# Questions tagged [atomic-structure]

For questions about the various atomic structure theories, including the Bohr theory. Not to be confused with the actual arrangement of atoms in macroscopic solids ([solid-state-chemistry]) or newer quantum concepts ([quantum-chemistry])

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### Does increasing energy lead to Bigger size of orbitals?

I am a Beginner in Learning Atomic structure and I am getting confused at Aufbau's principle For instance,Let us consider the example of atom's electronic configuration It is stated that the electrons ...
26 views

### Is the effective nuclear charge only defined for valence electrons?

I've just been taught about the effective nuclear charge and screening effect in school. I'd like to ask and confirm if the effective nuclear charge is only defined for valence electrons. If not then ...
223 views

### Maximum number of atoms in the ground state

I was given the following question. A sample contains $100$ identical and hypothetical $H$-like atoms ( $Z$ may be fractional). Out of the given atoms, some are in the ground state, while others are ...
147 views

### Flame Test of Alkali Metals and Alkaline Earth Metals

The flame test colors for alkali metal and alkaline earth metal salts are well known, but what about the metals themselves? Do they also give rise to the same colors (eg, brick red for Ca, pale green ...
136 views

### Why can't the energy of an electron exceed 0 eV?

Today we were learning about atomic structure, our teacher introduced the mathematics of the 'Niels Bohr Model of Atom', and calculated the value of total energy $\frac{-13.6z^2}{n^2} \pu{eV}$. He ...
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### Excitation of electron in Niels Bohr's atomic model

Professor taught us that an electron gains or looses only those energies which are equal to difference in two energy levels. That is $E_1 + \Delta E = E_2$ or $E_1 + \Delta E = E_3.$ What if we give, ...
119 views

### Basics of wave-mechanical model of atom

Why is it that for the $\mathrm{d}$ subshell we have $\ \ \mathrm{d}_{xy}, \ \ \mathrm{d}_{yz}, \ \ \mathrm{d}_{xz}, \ \ \mathrm{d}_{x^{2}-y^{2}},$ and $\mathrm{d}_{z^{2}}$ orbitals only? Why aren't ...
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### Slater's Rule and penetrating power contradiction

If we consider a 4s electron then it will be affected by 3d and 3p both (among others). Now 3d has slater's constant as 1.00 but 3p has slater's constant as 0.85, however 3d has poor shielding, then ...
2k views

### Why does hydrogen burn with a pale blue flame while its emission spectral lines are red in colour?

I was studying oxidising flames and realized that sodium burns with a bright yellow flame the wavelength of which is around 588 nm. Then I searched for emission spectra of sodium and found that the ...
66 views

### Do different eigenstates of total angular momentum have necessarily different energies?

Let $H$ be the Hamiltonian of a specific atom and $J$ the total angular momentum. Since $H$ and $J$ commute, they have common eigenstate. So we can label the atomic states by their energy and total ...
39 views

### Why is atomic mass unit/unified atomic mass defined against Carbon 12?

I have searched the web all over this question and I have not really found an answer to my satisfaction. From my understanding of the topic so far, I understand that reason why concept of unified ...
22 views

### When is the n+l rule followed when working with energy of different orbitals?

While going through my book, I came across a problem which gave some options about the order of energy of 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals of hydrogen atom. The correct answer was given as: 3s, 3p and 3d ...
34 views

### How do isotopes with different nuclear spins behave at temperatures near 0 Kelvin? [closed]

Suppose I had two isotopes of the same element, one with a spin of zero and another with a spin of 3/2. If I somehow put those isotopes at temperatures near 0K, how would those two isotopes behave ...
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### Distance of subshells from nucleus [closed]

Which subshell is more closer to the nucleus.4f or 6s? 6s gets filled first so does it have to be more closer to the nucleus?
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### Angular momentum of an electron in an atom

The Orbital Angular momentum of an electron in an atom is given by $\hbar \sqrt{l(l+1)}$ and the Spin Angular Momentum is $\hbar \sqrt{s(s+1)}$. So what is the resultant Angular momentum of an ...
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### Did JJ Thomson know about Eugen Goldstein’s experiment discovering canal rays?

We learn that JJ Thomson discovered the electron in 1897. Several years EARLIER in 1886, Eugen Goldstein performs the same experiment but with the anode and cathode switched to produce positively ...
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### What does orbital mean, exactly? [duplicate]

My teacher told me that orbital is the probability distribution data of the electron around nucleus which is amplitude data in a way. An example of how my teacher actually told what it means involves ...
360 views

### Does electron mass decrease when it changes its orbit?

I have studied this in my chapter atomic structure that when an electron changes its orbit from lower energy to higher energy state , it does not state in my book that it moves there but that it ...
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### Why isoelectronic species give similar spectral lines?

In my perspective those species should give similar spectra those which have same energy of different energy levels as the transition would yeild same energy photon But still the answer to this ...
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### Do electrons of opposite spin attract each other? [closed]

Electrons of opposite spin create magnetic fields that are opposite to each other. So, is it possible that, 'such electron pairs attract each other' or ' they distract each other less than electron of ...
136 views

### Azimuthal Quantum Number and Magnetic Quantum Number

I know that azimuthal quantum numbers and magnetic quantum numbers are used to find the no. of and the orientation of subshells respectively, but why do they have to be called so? I reckon that ...
82 views

### What does Pauli’s exclusion principle mean in atomic or fundamental way? [closed]

It means is that no electron can have same n , l and $m_l$ but can have two different spin quantum number. I want to know why is this rule valid?Means there must be some other things happening also ...
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### What happens if we continuously hit an atom with photons

My sir told me that Energy required to remove an electron from one orbit to another depends on hf * n. Where n means the no of photons that will strike on a metal surface and hf is energy of one ...
We have the value for expression of line spectrum of hydrogen. $\Delta E = 13.6 \cdot Z^2 \cdot \left( \frac{1}{n_1^2} - \frac{1}{n_2^2} \right)$ Amount of energy required by electron to change its ...