Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [ionization-energy]

The ionization energy of an atom or molecule describes the minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron from the atom or molecule in the gaseous state. Do not confuse with [electron-affinity].

0
votes
0answers
14 views

Sorting ions by radius and ionization energy

Sort the ions $\ce{F-}$, $\ce{Mg^2+}$, $\ce{O^2-}$ by their ionic radius and the minimal energy needed to remove an electron. For the radius I considered that they all have the same electron ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Work function vs ionization enthalpy [closed]

I've seen that the work function of a particular metal is always greater than its work function. Is it the case always? If so why? For example, the first ionization energy of sodium is 5.14 eV/atom(...
1
vote
1answer
161 views

Second ionization energies of copper(Cu) and silver(Ag)

The ionization energies of copper and silver are First ionization energy: Cu-745.5 kJ/mol Ag-731.0 kJ/mol Second ionization energy: Cu-1958 kJ/mol Ag-2073 kJ/mol Now, looking at the ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

Is the energy of the orbital an electron “resides” in, considered to be a factor of that electrons ionization energy? [duplicate]

The answers to a Quora question mainly refer to the factors as generally being, the electrostatic forces of attraction between the electron and the positively charged nucleus and all other events, by ...
0
votes
1answer
83 views

what is the basic factor which determines the order of ionization energies of K,Li,Ca,S?

There was a question which was asking about the order of ionization energies of K,Li,Ca,S. The electronic configuration of all the elements were as follows Li:${1s^2 2s^1}$ K :${1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 ...
1
vote
3answers
347 views

is Li ion less stable than Li atom? [closed]

so our teacher introduced the concept of ionization energy... heres my doubt : if we remove an electron from , say, Lithium , we need to supply energy first and that will be very less compared to the ...
3
votes
1answer
684 views

Ionization energy of C2-, C2, and C2+

My textbook says that $\ce{C_2}^-$ has a lower ionization energy than both $\ce{C_2}$ and $\ce{C_2}^+$. I calculated that the bond orders of $\ce{C_2}^+$, $\ce{C_2}$, and $\ce{C_2}^-$ are 1.5, 2, and ...
2
votes
0answers
42 views

Ionization energy in Geiger counters

Geiger counters can detect radioactivity because nuclear radiation consists of particles or radiation of sufficiently high energy to eject electrons from atoms. Consequently, this type of radiation is ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Ionisation energy for ion

I have not understood this line from J. D. Lee.: The ionization energy for an atom is always positive and for an ion may be negative. Why negative when heat is supplied? If I.E. can be negative, ...
2
votes
1answer
312 views

Can visible light or infrared radiation excite electrons?

So the limit of ionizing radiation seems to be UV light. I'm wondering if IR light or Visible light can excite the electrons in an atom. It has to do with the difference in energy level right? So ...
-3
votes
2answers
102 views

What is the ionization constant, $K_a$, of the acid?

A 0.45 M solution of a weak acid, HX, has a pH of 4.5. What is the ionization constant, $K_a$, of the acid? Attempt at solution: [HX] is already given as 0.45 M. [H+] is given by $10^{-4.5}$. ...
1
vote
0answers
195 views

Second Ionisation Energy in d Block elements

The second ionisation energy is expected to be highest for element with atomic number: 22 24 25 30 I had expected the answer to be option 2 because the second electron has to be ...
4
votes
1answer
113 views

Why isn't ionization energy called cationization energy? [closed]

I'm learning chemistry and ionization energy is "[...] the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation." It ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Volume of orbitals

As I was learning about atomic structure, the lecturer made a seemingly dubious claim: The volume of a p orbital is one-third that of the s orbital. Thus, inter-electronic repulsions are ...
1
vote
0answers
485 views

The irregular trend in ionization enthalpy of 3d elements

The d block elements display several exceptional behaviours, and one of them is the irregular trend in ionization enthalpy of 3d elements. The reason given by my textbook is very confusing, which I'...
1
vote
2answers
4k views

Is the first ionization energy in oxygen slightly more than nitrogen?

