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Questions tagged [covalent-compounds]

For questions about covalent compounds - which are compounds in which all intermolecular bonds between atoms are considered mostly covalent - have a stronger covalent than ionic or metallic component. This tag is not to be confused with [bond].

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Why are triple covalent carbon to carbon bonds drawn linearly in skeletal structure? [duplicate]

In the link see that cyclic C-C structure with a triple covalent bond is drawn with an angle, probably the only way to draw it but why is it drawn linearly in non-cyclic and not like single or double ...
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1answer
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Is a hydrogen molecule smaller than hydrogen atom?

Recently I came across a textbook of physical chemistry which stated the following: In the formation of a stable hydrogen molecule, two hydrogen atoms share a pair of electrons between them and two ...
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Why is Lithium Chloride (LiCl) soluble in alcohols?

According do J.D. Lee's Concise Inorganic Chemistry, LiCl is soluble in alcohols because it has some covalent nature, althought it is mainly polar. Why would LiCl have covalent character? Why doesn't ...
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1answer
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Electrons in methane [closed]

Why does a molecule of methane have 10 electrons? I used to think that the number of electrons in methane were 8 in number but it turns out that there are 10 in number but i dont know why. Please ...
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1answer
32 views

Number of stable molecules of artificial molecule XY4 [closed]

Suppose element X has $5$ stable isotopes, and element Y has $6$ stable isotopes. Find the number of natural molecules, knowing that an X has a charge of $+4$ and Y has a charge of $-1$. What I tried ...
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1answer
37 views

Ionic factor of glucose? [closed]

I am trying to find the $K_\mathrm{b}$ for 50 g of glucose dissolved in 1 kg of ethanol, given the change in boiling point is $\pu{2.2 °C}$. The molality is therefore 0.278. But what is the ionic ...
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1answer
91 views

Lewis structure of ammonium ion [closed]

What would be the lewis structure for ammonium ion? Is there a coordinate covalent bond as well in the structure? My confusuion would be dealth with if i get the structure of ammonium cyanate as well....
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1answer
171 views

Ionic compounds and van der Waals forces

I'm having trouble understanding exactly what intermolecular forces occur in ionic compounds. What I understand is that ionic compounds are held together by electrostatic interactions between ...
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2answers
135 views

What is the bond in H2O (water) molecule ? And why? [duplicate]

Is it covalent or coordinate covalent bond ? Because it can be a bond between O and 2 H atoms and so it will be covalent bond . And it can be a bond between H (+ve) ion and Oh(-ve)ion and it will be ...
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1answer
88 views

Why does covalent nature in ionic solids increase the lattice energy?

I have observed in my textbooks that ionic solid that have a greater covalent character tend to have higher lattice energy. Can this be generalised as fact?
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24 views

How to rationalise the resonance structures of nitrogen dioxide?

The following image depicts resonance in $\ce{NO2}$ molecule: I don't know if it is obvious or not, but I'm puzzled by this structure. I've read about the structure of the $\ce{NO2}$ compound, but it ...
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1answer
32 views

Covalent compounds [closed]

Which of the following bond has lowest energy? 1.C-C. 2.N-N 3.H-H 4.O-O 5.F-F I don't understand the concept behind this question. If we take electronegative as a factor than option 5 is ...
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1answer
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Why do some covalent compounds form lattice while others do not? [duplicate]

Why do some covalent compounds form lattice while others do not? I'm not only talking about amorphous solids but covalent compounds that form molecular lattice in general. For Example: Compounds like ...
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0answers
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Is there a single word antonym for dissociate? [closed]

Teaching ionic and covalent compounds, and one of the differences is that some ionic compounds will dissociate when dissolved but covalent compounds usually do not (salt water vs. sugar water, just ...
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How is the covalency of terminal carbons of a diamond satisfied? [duplicate]

Are the terminal carbons of the diamond lattice remain bonded to some element like hydrogen? Or, is it that they don't achieve octate in their outer shell?
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1answer
503 views

Why any non polar compounds dissolve in nonpolar substance like Benzene what is the reason behind it? [duplicate]

