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For questions about covalent compounds - which are compounds in which all intermolecular bonds between atoms are considered mostly covalent - have a stronger covalent than ionic or metallic component. This tag is not to be confused with [bond].

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Why do some covalent compounds form lattice while others do not? [duplicate]

Why do some covalent compounds form lattice while others do not? I'm not only talking about amorphous solids but covalent compounds that form molecular lattice in general. For Example: Compounds like ...
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Is there a single word antonym for dissociate? [closed]

Teaching ionic and covalent compounds, and one of the differences is that some ionic compounds will dissociate when dissolved but covalent compounds usually do not (salt water vs. sugar water, just ...
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0answers
91 views

Order of covalent character of lead halides

According to Fajans' rule, larger the size of anion more is the covalent character. But why is $\ce{PbF2 > PbCl2 > PbBr2 > PbI2}$ the order of covalent character?
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How is the covalency of terminal carbons of a diamond satisfied? [duplicate]

Are the terminal carbons of the diamond lattice remain bonded to some element like hydrogen? Or, is it that they don't achieve octate in their outer shell?
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1answer
86 views

Why any non polar compounds dissolve in nonpolar substance like Benzene what is the reason behind it? [duplicate]

In case of ionic solvent the ionic solute dissolve in it because due to polar nature of water it break the bond between the ions through hydration energy and the ionic solvent dissolve in it. So I ...
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1answer
101 views

Why is graphite solid but water liquid? [closed]

$\ce{H2O}$ has primary covalent and secondary hydrogen bonds (hence it is liquid). Graphite has primary covalent and secondary Van der Waals bonds. Still, graphite is a solid. Why is this so?
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T shape molecule with three hydrogens

Is there any sort of AX3E2 molecule that consists of hydrogen atoms bonded to the main atom who is left over with two lone pairs of electrons? (Similar to ClF3 just with hydrogen instead of fluorine?)
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What is the significance of defining the compoud like this?

These are two definitions of a chemical compound. First, "A compound is the result of two or more elements becoming chemically combined together. The elements react chemically, causing bonds to be ...
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50 views

Is a non-compound molecule a chemical substance?

The Wikipedia definition of chemical substance states: A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties....
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116 views

Metallic character of bonds?

Why in discussions of percent character of bonds, are only ionic and covalent bondings discussed? Do bonds not have a partial metallic character, and are either metallic and ionic-covalent?
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Why do diamond and graphite have different structures, when they are both composed of carbon?

Both diamond and graphite are covalent networks and are both made entirely from carbon, but why does diamond have a three dimensional network of strong covalent bonds which makes it hard, whereas ...
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348 views

Identifying covalent character in ionic compounds when varying multiple ions

By Fajans' rules, we can easily find out which compound shows covalent character. Example: Among $\ce{NaCl}$, $\ce{MgCl2}$, $\ce{AlCl3}$ which one is more covalent? Answer: There is a point in ...
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792 views

Covalent bond in NO3 [duplicate]

Can anyone explain how the bonding is formed in NO3 because I can't understand how N can satisfy electron hunger of 3 oxygen atom
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1answer
113 views

Formal charge and valence shell

Is there a relationship between valence shell and formal charge of the atom...... Let's take an example. A carbocation for eg $methenium$ has a formal charge of +1,can we tell how many valence ...
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1answer
36 views

Greater bond distance for silicon diamond structure than for carbon diamond structure?

In the silicon diamond structure the bond distance is about two times the bond distance of the carbon diamond structure. Is this caused only by the greater dimension of $\mathrm{Si}$ atoms with ...
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1answer
73 views

Why is moist hydrogen made to react with chlorine to give hydrogen chloride?

Moist hydrogen reacts with chlorine in diffused sunlight to give out hydrogen chloride. Why is moist hydrogen used? Why not dry hydrogen?
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86 views

Why does CO2 only exist in gaseous and solid state under STP/SATP?

