Questions tagged [atomic-structure]

For questions about the various atomic structure theories, including the Bohr theory. Not to be confused with the actual arrangement of atoms in macroscopic solids ([solid-state-chemistry]) or newer quantum concepts ([quantum-chemistry])

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Does increasing energy lead to Bigger size of orbitals?

I am a Beginner in Learning Atomic structure and I am getting confused at Aufbau's principle For instance,Let us consider the example of atom's electronic configuration It is stated that the electrons ...
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26 views

Is the effective nuclear charge only defined for valence electrons?

I've just been taught about the effective nuclear charge and screening effect in school. I'd like to ask and confirm if the effective nuclear charge is only defined for valence electrons. If not then ...
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223 views

Maximum number of atoms in the ground state

I was given the following question. A sample contains $100$ identical and hypothetical $H$-like atoms ( $Z$ may be fractional). Out of the given atoms, some are in the ground state, while others are ...
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147 views

Flame Test of Alkali Metals and Alkaline Earth Metals

The flame test colors for alkali metal and alkaline earth metal salts are well known, but what about the metals themselves? Do they also give rise to the same colors (eg, brick red for Ca, pale green ...
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136 views

Why can't the energy of an electron exceed 0 eV?

Today we were learning about atomic structure, our teacher introduced the mathematics of the 'Niels Bohr Model of Atom', and calculated the value of total energy $\frac{-13.6z^2}{n^2} \pu{eV}$. He ...
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79 views

Excitation of electron in Niels Bohr's atomic model

Professor taught us that an electron gains or looses only those energies which are equal to difference in two energy levels. That is $E_1 + \Delta E = E_2$ or $E_1 + \Delta E = E_3.$ What if we give, ...
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119 views

Basics of wave-mechanical model of atom

Why is it that for the $\mathrm{d}$ subshell we have $\ \ \mathrm{d}_{xy}, \ \ \mathrm{d}_{yz}, \ \ \mathrm{d}_{xz}, \ \ \mathrm{d}_{x^{2}-y^{2}},$ and $\mathrm{d}_{z^{2}}$ orbitals only? Why aren't ...
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Slater's Rule and penetrating power contradiction

If we consider a 4s electron then it will be affected by 3d and 3p both (among others). Now 3d has slater's constant as 1.00 but 3p has slater's constant as 0.85, however 3d has poor shielding, then ...
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Why does hydrogen burn with a pale blue flame while its emission spectral lines are red in colour?

I was studying oxidising flames and realized that sodium burns with a bright yellow flame the wavelength of which is around 588 nm. Then I searched for emission spectra of sodium and found that the ...
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66 views

Do different eigenstates of total angular momentum have necessarily different energies?

Let $H$ be the Hamiltonian of a specific atom and $J$ the total angular momentum. Since $H$ and $J$ commute, they have common eigenstate. So we can label the atomic states by their energy and total ...
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Why is atomic mass unit/unified atomic mass defined against Carbon 12?

I have searched the web all over this question and I have not really found an answer to my satisfaction. From my understanding of the topic so far, I understand that reason why concept of unified ...
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When is the n+l rule followed when working with energy of different orbitals?

While going through my book, I came across a problem which gave some options about the order of energy of 3s, 3p and 3d orbitals of hydrogen atom. The correct answer was given as: 3s, 3p and 3d ...
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How do isotopes with different nuclear spins behave at temperatures near 0 Kelvin? [closed]

Suppose I had two isotopes of the same element, one with a spin of zero and another with a spin of 3/2. If I somehow put those isotopes at temperatures near 0K, how would those two isotopes behave ...
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Origin of the D1 line of sodium

According to the fine structure formula for exact energies (Sommerfield formula) $$E_{jn} = -m_\mathrm{e}c^2\left[1 - \left(1 + \left[\frac{\alpha}{n - j - \frac 1 2 + \sqrt{\left(j + \frac 1 2\right)^...
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Cause of uniform glow in cathode ray tubes

I got the following extract from a chemistry book (emphasis mine): It is observed that current does not flow through the gas at ordinary pressure even at high voltage of 5000 volts. When the ...
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52 views

I am confused with intensity of spectral lines …? [closed]

Example : FOR BALMER SERIES . HOW ? For (n2 to n1) : (2 to 1) > (3to1) > (4to 1) > (5 to 1) .....so on ......? please help me , I am unable to get that how the intensity of spectral lines ...
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What does Brightness/ intensity of spectral lines depend on?