In case of ionic solvent the ionic solute dissolve in it because due to polar nature of water it break the bond between the ions through hydration energy and the ionic solvent dissolve in it. So I ...
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1answer
208 views

Why is graphite solid but water liquid? [closed]

$\ce{H2O}$ has primary covalent and secondary hydrogen bonds (hence it is liquid). Graphite has primary covalent and secondary Van der Waals bonds. Still, graphite is a solid. Why is this so?
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T shape molecule with three hydrogens

Is there any sort of AX3E2 molecule that consists of hydrogen atoms bonded to the main atom who is left over with two lone pairs of electrons? (Similar to ClF3 just with hydrogen instead of fluorine?)
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1answer
59 views

Is a non-compound molecule a chemical substance?

The Wikipedia definition of chemical substance states: A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties....
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1answer
120 views

Metallic character of bonds?

Why in discussions of percent character of bonds, are only ionic and covalent bondings discussed? Do bonds not have a partial metallic character, and are either metallic and ionic-covalent?
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2answers
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Why do diamond and graphite have different structures, when they are both composed of carbon?

Both diamond and graphite are covalent networks and are both made entirely from carbon, but why does diamond have a three dimensional network of strong covalent bonds which makes it hard, whereas ...
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1answer
657 views

Identifying covalent character in ionic compounds when varying multiple ions

By Fajans' rules, we can easily find out which compound shows covalent character. Example: Among $\ce{NaCl}$, $\ce{MgCl2}$, $\ce{AlCl3}$ which one is more covalent? Answer: There is a point in ...
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1answer
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Covalent bond in NO3 [duplicate]

Can anyone explain how the bonding is formed in NO3 because I can't understand how N can satisfy electron hunger of 3 oxygen atom
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1answer
137 views

Formal charge and valence shell

Is there a relationship between valence shell and formal charge of the atom...... Let's take an example. A carbocation for eg $methenium$ has a formal charge of +1,can we tell how many valence ...
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1answer
38 views

Greater bond distance for silicon diamond structure than for carbon diamond structure?

In the silicon diamond structure the bond distance is about two times the bond distance of the carbon diamond structure. Is this caused only by the greater dimension of $\mathrm{Si}$ atoms with ...
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1answer
103 views

Why is moist hydrogen made to react with chlorine to give hydrogen chloride?

Moist hydrogen reacts with chlorine in diffused sunlight to give out hydrogen chloride. Why is moist hydrogen used? Why not dry hydrogen?
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Why does CO2 only exist in gaseous and solid state under STP/SATP?

Why does carbon dioxide only exist in gas and solid state under STP/SATP conditions? $\ce{CO2}$ pressurized to $\pu{5.1 atm}$ can exist in all 3 states: solid, gas, and liquid. However, why couldn't ...
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1answer
791 views

Number of Sigma Bonds in this Structure Containing a Ring [closed]

(This question was on my last gen. chemistry exam.) I counted 12 sigma bonds, but the answer was 13. I'm taking this course online so there is no explanation given. Could anyone offer a quick ...
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1answer
58 views

How can functional groups be bounded?

When I read about the different kinds of functional groups, they usually have formulas like $\ce{-NH2} $, $\ce{-COOH}$, $\ce {-OH}$, etc. What does the bar represent? Any bond? Or can it only be a ...
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1answer
1k views

Does a covalent bond constitute of 1 or 2 electrons?

A covalent bond is pictured as two electrons shared by two different atomic nuclei, which means that each of the two nuclei has two electrons. The problem I see with it is that it implies that if a ...
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0answers
98 views

How does the phosphate ion look like? [duplicate]

I am trying to understand how a phosphate ion looks like using the VSEPR theory. The phosphorus element has an atomic number of 15, and therefore it has a electron configuration as follow by the ...
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0answers
3k views

Why is lead (IV) chloride covalent while lead (II) chloride ionic?

I would like to find out more about what makes a compound ionic and what makes one covalent. However, I felt this was too general a question so I thought that asking about the chlorides of lead would ...
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1answer
396 views

How to rationalise the increasing bond length order in the carbonate ion, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide?