Why does carbon dioxide only exist in gas and solid state under STP/SATP conditions? $\ce{CO2}$ pressurized to $\pu{5.1 atm}$ can exist in all 3 states: solid, gas, and liquid. However, why couldn't ...
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1answer
479 views

Number of Sigma Bonds in this Structure Containing a Ring [closed]

(This question was on my last gen. chemistry exam.) I counted 12 sigma bonds, but the answer was 13. I'm taking this course online so there is no explanation given. Could anyone offer a quick ...
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1answer
55 views

How can functional groups be bounded?

When I read about the different kinds of functional groups, they usually have formulas like $\ce{-NH2} $, $\ce{-COOH}$, $\ce {-OH}$, etc. What does the bar represent? Any bond? Or can it only be a ...
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1answer
689 views

Does a covalent bond constitute of 1 or 2 electrons?

A covalent bond is pictured as two electrons shared by two different atomic nuclei, which means that each of the two nuclei has two electrons. The problem I see with it is that it implies that if a ...
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0answers
86 views

How does the phosphate ion look like? [duplicate]

I am trying to understand how a phosphate ion looks like using the VSEPR theory. The phosphorus element has an atomic number of 15, and therefore it has a electron configuration as follow by the ...
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2k views

Why is lead (IV) chloride covalent while lead (II) chloride ionic?

I would like to find out more about what makes a compound ionic and what makes one covalent. However, I felt this was too general a question so I thought that asking about the chlorides of lead would ...
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1answer
266 views

How to rationalise the increasing bond length order in the carbonate ion, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide?

I am unable to rationalise the order of increasing bond length in $\ce{CO3^2-}$, $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{CO2}$. Having gone through the factors affecting bond length in two different books, my approach to ...
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1answer
252 views

Nitrogen Covalent Bonds

Let me premise this with the fact that I really have zero knowledge of chemistry. So bear with me and my ignorance. :) Now, with that introduction out of the way, I've read up this site which ...
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1answer
981 views

How does P4O10 make sense? [duplicate]

I'm trying to understand the gains phosphorus has from forming $\ce{P4O10}$. The molecular structure is such that every oxygen atom forms two bonds (either two with one phosphorus atom, or one with ...
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Where can I find a downloadable database of basic physical and chemical properties?

The web has many online databases of properties of compounds locked behind search interfaces, but I can't find anything you can actually download. I want a corpus of data that might allow me to, say, ...
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Boron nitride polymerization with silicon based molecules

Since boron nitride is similar to carbon hexagonal structures and silicon is a main component of inorganic polymers. Is it possible to make it from a polymer under certain conditions, if so what ...
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310 views

How are the π bonds arranged in Osmium Tetroxide?

The structure of $\ce{OsO4}$ has puzzled me greatly for a while. I know that it has a tetrahedral geometry. I am quite piqued at the thought of how the $π$ bonds were arranged in the molecule. My ...
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1answer
939 views

Strength of Dipoles, Covalent bonds and H-Bonds

My textbook says: Dipole-dipole forces are 1% as effective as covalent bonds and the strength of a hydrogen bond is generally twenty times less than that of a covalent bond. What do these ...
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3answers
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Covalent and Ionic Bonds

Is sodium nitrate a covalent or ionic compound? This is a test question. I put the answer ionic compound but my teacher says that statement is false because it is only partially ionic as there is ...
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328 views

Are all monomers in a polymer covalently bonded?

I'm approaching chemistry and I read on Wikipedia that The modern concept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger" But then the ...
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1answer
422 views

Why does H2 react with O2?

We know $\ce{H2}$ is formed with covalent bonds (just as $\ce{O2}$ is formed via covalent bonding). Hence, these molecules gain some stability. In spite of this stability, why do they react with each ...
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1answer
196 views

The nature of a PN junction - Whats preventing full 'diffusion' of electrons?

In this image: Can the following electron take up 'hole'? If so, this question is sort of leading onto a bigger question about PN junctions. What is preventing the electron in the ion from moving ...
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What is melting? Which bonds do we break to melt something?