My book states that it depends upon "The number of photons of same frequency or wavelength ABSORBED or EMITTED" From what I understood, if many hydrogen atoms within the discharge tube EMIT the same ...
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43 views

If electrons absorb photons to reach higher energy levels in Bohr's atom, why do they have lesser kinetic energy?

In Bohr's atomic model, an electron can jump to a higher energy level by absorbing a photon with energy equal to the difference in energy between 2 energy levels. This should mean that the electron ...
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34 views

Diatomic molecule under pressure

If we put a diatomic molecule under pressure the interatomic distance will be decreased and according to this graph the potential energy of the bonding molecular orbital will be increased. What will ...
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2answers
64 views

Relationship between Quantum Numbers and the Wave-function

I recently started learning about quantum mechanics and its applciations in atomic structure in chemistry. In this inorganic textbook Inorganic Chemistry, it describes "Each of the wavefunctions ...
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1answer
81 views

How does an electron identify whether to absorb a photon of a certain wavelength or not in absorption spectrum? [closed]

How would an electron identify the specific photons of a certain wavelength which are to be absorbed in a Hydrogen atom while creating an absorption spectrum? Well, I was thinking of it like this- Way-...
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992 views

Why is it that protons and electrons undergo the same amount of deflection in an electric field if they have the same energy?

The question I have is with respect to this diagram. Which depicts a stream of protons and electrons entering a proton field with equal energy. Why is it that in the case where the energy of protons ...
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Why does titanium have lower affinity than scandium?

Electron affinity of atoms in the same row usually increases with the atomic number until the shell or half-shell gets full, and then it drops down. Some transition metals are exceptions from the rule,...
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1answer
54 views

Why does boron have a lower affinity than oxygen? [closed]

Electron affinity of oxygen is 141 kJ/mol and electron affinity of boron is 27 kJ/mol. I suspect it is because boron nucleus is much better shielded than oxygen nucleus (in the p-shell), but I am not ...
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Why does dissolved oxygen concentration decrease with increasing atomic number of metals?

I am looking at how metal ions ($\ce{Fe^2+}$, $\ce{Ni^2+}$, $\ce{Cu^2+}$, $\ce{Zn^2+}$, and $\ce{Ag+}$) affect the biochemical oxygen demand in water and used the Winkler's method to find out the ...
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1answer
42 views

Rutherford's Alpha Ray Scattering Experiment & Plum-Pudding Model

My teacher said, "Rutherford thought that all the Alpha particles would directly go through the gold foil without any collision if the plum pudding model was right. Because, as said in plum ...
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1answer
86 views

Schrodinger's Equation and Wave Function

So I understand that there exists the shrodinger's equation, which on solving,gives the wave function of an electron. The wave function as I understand, gives all possible information about an ...
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1answer
34 views

How to explain the relation between atomic number and energy of orbitals? [closed]

I came across a certain line in my textbook that says: "As the atomic number increases the energy of orbitals decreases" Can someone please explain how this happens? My explanation is: As ...
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1answer
57 views

Why is oxygen sp2 hybridised in acetate ion [closed]

The oxygen atom with the negative charge on the acetate ion is said to be sp2 hybridised but I can seem to figure out how I feel I may not have out much effort into this question so even a link to a ...
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2answers
930 views

Why is fluorine a oxidising agent? [closed]

An oxidizing agent pulls the electron cloud of the substance being oxidized towards itself, for example: $$\ce{F2 + 2 X- -> 2F- + X2}\qquad (\ce{X} = \ce{Cl}, \ce{Br}, \ce{I})$$ We also know that ...
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51 views

Distance of subshells from nucleus [closed]

Which subshell is more closer to the nucleus.4f or 6s? 6s gets filled first so does it have to be more closer to the nucleus?
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213 views

Angular momentum of an electron in an atom

The Orbital Angular momentum of an electron in an atom is given by $\hbar \sqrt{l(l+1)}$ and the Spin Angular Momentum is $\hbar \sqrt{s(s+1)}$. So what is the resultant Angular momentum of an ...
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Did JJ Thomson know about Eugen Goldstein’s experiment discovering canal rays?

