Questions tagged [ionization-energy]

The ionization energy of an atom or molecule describes the minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron from the atom or molecule in the gaseous state. Do not confuse with [electron-affinity].

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Confusion regarding 1st and 2nd electron gain enthalpy

$\ce{O}$ has the 1st electron gain enthalpy $\pu{-141 kJ mol-1}$. $-ve$ value implies that energy is released when electron is added to an isolated atom. This also means that if $\pu{141 kJ}$ energy ...
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Why does the Shielding Constant of Orbitals in Slater's rule get higher, the further away we are from the electron we are considering?

My text material says: $\mathrm{Z_{eff}= Z-S}$ where $\mathrm{Z_{eff}}$ is the effective nuclear change on that specified electron; $\mathrm{Z}$ is the atomic number and $\mathrm{S}$ is the shielding ...
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How did this paper mathematically express field driven water autoionization?

I recently read a paper on using an electric field to drive water autoionizaton. I'm trying to figure out how to use the Laplace equation on pg 9; 4th paragraph; to solve for voltage. I'm also ...
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Which d block elements in their unipositive ion state show reorganisation and transference of electrons from 4s to 3d?

This question serves as elaboration of another previously asked question. The irregular trend in ionization enthalpy of 3d elements I'll be breaking down the cited phenomenon into steps, according to ...
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How to calculate ionization energy of an atom provided energy of the electron at ground state? [closed]

It is given that in ground state the energy of electron in hydrogen atom is $-2.18\times10^{-18}\mathrm{J}$. I'm required to calculate the Ionization Energy in kJ/mol Question for reference: At ...
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The higher energy to transform Cu(s)/Cu^2+(aq) is not balanced by its hydration enthalpy

The book says that "the higher energy to transform Cu(s)/Cu^2+(aq) is not balanced by its hydration enthalpy". I also read that when we add energy of sublimation and ionization energy , ...
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How to know the group number from the ionization energy?

The successive ionization energy of the first four electrons of a representative element are $\pu{738.1 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{1450 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{7730 kJ/mol}$ and $\pu{10500 kJ/mol}$. Characterize the ...
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Do Ions with less stability have less energy of ionization than those who are stable?

Problem. I've come up with the strange example of the third energy of ionization of both $\pu{Mg}$ and $\pu{Al}$, the standard logic that is to be applied on any problem of "which element has ...
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The necessary energy required to ionize 1g of potasium in its fundamental state if the ionization energy is given

The energy of ionization of the potassium is $\pu{6.94\cdot 10^{-19} J/atom}.$ Find the necessary energy to ionize $\pu{1 g}$ of potasium that is found on its fundamental state. Attempt. I really ...
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What is the reaction steps taken when producing auroral forcing?

As described in here: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2018/sounding-rocket-mission-will-trace-auroral-winds A mixture of Trimethylaluminium, Barium and Strontium reacts and ionize in the upper ...
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Finding Potential Depth of Multiple-Minimum in a PEC

Suppose we have the following curve with more than one well and different maximum points: My simple question is how to calculate the potential depth of each well? Do we calculate all the potential ...
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Why does increasing subshell cause ionization energy to decrease?

I know that increasing subshell decreases ionization energy; for example, going from Beryllium to Boron. I do not understand why this is. The answer my textbook (Chemistry 2e on OpenStax) gives is ...
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Why does magnesium have a greater ionization energy than lithium?

I'm a high school student and I'm learning about ionization energy and atomic radius of elements. I want to compare the ionization energy of lithium and magnesium. Here is the information provided in ...
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How are 2nd, 3rd, etc. ionization energies measured?

I am learning about ionization energies and I understand roughly how the first ionization energy can be measured. But how are the subsequent energies measured? For the 1st ionization energy the ...
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Relation between common ion effect and the temperature of the solution [closed]

Adding extra Na+ in a saturated NaCl/water solution decreases the solubility of NaCl. How does this exactly happen? AFAIK, the solubility of a solid only decreases with the temperature of the solution....
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Can ions of a pure substance be obtained in only gaseous form? [closed]

I was studying mass spectrometry where I learned that the sample is first vaporized before ionization. And ions are formed in gaseous from in an ionization chamber. Why is there need of vapourizing ...
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First ionization energy and electron gain enthalpy of dihydrogen / stability comparison of dihydrogen ions [duplicate]

Subset of: How can antibonding orbitals be more antibonding than bonding orbitals are bonding? Stability of $\ce{H2^{-}}<\ce{H2^{+}}<\ce{H2}$ Stability of $\ce{N2^{-}}<\ce{N2^{+}}<\ce{N2}...
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Why is a sodium chloride molecule stable?

