, technically an $\ce{H+}...
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