Questions tagged [ionization-energy]

The ionization energy of an atom or molecule describes the minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron from the atom or molecule in the gaseous state. Do not confuse with [electron-affinity].

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Mg2+ ion formation [duplicate]

Why does Mg not form a Mg+1 ion, even though its second ionization energy is much higher than the first ionization energy? (I know that an ion should resemble the noble gas closest to the element from ...
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Theoretic (QED) Atomic Ionization Energies Database?

The 2019 paper "QED tests with highly-charged ions" contains a survey of QED-calculated atomic ionization energies. I can manually copy the values of interest therein, but it seem that ...
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What causes ionisation in redox reactions?

I'm trying to understand what's behind the ionisation of atoms in a redox reaction. I apologise if the answer to this question is obvious. I've searched around, but, surprisingly, I haven't found a ...
John O'brien's user avatar
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Convergence limit of emission spectra for atoms with multiple electrons

In high school chemistry, students are taught that the convergence limit in the emission spectrum of an element can be used to determine the first ionization energy. However, what about the second, ...
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Can the ionisation energy of hydrogen be calculated using Coloumb’s Law?

Using Coloumb’s Law: $$F=k\frac{qQ}{r^2}$$ and the potential energy function: $$U(r)=\int_\infty^r F dr$$ I get: $$U(r)=k\frac{qQ}{r}$$ Where k is the Coloumb constant and q and Q are the values of ...
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Comparing Succesive Ionisation Energies

I am trying to understand successive ionisation energies. In particular, an explanation for why the second ionisation energy is greater than the first ionisation energy. I'm looking for a clear and ...
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Ionization Energy equal to single electron energy [closed]

The ionization energy represents the amount of energy needed to detach an electron from an atom or molecule. Is it accurate to state that this electron possesses an energy precisely equivalent to the ...
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Ionsiation enthalpy of Zinc Cadmium and Mercury

Why is ionisation enthalpy of Zinc, Cadmium and Hg in the increasing order, when ideally, all periodic groups have decreasing order of enthalpy downward? An argument could be that F and D orbitals ...
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Is ionization energy enthalpy change?

In physics, we learn how to calculate the ionization energy of a hydrogen atom using the Bohr model. The result is the following equation: $$ E = - \frac{1}{n^2} \frac{Z^2e^2}{2a_0} = - \frac{Z^2 R_H}{...
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If the effective nuclear charge of Beryllium(Be) is less than Sodium's(Na), how is the ionization energy of Be higher than Na?

According to Slater's rules the effective nuclear charge of Beryllium and Sodium is 1.95 and 2.20 respectively. That means that the outermost electron of Na feels a stronger attraction from the ...
CaptainAmerica Whyso's user avatar
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What is the difference between exciting an electron to a higher bound state and removing it completely (ionizing the atom)? [closed]

We are reviewing quantum mechanics and orbitals in my class and I'm confused about the energies to move an electron to an excited state vs. remove it from an atom. Even though the electron on a H atom ...
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Reason for exceptions in I.E. trend in group 13

In general, we would expect IE to decrease down a group. This is because atomic radius increases $\implies$ valence electrons are further from nucleus $\implies$ less effective nuclear attraction on ...
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Are there any monocations with negative electron affinities known?

It is known that most dianions are unbound per se, i.e. that the corresponding monoanions have negative electron affinities, and the "dianions" we see in e.g. metal oxides can exist as such ...
Kanghun Kim's user avatar
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Why is orbital energy not the mean between ionization energy and electron affinity when the orbital has two electrons?

In this question it is asked why ferrocene is colored when the HOMO-LUMO gap seems to be beyond the visible light range. I tried to answer that orbital energies change with electronic transitions and ...
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Confusion regarding 1st and 2nd electron gain enthalpy

$\ce{O}$ has the 1st electron gain enthalpy $\pu{-141 kJ mol-1}$. $-ve$ value implies that energy is released when electron is added to an isolated atom. This also means that if $\pu{141 kJ}$ energy ...
Eisenstein's user avatar
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Why does the Shielding Constant of Orbitals in Slater's rule get higher, the further away we are from the electron we are considering?

My text material says: $\mathrm{Z_{eff}= Z-S}$ where $\mathrm{Z_{eff}}$ is the effective nuclear change on that specified electron; $\mathrm{Z}$ is the atomic number and $\mathrm{S}$ is the shielding ...
Nabil Sayed's user avatar
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How did this paper mathematically express field driven water autoionization?