The ionization energy of sodium is $\pu{5.139eV}$. This is the energy absorbed when a neutral sodium atom is stripped of its outermost electron. The electron affinity of chlorine is $\pu{3.62eV}$. ...
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Predict the valence configuration of this element using the first five ionization energies [closed]

If the first five ionization energies of an element are, respectively: $\pu{1.09 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{2.35 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{4.62 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{6.22 kJ/mol}$ and $\pu{37.83 kJ/mol}$, to which group of the ...
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Why does the ionization enthalpy of elements across a period not follow a regular pattern while the atomic size always decreases?

First of all, I would like to mention that I am only talking about elements that aren't from the d or f blocks. In order to further elaborate on my question, I would like to take the third period as ...
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Why doesn't ionization energy decrease from O to F or F to Ne?

I know that in general, the first ionization energy increases across a period due to increasing nuclear charge, reasonably constant shielding & decreasing atomic radius. From N to O, however, the ...
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What is the 'electronic energy', in units of 'negative' hartrees, of a molecule?

On a NIST (National Institute for Standards and Technology) page on the molecular details of water and it's various isotopologues, I came across this: Electronic energy: -76.4089547246 hartree There ...
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As electron energy increases, does ionisation energy decrease?

"Electrons are negatively charged, therefore, two electrons repel each other. When electrons are paired in a 3p orbital there is electron pair repulsion which causes the energy of the electrons ...
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What explains the trend of ionization potential in coinage metals? [duplicate]

The expected pattern for ionization potential is $$\ce{Cu} > \ce{Ag} > \ce{Au},$$ but the observed patter or experimental value is $$\ce{Au} > \ce{Cu} > \ce{Ag}.$$ What could be a ...
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Find the Ionisation Potential and Electron affinity of X

$N_0/2$ atoms of $X_{(g)}$ are converted into $\ce{X^+_{(g)}}$ by energy $E_1$. $N_0/2$ atoms of $X_{(g)}$ are converted into $\ce{X^-_{(g)}}$ by energy $E_2$. Hence ionisation potential and electron ...
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Why do PES graphs list 4s after 3d? [duplicate]

Coming straight off of some electron configuration worksheets, our teacher started to teach us how to read photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) graphs and I'm having a bit of trouble with the two. During ...
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Why is the first ionization enthalpy of molecular O2 less than atomic O?

A cousin of mine asked for my help to answer one of his homework questions. It stated- Explain why- The first ionization energy of molecular oxygen $\ce{O2}$ ($\pu{1175 kJ mol-1}$), is lesser than ...
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More Anti-bonding or less bonding electrons?

Is a molecule more stable with less bonding electrons or more anti-bonding electrons? This question arose when I was asked the stability comparison between $\ce{N2^+}$ and $\ce{N2^-}$.
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When is the process exothermic and when is it endothermic? [closed]

When electrons are being added/removed from atoms or ions how can I tell if the process is exothermic or endothermic? For example in the question below, how could I tell for sure which of the ...
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What exactly is lattice energy?

I was going through my chemistry textbook (Chemistry, 10th Ed. by Raymond Chang) when I encountered this explanation of lattice energy. 9.3 Lattice Energy of Ionic Compounds We can predict which ...
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Why is ionization always an endothermic process?

My textbook says removing an electron always requires an input of heat. That makes sense because of coulombic force between electron and nucleus. But it also says that the process is endothermic ...
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Do isotopes have the same ionization energy? [duplicate]

When learning about isotopes and IE in High School this question have come to my mind recently. I have asked the teacher, she told me that she read articles about it however could not come to a ...
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Why is ionization energy of indium less than gallium?