Why is the first ionization energy in oxygen slightly more than nitrogen? In nitrogen: $\ce{[He] 2s^2 2p^3}$ In oxygen: $\ce{[He] 2s^2 2p^4}$ This tells me that it should be easier to remove an ...
0
votes
0answers
613 views

Abnormal ionisation energy trend: Group 13 and 14

I was going through some ionisation energy data, where I came across the following: Ionisation energy order for Group 13 and 14: B > Al ≈ Ga > In < Tl C > Si > Ge > Sn < Pb What could be the ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Ionization energy of beryllium

Suppose I have $\ce{Be^3+}$. What would be its 4th ionization energy? By trying to solve the issue I saw that its a "hydrogen-like" atom – means that beryllium left with only $1$ electron in his ...
1
vote
0answers
55 views

Rate the following ions in increasing ionization energy

Sr2+, Rb1+, S2-, P3- I believe it is P3- < S2- < Rb1+ < Sr2+ because it should be easier to take an electron away from the negatively charged ions, but I'm not sure about the Rb and Sr ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

Order of second ionization energy for cations

Why is the correct order of second ionisation potential of $\ce{Li , Be , B , C }$ such as: $\ce{Be} <\ce C <\ce B <\ce{Li} $? I understand that $\ce{Li+}$ has a stable inert gas electronic ...
8
votes
1answer
174 views

What is the range of photon energies can be effectively used to split a diatomic molecule like hydrogen?

I saw photo-ignition of hydrogen-chlorine mixture using UV light on YouTube. Chlorine molecule bond dissociation energy is $\pu{2.51 eV}$ (bluish colour). Bromine molecule bond dissociation energy is ...
-3
votes
1answer
570 views

Group 15 Ionisation Energies

I had a little confusion regarding ionisation energies. I get that in general, the second ionisation energy > first ionisation energy, due to increased effective nuclear charge on the second electron....
0
votes
1answer
780 views

What is the relation between ionization energy and electropositivity?

Electropositivity of an element is defined as a measure of element's ability to donate electrons while Ionization energy or Ionization potential is defined as the energy required to dispel a loosely ...
1
vote
0answers
127 views

Is there any mathematical formula for electron affinity and ionization potential?

I already know about the mathematical formula for electronegativity, but it requires the ionization potential and electron affinity. How can I can easily calculate the ionization potential and ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Why can the electron gain process be endothermic or exothermic whereas the ionistation process is always endothermic? [duplicate]

I know that this may seem a very silly question to some of you but please help me.I am extremely confused. PS:Sorry if you accidentally stumbled to this question.I can't find the appropriate tags
0
votes
0answers
156 views

How to explain trends in ionization enthalpy of d-block elements? [duplicate]

I am quoting NCERT Chemistry Class 12 Textbook (p.215) (image below): I don't understand: *how relative energies of 4s and 3d orbitals are altered. *how unipositive ions have no 4s electrons. I ...
2
votes
1answer
386 views

Ionisation Energy vs First Ionisation Energy [closed]

It was stated in a textbook that the first ionisation energy is the minimum energy needed to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of gaseous atoms in their ground state Is there a difference ...
5
votes
1answer
891 views

Why does iron have an abnormally high ionization energy?

Along a period the ionization energy should increase because the atomic number is increasing, but there is negligible increase in shielding. However, $\mathrm{IE}_\ce{Mn} < \mathrm{IE}_\ce{Fe} > ...
4
votes
1answer
161 views

Estimation of pressure and kinetic energy density of stellar interior using kinetic theory of gases

In Physical Chemistry we are working a problem that is confusing. We started by calculating the pressure half way to the centre of the sun assuming that the interior consisted of ionized hydrogen ...
-2
votes
3answers
1k views

What is the element with the greatest first ionization energy?

Identify the element with the greatest first ionization energy. (A) Ce (B) C (C) Cl (D) Ca (E) Cs The book says the correct answer is (B) with such an explanation: First ionization ...
6
votes
1answer
132 views

Ground state oxidation potential and Ionization potential from density functional theory (DFT)

Can someone please tell me how to calculate the ground state oxidation potential (GSOP)? I understand that according to Koopmans' theorem, the negative of HOMO can be considered as the GSOP. Is there ...
0
votes
1answer
2k views

Why flame color of salts is determined by metal

If a pure metal is heated up in a flame, we see it giving the flame a characteristic color, e.g. $\ce{Na}$ burns yellow. If a salt, e.g. $\ce{NaCl}$ or $\ce{Na2SO4}$, is heated up, resulting color to ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Why the ionization energy of Au is more than that of Cu?

As we go down the group from 3d to 5 d, size increases. Vanderwaal radius of Cu and Au is 140pm and 166pm respectively. Since Cu is smaller in size, ionization energy of Cu must be greater. Then ...
4
votes
1answer
904 views

Why is the common magnesium ion Mg(II) and not Mg(I) when the second ionization energy is higher than the first ionization energy?