I am unable to rationalise the order of increasing bond length in $\ce{CO3^2-}$, $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{CO2}$. Having gone through the factors affecting bond length in two different books, my approach to ...
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1answer
297 views

Nitrogen Covalent Bonds

Let me premise this with the fact that I really have zero knowledge of chemistry. So bear with me and my ignorance. :) Now, with that introduction out of the way, I've read up this site which ...
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1answer
1k views

How does P4O10 make sense? [duplicate]

I'm trying to understand the gains phosphorus has from forming $\ce{P4O10}$. The molecular structure is such that every oxygen atom forms two bonds (either two with one phosphorus atom, or one with ...
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0answers
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Where can I find a downloadable database of basic physical and chemical properties?

The web has many online databases of properties of compounds locked behind search interfaces, but I can't find anything you can actually download. I want a corpus of data that might allow me to, say, ...
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0answers
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Boron nitride polymerization with silicon based molecules

Since boron nitride is similar to carbon hexagonal structures and silicon is a main component of inorganic polymers. Is it possible to make it from a polymer under certain conditions, if so what ...
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1answer
391 views

How are the π bonds arranged in Osmium Tetroxide?

The structure of $\ce{OsO4}$ has puzzled me greatly for a while. I know that it has a tetrahedral geometry. I am quite piqued at the thought of how the $π$ bonds were arranged in the molecule. My ...
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1answer
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Strength of Dipoles, Covalent bonds and H-Bonds

My textbook says: Dipole-dipole forces are 1% as effective as covalent bonds and the strength of a hydrogen bond is generally twenty times less than that of a covalent bond. What do these ...
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3answers
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Covalent and Ionic Bonds

Is sodium nitrate a covalent or ionic compound? This is a test question. I put the answer ionic compound but my teacher says that statement is false because it is only partially ionic as there is ...
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Are all monomers in a polymer covalently bonded?

I'm approaching chemistry and I read on Wikipedia that The modern concept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger" But then the ...
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1answer
531 views

Why does H2 react with O2?

We know $\ce{H2}$ is formed with covalent bonds (just as $\ce{O2}$ is formed via covalent bonding). Hence, these molecules gain some stability. In spite of this stability, why do they react with each ...
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1answer
240 views

The nature of a PN junction - Whats preventing full 'diffusion' of electrons?

In this image: Can the following electron take up 'hole'? If so, this question is sort of leading onto a bigger question about PN junctions. What is preventing the electron in the ion from moving ...
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What is melting? Which bonds do we break to melt something?

To melt diamond, we have to break the covalent bonds, which we can consider 'intermolecular' because it is one giant molecule. To melt Methane, we have to break the van der Waals (intermolecular) ...
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How does cross-linking between polymer chains increase the melting point of the polymer?

https://i.stack.imgur.com/uUcQr.jpg Suppose we have this polymer chain. Now, we cross link some chains ( not all ) , so some chains get linked, and others remain as they are. What we now have is a '...
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2answers
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Can alkenes have triple bonds?

Or is it characteristic of alkynes only ? also, can they (the alkenes) have double and triple bonds in the same molecule ?
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polar covalent bond

Please take a look at the image of polar covalent bond in the $\ce{H2O}$ molecule below. My question is given in bold type in the following discussion. Here is my flow of thought that confused me so ...
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3answers
920 views

Do Li4 or Li8 molecules exist?

I've read that alkali metals form ionic bonds; $\ce{Li}$ is an exception which majorly forms covalent bonds. Wikipedia says dilithium exists. This makes me wonder why $\ce{Li_8}$ doesn't exist. It ...
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1answer
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if the shared electrons in covalent bond revolves around their nucleus, how they hold the two molecules together? [duplicate]

Covalent bonds are formed by sharing electrons. The pictures depicting this bond make it seem like that the shared electrons stay in a fixed/limited place. What happens in reality? If they rotate ...
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1answer
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When would the presence of lone pair result in a polar molecule?

In what cases would the presence of a lone pair result in a polar molecule? For instance, O3 is polar despite only consisting of O atoms due to the presence of lone pair of electrons. However, O2 also ...