In group 13 we observe an irregular trend in ionization energy: B > Tl > Ga > Al > In. Gallium has a filled 3d subshell, but indium has a filled 4d and 3d subshell. Thus it should have more poor ...
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Ionization and bond energy of isotope [closed]

Is there a database with the direct values, or the ingredients to calculate them, for ionization and bond energies of isotopes (i.e. $^{17}O_2$). If I understand it right, ionization energy can be ...
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Auto-ionization equilibrium of water shifted with acid-base addition? [closed]

Adding acids or bases to water, so that either pH or pOH decreases independently of the other, will that affect the auto-ionization of water? For example, pure water + auto-ionized state, with some ...
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Values for heat of reaction example

I am currently studying the textbook Mass Spectrometry, third edition, by Jürgen H. Gross. Chapter 2.4.3 Bond Dissociation Energies and Heats of Formation says the following: Energetics of $\ce{H}^\...
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Why is the first energy of ionization of oxygen lesser than that of nitrogen? [duplicate]

The following question arises from a question I found in my book. Experimentally it has been determined that the value of the first energy of ionization of oxygen is lesser than the first energy ...
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Why Zn has highest ionisation enthalpy in 3d series?

Zn which has the highest ionisation enthalpy in 3d series.The reason given in my textbook is: The value of zinc is higher because it represent ionisation from 4s level. This is not correct because ...
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Reorganization during ionisation for d block elements

This is a quote from my textbook: The irregular trend in the first ionisation enthalpy of 3d lmetals,can be accounted for by considering that the removal of one electron alters the relative ...
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Why does hydrogen have a lower ionization energy than fluorine?

I found here that the ionization energy of hydrogen is $\pu{1312kJ/mol}$ and for fluorine, it is $\pu{1681kJ/mol}$. Now clearly, from the data, we can see that hydrogen has a lower ionization energy ...
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7 votes
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Heats of formation of neutral molecules and homolytic vs heterolytic bond dissociation in mass spectrometry

I am currently studying the textbook Mass Spectrometry, third edition, by Jürgen H. Gross. Chapter 2.4.3 Bond Dissociation Energies and Heats of Formation says the following: Great efforts have been ...
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The second Ionisation energy of the Zn, Cd, and Hg follows the order?

It is observed that the order of second ionisation energy of these three elements is $\ce{Zn > Cd < Hg}$. Why is there an anomaly in the observation?
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How to calculate the energy to dissociate a bond into neutral atoms?

I am self studying chemistry through MiT ocw 5.111 . On practice exam 2 problem 2 there is a question which states the following ...
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Why is there a big jump in first ionisation energy between sodium and potassium?

I know the trend in group 1 is that ionisation energy decreases down the group due to an increase in atomic radius and more energy levels are added so more shielding, but I'm not sure why there's such ...
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Electron Ionization and the Franck-Condon Diagram: vibrationally excited and vibrationally ground states

I am currently studying Mass Spectrometry: A Textbook, third edition, by Jürgen H. Gross. On page 41, the author says the following: As explained by the Franck-Condon diagram, hardly any molecular ...
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Ionization trends in period 6 [closed]

I know that there is a drop of Ionization energy in the second period with Nitrogen and Oxygen, but why does that not apply to bismiuth and polonium, which are in the same groups but different period.
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Reason for usage of Metal chlorides and Platinum or Nichrome wires in flame test

I'm studying about the s-block elements in my course of Inorganic Chemistry and I happened to come across the following text. Electrons may be quite readily excited to a higher energy level, for ...
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X-ray bombardment of CaCl2 and its resultant chemical changes

If one were to take $\pu{1 mol}$ of pure liquid Calcium Chloride (at $\pu{600 ^\circ C}$) and bombard it with $\pu{7.65 \times 10^{14} Ci}$ ($\pu{2.83 \times 10^25 particles}$) of x-rays ($\pu{75 keV}$...
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Comparing ionisation energy between an element and an ion [closed]

Choose one that has the biggest ionization energy: $\ce{Br-}$ and $\ce{Kr}$ $\ce{Cl-}$ and $\ce{Ar}$ $\ce{Cl}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$ I am not sure how I can compare the ionization energy between an ion and ...
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Why does Calcium have a higher ionization energy than Aluminium?

Given their places on the periodic table I'd assume Aluminium has a higher ionization energy, because it has fewer energy levels, and is on a "righter" row on the periodic table, but in reality it is ...
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