The first ionization energy for magnesium is given as $\pu{737.7 kJ/mol}$, and the second ionization energy is $\pu{1450.7 kJ/mol}$. Given this information, doesn't it take $\pu{737.7 kJ/mol}$ to ...
0
votes
0answers
4k views

Comparing first, second, and third ionization energies between atoms

Among the elements boron, carbon, nitrogen, and magnesium, what are the first ionization energies from least to greatest? What about the second and third ionization energies? I understand the first ...
1
vote
2answers
737 views

How do atomic radius and nuclear charge influence ionisation energies?

This is actually a multiple choice question. Why is the first ionisation energy of neon higher than that of fluorine? A: Fluorine is more electronegative than neon B: Neon has a ...
0
votes
2answers
1k views

Why is the first ionisation energy of a sodium cation bigger than that of a neon atom?

I understand that the 1st ionization energy gets bigger for elements along a period from left to right and along a group from down to up. But why is the 1st ionization energy of $\ce{Na+}$ bigger ...
0
votes
0answers
292 views

Can there be electrolysis without electricity?

I have come asross a website that sells a silver-plated copper rod or anode. They say when it is placed in your pool water there is a small electric current that flows between the two metals and this ...
1
vote
0answers
4k views

Does electron shielding increase or stay constant moving LEFT to RIGHT across a period?

Does electron shielding increase or stay constant moving left to right across a period? I have read about both, and I just want to know which one is right. I believe that electron shielding remains ...
0
votes
3answers
5k views

Why do cations have higher ionization energies than neutral atoms?

I know that metals have low ionization energies and non-metals have high ionization energies, but once a metal/non-metal becomes a cation, why does the cation itself have a ionization energy higher ...
3
votes
2answers
102 views

Energy comparison between an atom and its ion

Is it possible to compare energy(enthalpy or similar) between an atom and its ion, possibly in the same state(gas)? For example, $\ce{O}$ and $\ce{O^+}$(intentionally cation), $\ce{Na}$ and $\ce{Na^+}...
2
votes
1answer
5k views

If fluorine has a lower electron affinity than chlorine, why does it have a higher ionization energy?

I have read that fluorine has a lower electron affinity than chlorine despite its lower atomic radius because its electron cloud is extremely dense. If this is the case, shouldn't the ionization ...
4
votes
2answers
8k views

Why does the ionization energy decrease anytime the atom size increases?

I would like to have a better understanding of the relationship that exists between the Ionization Energy commonly known as IE and the size of an atom. I think that the Ionization Energy can be ...
4
votes
0answers
102 views

Stability of unsaturated syn/anti 3-ladderane

In an oral exam for physical organic chemistry, one student was asked to explain the differences in the ionization potential ($IP$) of syn and anti tricyclo[$4.2.0.0^{2,5}$]octa-3,7-diene (unsaturated ...
2
votes
2answers
232 views

Successive ionization energies (work functions?) for metals

Are there tables for successive ionization energies for metals (like for gases)? All I can find are work functions to remove one electron from the surface of a metal into vacuum (and to keep it there)....
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Why is the photon energy of lithium flame coloring lower than that of cesium?

Why does $\ce{Li}$ give a red flame color which has lower photon energy compared to $\ce{Cs}$ which gives a violet flame color according to $E=h\nu$? This is my attempt: Since lithium has smaller ...
1
vote
3answers
2k views

How does H's ionization energy relate to its transition energy (Bohr's Model)?

I am currently reviewing some material about orbital energy levels. In my review book there is a short snipet that reads: The IE of $\ce{H}$ from its ground state ($n=1$) is $1312\ \mathrm{kJ/mol}$....
1
vote
1answer
268 views

Order of ionization enthalpy

The order of successive ionization enthalpies of group 15 are as follows : $$\Delta H_1<\Delta H_2<\Delta H_3$$ But as all the fifteen group elements have a very stable electronic ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

Why is the first ionization enthalpy of zinc higher than expected?

The following sentence is stated in my current chemistry book: The first ionization enthalpy of zinc is higher because it represents an ionization from the $\rm 4s$ level. Now zinc does have an ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Why lithium gives flame coloration?

Theoretically speaking, beryllium and magnesium does not give flame test because:- their atoms are comparatively smaller and the valance electrons are strongly attached to the nucleus. Therefore ...