Questions tagged [covalent-compounds]

For questions about covalent compounds - which are compounds in which all intermolecular bonds between atoms are considered mostly covalent - have a stronger covalent than ionic or metallic component. This tag is not to be confused with [bond].

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38 views

Why does covalent bonding satisfy atoms?

Having to retake an introductory chemistry course has gotten me thinking. Covalent bonding is where electrons are shared between two atoms that both want more electrons. Let us take $\ce{O2}$ as an ...
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Covalent Bonds and Ionic Bonds [duplicate]

Covalent bond is a strong bond compared to Ionic Bonds but Ionic Compounds have higher melting and boiling points then covalent compounds. Why?
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35 views

Covalency of metal oxides in high oxidation states [closed]

So, metal oxides are generally basic, right? But in higher oxidation states their covalent character is predominant. For example in Mn2O7 the Mn - O bond is covalent. Why is that?
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Why is the number of covalent bounds typically formed by an element equal to 8 minus the group number? [closed]

Why would the number of covalent bounds typically formed by an element equal to 8 minus the group number? E.g for C, we have 8-4 bonds, for Cl, 8-7 bonds
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Why doesn't Oxygen form coordinate covalent bonds? [closed]

We know that an Oxygen atom has two lone pairs. Why doesn't oxygen then form coordinate covalent bonds using those since it has nothing to lose?
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1answer
97 views

Why does aluminum chloride have a higher lattice energy than aluminum fluoride?

From the table below (source: McMurry's Chemistry [1, p. 212]), it is evident that $\ce{AlCl_3}$ has a higher lattice energy than $\ce{AlF3},$ even though $\ce{F}$ is smaller than $\ce{Cl}$. Why is ...
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24 views

Why homolytic fission of polar molecules is possible at higher temperature?

While studying alkanes I came across the nitration of alkanes using Nitric acid at very high temperature, which apparently follows "free radical" mechanisms, by formation of OH° °NO2 free radical ! ...
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2answers
617 views

Lewis Structure of OF+

Would the Lewis Structure for OF+ be drawn so that the more electronegative atom has the more negative formal charge, or would it be drawn to satisfy the octet rule? Here are my thoughts thus far: ...
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1answer
415 views

Comparison of C-Cl bond length in CH3Cl and CF3Cl

Topic: Chemical Bonding (Application of Bent's Rule) Bent's rule is also consistent with Gillespie's VSEPR model, and may provide alternative rationalisation for effect of electronegativity. So it ...
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1answer
469 views

Why are double bonds shorter than single bonds? [duplicate]

We're told in chemistry class that the order of bond length is: triple < double < single Can anyone explain WHY this is the case? Is it because multiple bonds involve stronger attraction ...
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49 views

Hydrogen Bonding by Carbenes

A hydrogen bond is formed between hydrogen attached to highly electronegative atoms (nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine) which are small in size too and the non-bonding pair of electrons of another such ...
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24 views

What exactly is “oxidation state”? [duplicate]

the textbooks say that it is the amount of electrons lost or gained by an atom in a bond but in a covalent molecule the atoms never technically lose electrons ,instead share them to in such a way to ...
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1answer
103 views

Is it possible to have an allotrope of carbon as a long unbranched chain of itself?

Is it possible to have an allotrope of carbon with formula $\ce{(=C=)_n}$? Well, let's actually leave alone the separate question like from which "monomer" would one produce such a thing (can one ...
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26 views

Do temporary dipoles form in silicon(IV) dioxide?

Textbooks only ever mention covalent bonds between silicon and oxygen atoms in silica. However, as electron movement is random, one end of a silicon atom in a given instant could be more positive than ...
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27 views

What is an O-alkyl compound? [duplicate]

What are O-alkyl compounds? I am reading about soils and often see "O-alkyl" without any explanation of the structure or chemical reactivity of O-alkyl compounds.
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304 views

Can 2 dz2 orbitals form a π bond?

Usually , d orbitals overlap sideways along a common internuclear axis, but drawing and checking for dz2 , it always seems to form a sigma bond or null overlap. Is this because it doesn't have any ...
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127 views

Why are d(xy),d(yz) and d(xz) orbitals involved in d³s hybridisation?