I recently read a paper on using an electric field to drive water autoionizaton. I'm trying to figure out how to use the Laplace equation on pg 9; 4th paragraph; to solve for voltage. I'm also ...
HelloCthulhu's user avatar
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How to calculate ionization energy of an atom provided energy of the electron at ground state? [closed]

It is given that in ground state the energy of electron in hydrogen atom is $-2.18\times10^{-18}\mathrm{J}$. I'm required to calculate the Ionization Energy in kJ/mol Question for reference: At ...
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The higher energy to transform Cu(s)/Cu^2+(aq) is not balanced by its hydration enthalpy

The book says that "the higher energy to transform Cu(s)/Cu^2+(aq) is not balanced by its hydration enthalpy". I also read that when we add energy of sublimation and ionization energy , ...
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How to know the group number from the ionization energy?

The successive ionization energy of the first four electrons of a representative element are $\pu{738.1 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{1450 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{7730 kJ/mol}$ and $\pu{10500 kJ/mol}$. Characterize the ...
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Do Ions with less stability have less energy of ionization than those who are stable?

Problem. I've come up with the strange example of the third energy of ionization of both $\pu{Mg}$ and $\pu{Al}$, the standard logic that is to be applied on any problem of "which element has ...
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The necessary energy required to ionize 1g of potasium in its fundamental state if the ionization energy is given

The energy of ionization of the potassium is $\pu{6.94\cdot 10^{-19} J/atom}.$ Find the necessary energy to ionize $\pu{1 g}$ of potasium that is found on its fundamental state. Attempt. I really ...
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What is the reaction steps taken when producing auroral forcing?

As described in here: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2018/sounding-rocket-mission-will-trace-auroral-winds A mixture of Trimethylaluminium, Barium and Strontium reacts and ionize in the upper ...
C-Consciousness's user avatar
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Why does increasing subshell cause ionization energy to decrease?

I know that increasing subshell decreases ionization energy; for example, going from Beryllium to Boron. I do not understand why this is. The answer my textbook (Chemistry 2e on OpenStax) gives is ...
Teggurps Naeb's user avatar
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Why does magnesium have a greater ionization energy than lithium?

I'm a high school student and I'm learning about ionization energy and atomic radius of elements. I want to compare the ionization energy of lithium and magnesium. Here is the information provided in ...
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How are 2nd, 3rd, etc. ionization energies measured?

I am learning about ionization energies and I understand roughly how the first ionization energy can be measured. But how are the subsequent energies measured? For the 1st ionization energy the ...
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Relation between common ion effect and the temperature of the solution [closed]

Adding extra Na+ in a saturated NaCl/water solution decreases the solubility of NaCl. How does this exactly happen? AFAIK, the solubility of a solid only decreases with the temperature of the solution....
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Can ions of a pure substance be obtained in only gaseous form? [closed]

I was studying mass spectrometry where I learned that the sample is first vaporized before ionization. And ions are formed in gaseous from in an ionization chamber. Why is there need of vapourizing ...
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First ionization energy and electron gain enthalpy of dihydrogen / stability comparison of dihydrogen ions [duplicate]

Subset of: How can antibonding orbitals be more antibonding than bonding orbitals are bonding? Stability of $\ce{H2^{-}}<\ce{H2^{+}}<\ce{H2}$ Stability of $\ce{N2^{-}}<\ce{N2^{+}}<\ce{N2}...
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Why is a sodium chloride molecule stable?

The ionization energy of sodium is $\pu{5.139eV}$. This is the energy absorbed when a neutral sodium atom is stripped of its outermost electron. The electron affinity of chlorine is $\pu{3.62eV}$. ...
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Predict the valence configuration of this element using the first five ionization energies [closed]

If the first five ionization energies of an element are, respectively: $\pu{1.09 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{2.35 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{4.62 kJ/mol}$, $\pu{6.22 kJ/mol}$ and $\pu{37.83 kJ/mol}$, to which group of the ...
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Why does the ionization enthalpy of elements across a period not follow a regular pattern while the atomic size always decreases?

First of all, I would like to mention that I am only talking about elements that aren't from the d or f blocks. In order to further elaborate on my question, I would like to take the third period as ...
Jithendra Kasibhatla's user avatar
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Why doesn't ionization energy decrease from O to F or F to Ne?