We learn that JJ Thomson discovered the electron in 1897. Several years EARLIER in 1886, Eugen Goldstein performs the same experiment but with the anode and cathode switched to produce positively ...
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What does orbital mean, exactly? [duplicate]

My teacher told me that orbital is the probability distribution data of the electron around nucleus which is amplitude data in a way. An example of how my teacher actually told what it means involves ...
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3answers
360 views

Does electron mass decrease when it changes its orbit?

I have studied this in my chapter atomic structure that when an electron changes its orbit from lower energy to higher energy state , it does not state in my book that it moves there but that it ...
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2answers
136 views

Why isoelectronic species give similar spectral lines?

In my perspective those species should give similar spectra those which have same energy of different energy levels as the transition would yeild same energy photon But still the answer to this ...
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1answer
109 views

Do electrons of opposite spin attract each other? [closed]

Electrons of opposite spin create magnetic fields that are opposite to each other. So, is it possible that, 'such electron pairs attract each other' or ' they distract each other less than electron of ...
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136 views

Azimuthal Quantum Number and Magnetic Quantum Number

I know that azimuthal quantum numbers and magnetic quantum numbers are used to find the no. of and the orientation of subshells respectively, but why do they have to be called so? I reckon that ...
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1answer
82 views

What does Pauli’s exclusion principle mean in atomic or fundamental way? [closed]

It means is that no electron can have same n , l and $m_l$ but can have two different spin quantum number. I want to know why is this rule valid?Means there must be some other things happening also ...
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87 views

What happens if we continuously hit an atom with photons

My sir told me that Energy required to remove an electron from one orbit to another depends on hf * n. Where n means the no of photons that will strike on a metal surface and hf is energy of one ...
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1answer
25 views

Relation of Energy required to change an orbit by electron of H atom with spectrum

We have the value for expression of line spectrum of hydrogen. $\Delta E = 13.6 \cdot Z^2 \cdot \left( \frac{1}{n_1^2} - \frac{1}{n_2^2} \right)$ Amount of energy required by electron to change its ...
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25 views

Finding excited stage of electron from its potential energy

The potential energy of an electron in the hydrogen atom is $\pu{-6.8 eV}.$ Indicate the excited stage in which electron is present. Total energy would be equal to $\pu{-3.4 eV}.$ I used the formula $...
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1answer
55 views

hydrogen spectrum

In the spectrum of atomic hydrogen, several lines are generally classified together as belonging to a series (for example, Balmer series, Lyman series, Paschen series), What is common to the lines ...
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Why isn't osmium ferromagnetic?

When I am studying magnetic properties in IB Chemistry, what particularly puzzles me is ferromagnetism. In my textbook, what accounts for paramagnetism in transition metals is unpaired electrons in ...
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1answer
55 views

Forcing atoms closer together [closed]

Is there a method in chemistry to alter the energy of atomic bonds by forcing atoms closer together in a smaller volume? Similar to how pressure squeezes atoms closer together.
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277 views

why does the gap between the energy levels of a hydrogen atom keep decreasing as we move further and further away from nucleus? [closed]

why is the gap between the first two orbits greater than the gap between second and third orbit? shouldn't the gap keep decreasing as the radius keeps increasing? Can someone explain this ?
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why doesn't dz2 orbital have any nodal plane?

why dz2 orbital does not have any nodal plane whereas the other orbitals such as dxy and dzy have nodal plane? As l=1 , won't it have at least one angular node?
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Is the Hydrogen spectrum only an emission spectrum?

In a statement question it was stated that hydrogen spectrum is an emission spectrum and the scheme considered it to be ture. But my argument is that it can be both emission and abosorption spectrum. ...
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2answers
91 views

Atoms visualisation [closed]

In 7th class I was been taught that in an atom, electrons revolve around shells and the electrons with higher energy level are placed likewise in the shell above of that electron: In 11th class I ...
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1answer
73 views

Electron configuration of iron(I) cation

What is the electron configuration of $\ce{Fe+}$ cation? \begin{align} \ce{Fe+} &\!:~ [\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{(3d)^6(4s)^1}\label{chm:1}\tag{1}\\ \ce{Fe+} &\!:~ [\ce{Ar}]\mathrm{(3d)^7(4s)^0}\label{...