To melt diamond, we have to break the covalent bonds, which we can consider 'intermolecular' because it is one giant molecule. To melt Methane, we have to break the van der Waals (intermolecular) ...
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349 views

How does cross-linking between polymer chains increase the melting point of the polymer?

https://i.stack.imgur.com/uUcQr.jpg Suppose we have this polymer chain. Now, we cross link some chains ( not all ) , so some chains get linked, and others remain as they are. What we now have is a '...
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Can alkenes have triple bonds?

Or is it characteristic of alkynes only ? also, can they (the alkenes) have double and triple bonds in the same molecule ?
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polar covalent bond

Please take a look at the image of polar covalent bond in the $\ce{H2O}$ molecule below. My question is given in bold type in the following discussion. Here is my flow of thought that confused me so ...
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810 views

Do Li4 or Li8 molecules exist?

I've read that alkali metals form ionic bonds; $\ce{Li}$ is an exception which majorly forms covalent bonds. Wikipedia says dilithium exists. This makes me wonder why $\ce{Li_8}$ doesn't exist. It ...
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1answer
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if the shared electrons in covalent bond revolves around their nucleus, how they hold the two molecules together? [duplicate]

Covalent bonds are formed by sharing electrons. The pictures depicting this bond make it seem like that the shared electrons stay in a fixed/limited place. What happens in reality? If they rotate ...
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1answer
931 views

When would the presence of lone pair result in a polar molecule?

In what cases would the presence of a lone pair result in a polar molecule? For instance, O3 is polar despite only consisting of O atoms due to the presence of lone pair of electrons. However, O2 also ...
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Why doesn't phosphorus form as many oxides as nitrogen?

Nitrogen has oxides like $\ce{N2O}$, $\ce{NO}$, $\ce{NO2}$, $\ce{N2O3}$, $\ce{N2O5}$, but as far as I know, phosphorus has probably only $\ce{P2O3}$ and $\ce{P2O5}$. Why does nitrogen have so many ...
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5k views

Why is FeCl3 covalent? [duplicate]

There is an electronegativity difference of 1.2 between $\ce{Fe}$ and $\ce{Cl}$. Then why it is covalent?
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Covalency in bonding across the periodic table

Bonding between main group elements is obviously almost entirely covalent and it is often easy to see these covalent bonds as 2c-2e bonds localised between two atoms. The bonding in borane, boron ...
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2answers
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Hydrogen covalent bond

It's stated: when two hydrogen atoms form a covalent bond, the distance between them corresponds to the lowest energy. The letters A, B and C show the correspondence between shifts in electron density ...
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3answers
9k views

Why is the chemical formula for vinegar CH3COOH what it is? [duplicate]

I am quite new to chemistry, but I would like to think that I have mastered the basics. This would include naming and writing out chemical formulas. However, once I had seen the formula for vinegar ($\...
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557 views

Giant covalent structures vs Simple covalent structures

I have been asked to compare the structure of Buckminster Fullerene and Diamond. Diamond is obviously a giant covalent structure, it goes on continuously. But I am unsure about Buckminster Fullerene....
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The intuition behind carbon's covalent bonds

As an introduction to hybridization, my textbook discusses that "The formation of covalent bonds often starts with the excitation of the atoms." Taking carbon as an example, the author says: Carbon ...
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170 views

Workfunction and Bond Energy

Workfunction is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the surface of the material. If the striking photons does not have the required energy then it won't be able to eject the ...
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Why do non-polar covalent compounds dissolve in non-polar covalent compounds only?

My textbook says that electrovalent and polar covalent compounds dissolve in electrovalent compounds and polar covalent compounds but not in non-polar covalent compounds. I understand the reason for ...
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Can solutions of polar covalent compounds conduct electricity?

I learned in class that solutions of polar covalent compounds are weakly conductive, while ionic solutions are strongly conductive. But I'm getting different answers online. According to this lecture,...