Shouldn't d(x²-y²) dxy and dz² orbitals participate? Since this corressponds to the best case overlap? What factors decide the participating orbitals in hybridisation? P.S I am well versed with the ...
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2answers
177 views

Why are triple covalent carbon to carbon bonds drawn linearly in skeletal structure? [duplicate]

In the link see that cyclic C-C structure with a triple covalent bond is drawn with an angle, probably the only way to draw it but why is it drawn linearly in non-cyclic and not like single or double ...
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1answer
728 views

Is a hydrogen molecule smaller than hydrogen atom?

Recently I came across a textbook of physical chemistry which stated the following: In the formation of a stable hydrogen molecule, two hydrogen atoms share a pair of electrons between them and two ...
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489 views

Why is Lithium Chloride (LiCl) soluble in alcohols?

According do J.D. Lee's Concise Inorganic Chemistry, LiCl is soluble in alcohols because it has some covalent nature, althought it is mainly polar. Why would LiCl have covalent character? Why doesn't ...
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1answer
105 views

Electrons in methane [closed]

Why does a molecule of methane have 10 electrons? I used to think that the number of electrons in methane were 8 in number but it turns out that there are 10 in number but i dont know why. Please ...
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1answer
42 views

Number of stable molecules of artificial molecule XY4 [closed]

Suppose element X has $5$ stable isotopes, and element Y has $6$ stable isotopes. Find the number of natural molecules, knowing that an X has a charge of $+4$ and Y has a charge of $-1$. What I tried ...
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1answer
223 views

Ionic factor of glucose? [closed]

I am trying to find the $K_\mathrm{b}$ for 50 g of glucose dissolved in 1 kg of ethanol, given the change in boiling point is $\pu{2.2 °C}$. The molality is therefore 0.278. But what is the ionic ...
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1answer
372 views

Lewis structure of ammonium ion [closed]

What would be the lewis structure for ammonium ion? Is there a coordinate covalent bond as well in the structure? My confusuion would be dealth with if i get the structure of ammonium cyanate as well....
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1answer
698 views

Ionic compounds and van der Waals forces

I'm having trouble understanding exactly what intermolecular forces occur in ionic compounds. What I understand is that ionic compounds are held together by electrostatic interactions between ...
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2answers
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What is the bond in H2O (water) molecule ? And why? [duplicate]

Is it covalent or coordinate covalent bond ? Because it can be a bond between O and 2 H atoms and so it will be covalent bond . And it can be a bond between H (+ve) ion and Oh(-ve)ion and it will be ...
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1answer
374 views

Why does covalent nature in ionic solids increase the lattice energy?

I have observed in my textbooks that ionic solid that have a greater covalent character tend to have higher lattice energy. Can this be generalised as fact?
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200 views

How to rationalise the resonance structures of nitrogen dioxide?

The following image depicts resonance in $\ce{NO2}$ molecule: I don't know if it is obvious or not, but I'm puzzled by this structure. I've read about the structure of the $\ce{NO2}$ compound, but it ...
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1answer
38 views

Covalent compounds [closed]

Which of the following bond has lowest energy? 1.C-C. 2.N-N 3.H-H 4.O-O 5.F-F I don't understand the concept behind this question. If we take electronegative as a factor than option 5 is ...
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1answer
123 views

Why do some covalent compounds form lattice while others do not? [duplicate]

Why do some covalent compounds form lattice while others do not? I'm not only talking about amorphous solids but covalent compounds that form molecular lattice in general. For Example: Compounds like ...
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0answers
101 views

Is there a single word antonym for dissociate? [closed]

Teaching ionic and covalent compounds, and one of the differences is that some ionic compounds will dissociate when dissolved but covalent compounds usually do not (salt water vs. sugar water, just ...
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14 views

How is the covalency of terminal carbons of a diamond satisfied? [duplicate]

Are the terminal carbons of the diamond lattice remain bonded to some element like hydrogen? Or, is it that they don't achieve octate in their outer shell?
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1answer
931 views

Why any non polar compounds dissolve in nonpolar substance like Benzene what is the reason behind it? [duplicate]