I know that in general, the first ionization energy increases across a period due to increasing nuclear charge, reasonably constant shielding & decreasing atomic radius. From N to O, however, the ...
Vulgar Mechanick's user avatar
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What is the 'electronic energy', in units of 'negative' hartrees, of a molecule?

On a NIST (National Institute for Standards and Technology) page on the molecular details of water and it's various isotopologues, I came across this: Electronic energy: -76.4089547246 hartree There ...
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As electron energy increases, does ionisation energy decrease?

"Electrons are negatively charged, therefore, two electrons repel each other. When electrons are paired in a 3p orbital there is electron pair repulsion which causes the energy of the electrons ...
Jake Morris's user avatar
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What explains the trend of ionization potential in coinage metals? [duplicate]

The expected pattern for ionization potential is $$\ce{Cu} > \ce{Ag} > \ce{Au},$$ but the observed patter or experimental value is $$\ce{Au} > \ce{Cu} > \ce{Ag}.$$ What could be a ...
Anu Oberoi's user avatar
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Find the Ionisation Potential and Electron affinity of X

$N_0/2$ atoms of $X_{(g)}$ are converted into $\ce{X^+_{(g)}}$ by energy $E_1$. $N_0/2$ atoms of $X_{(g)}$ are converted into $\ce{X^-_{(g)}}$ by energy $E_2$. Hence ionisation potential and electron ...
Param Budhadev's user avatar
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Why do PES graphs list 4s after 3d? [duplicate]

Coming straight off of some electron configuration worksheets, our teacher started to teach us how to read photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) graphs and I'm having a bit of trouble with the two. During ...
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Why is the first ionization enthalpy of molecular O2 less than atomic O?

A cousin of mine asked for my help to answer one of his homework questions. It stated- Explain why- The first ionization energy of molecular oxygen $\ce{O2}$ ($\pu{1175 kJ mol-1}$), is lesser than ...
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More Anti-bonding or less bonding electrons?

Is a molecule more stable with less bonding electrons or more anti-bonding electrons? This question arose when I was asked the stability comparison between $\ce{N2^+}$ and $\ce{N2^-}$.
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When is the process exothermic and when is it endothermic? [closed]

When electrons are being added/removed from atoms or ions how can I tell if the process is exothermic or endothermic? For example in the question below, how could I tell for sure which of the ...
planckton's user avatar
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What exactly is lattice energy?

I was going through my chemistry textbook (Chemistry, 10th Ed. by Raymond Chang) when I encountered this explanation of lattice energy. 9.3 Lattice Energy of Ionic Compounds We can predict which ...
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Why is ionization always an endothermic process?

My textbook says removing an electron always requires an input of heat. That makes sense because of coulombic force between electron and nucleus. But it also says that the process is endothermic ...
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Do isotopes have the same ionization energy? [duplicate]

When learning about isotopes and IE in High School this question have come to my mind recently. I have asked the teacher, she told me that she read articles about it however could not come to a ...
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Why is ionization energy of indium less than gallium?

In group 13 we observe an irregular trend in ionization energy: B > Tl > Ga > Al > In. Gallium has a filled 3d subshell, but indium has a filled 4d and 3d subshell. Thus it should have more poor ...
Astha Lohia's user avatar
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Ionization and bond energy of isotope [closed]

Is there a database with the direct values, or the ingredients to calculate them, for ionization and bond energies of isotopes (i.e. $^{17}O_2$). If I understand it right, ionization energy can be ...
Chris's user avatar
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Auto-ionization equilibrium of water shifted with acid-base addition? [closed]

Adding acids or bases to water, so that either pH or pOH decreases independently of the other, will that affect the auto-ionization of water? For example, pure water + auto-ionized state, with some ...
Rafiki's user avatar
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Values for heat of reaction example

I am currently studying the textbook Mass Spectrometry, third edition, by Jürgen H. Gross. Chapter 2.4.3 Bond Dissociation Energies and Heats of Formation says the following: Energetics of $\ce{H}^\...
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Why is the first energy of ionization of oxygen lesser than that of nitrogen? [duplicate]

The following question arises from a question I found in my book. Experimentally it has been determined that the value of the first energy of ionization of oxygen is lesser than the first energy ...
Chris Steinbeck Bell's user avatar
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Why Zn has highest ionisation enthalpy in 3d series?

Zn which has the highest ionisation enthalpy in 3d series.The reason given in my textbook is: The value of zinc is higher because it represent ionisation from 4s level. This is not correct because ...
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