In case of ionic solvent the ionic solute dissolve in it because due to polar nature of water it break the bond between the ions through hydration energy and the ionic solvent dissolve in it. So I ...
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1answer
351 views

Why is graphite solid but water liquid? [closed]

$\ce{H2O}$ has primary covalent and secondary hydrogen bonds (hence it is liquid). Graphite has primary covalent and secondary Van der Waals bonds. Still, graphite is a solid. Why is this so?
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T shape molecule with three hydrogens

Is there any sort of AX3E2 molecule that consists of hydrogen atoms bonded to the main atom who is left over with two lone pairs of electrons? (Similar to ClF3 just with hydrogen instead of fluorine?)
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1answer
85 views

Is a non-compound molecule a chemical substance?

The Wikipedia definition of chemical substance states: A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties....
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1answer
129 views

Metallic character of bonds?

Why in discussions of percent character of bonds, are only ionic and covalent bondings discussed? Do bonds not have a partial metallic character, and are either metallic and ionic-covalent?
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Why do diamond and graphite have different structures, when they are both composed of carbon?

Both diamond and graphite are covalent networks and are both made entirely from carbon, but why does diamond have a three dimensional network of strong covalent bonds which makes it hard, whereas ...
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1answer
1k views

Identifying covalent character in ionic compounds when varying multiple ions

By Fajans' rules, we can easily find out which compound shows covalent character. Example: Among $\ce{NaCl}$, $\ce{MgCl2}$, $\ce{AlCl3}$ which one is more covalent? Answer: There is a point in ...
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1answer
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Covalent bond in NO3 [duplicate]

Can anyone explain how the bonding is formed in NO3 because I can't understand how N can satisfy electron hunger of 3 oxygen atom
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1answer
166 views

Formal charge and valence shell

Is there a relationship between valence shell and formal charge of the atom...... Let's take an example. A carbocation for eg $methenium$ has a formal charge of +1,can we tell how many valence ...
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1answer
76 views

Greater bond distance for silicon diamond structure than for carbon diamond structure?

In the silicon diamond structure the bond distance is about two times the bond distance of the carbon diamond structure. Is this caused only by the greater dimension of $\mathrm{Si}$ atoms with ...
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1answer
212 views

Why is moist hydrogen made to react with chlorine to give hydrogen chloride?

Moist hydrogen reacts with chlorine in diffused sunlight to give out hydrogen chloride. Why is moist hydrogen used? Why not dry hydrogen?
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174 views

Why does CO2 only exist in gaseous and solid state under STP/SATP?

Why does carbon dioxide only exist in gas and solid state under STP/SATP conditions? $\ce{CO2}$ pressurized to $\pu{5.1 atm}$ can exist in all 3 states: solid, gas, and liquid. However, why couldn't ...
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1answer
1k views

Number of Sigma Bonds in this Structure Containing a Ring [closed]

(This question was on my last gen. chemistry exam.) I counted 12 sigma bonds, but the answer was 13. I'm taking this course online so there is no explanation given. Could anyone offer a quick ...
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1answer
61 views

How can functional groups be bounded?

When I read about the different kinds of functional groups, they usually have formulas like $\ce{-NH2} $, $\ce{-COOH}$, $\ce {-OH}$, etc. What does the bar represent? Any bond? Or can it only be a ...
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1answer
2k views

Does a covalent bond constitute of 1 or 2 electrons?

A covalent bond is pictured as two electrons shared by two different atomic nuclei, which means that each of the two nuclei has two electrons. The problem I see with it is that it implies that if a ...
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117 views

How does the phosphate ion look like? [duplicate]

I am trying to understand how a phosphate ion looks like using the VSEPR theory. The phosphorus element has an atomic number of 15, and therefore it has a electron configuration as follow by the ...
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4k views

Why is lead (IV) chloride covalent while lead (II) chloride ionic?

I would like to find out more about what makes a compound ionic and what makes one covalent. However, I felt this was too general a question so I thought that asking about the chlorides of lead would ...
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582 views

How to rationalise the increasing bond length order in the carbonate ion, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide?

I am unable to rationalise the order of increasing bond length in $\ce{CO3^2-}$, $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{CO2}$. Having gone through the factors affecting bond length in two different books, my approach to ...

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