Questions tagged [medicinal-chemistry]

Medicinal chemistry is the process of design, synthesis, and testing of molecules (drugs) for the treatment of infection and disease. The medicinal-chemistry tag should be applied to all questions relating to this process, from the theoretical aspects of drug design (screening, computational studies, synthesis planning) to the practical aspects of the actual synthesis, characterisation and testing of the molecule.

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346 views

Antibacterial properties of Ethanol and Isopropanol [closed]

Ethyl alcohol is widely used in beverages, while isopropyl alcohol is commonly sold as an antiseptic. However, some use both ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol as antibacterial protection. I am ...
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77 views

Is levomenthol superior to Menthol as a pain killer in humans and what are the ways to determine this?

I desire to learn whether levomenthol is superior to Menthol as a pain killer in humans. I didn't find a wiki article about levomenthol and the article Menthol doesn't mention this molecule. The ...
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0answers
22 views

chitosan question [closed]

when chitosan is coated on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles, are the amine groups of the chitosan pointed out?
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2answers
153 views

Why are drugs mixed with their sodium salts?

I have come across quite a few drugs that are of the form $\ce{HA + NaA}$, where $\ce{A}$ is your target organic compound. A few examples of this are: Carmicide which is a mixture of Sodium Citrate ...
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2answers
55 views

Is a liquid vitamin E supplement possible without additives? [closed]

Looking at E vitamin products sold commercially, all “pure vitamin E oil” products seem to be for skincare rather than consumption as a supplement. I have read that d-alpha tocopherol is the form of ...
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0answers
59 views

Calculating the solubility of aspirin in water

I am trying to investigate the relationship between the solubility of aspirin in water with the relationship to some variables. In my investigation, I seem to be stuck with the calculation of finding ...
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1answer
47 views

What is the maximum amount of medicine that could accumulate in the body if the compound has a half-life of 24 hours? [closed]

If a patient is prescribed 25mg per day of a compound that has a half-life of roughly 24 hours, what is the maximum accumulated amount of the medicine that would build in the patients body?
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66 views

How did the tablet become like this?

How did the tablet become like this? There was a gap in the packet, so I'm guessing it reacted with moisture but is it so? Edit: Composition of 'Tendocare'- Chondroitin Sulfate and Vitamin C ...
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3answers
109 views

Strontium-89 vs strontium-90

Why is radioactive strontium-89 is considered medically useful for bones (along with other benefits) whereas strontium-90 (also being radioactive) is harmful for human body? How does the addition of ...
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1answer
88 views

Why is barium used instead of bismuth as a contrast in gastrointestinal xrays?

Why is barium used instead of bismuth as a contrast in gastrointestinal x-rays? Bismuth is a heavy metal that has a relatively low toxicity in comparison to barium. Is there a particular property of ...
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1answer
43 views

Separation of sugar and fat in a column chromatography [closed]

I am chemist at organic and bioorganic chemistry,I want to know if we are separating sugar and fat in a column chromatography who will be down first ? and why ? Thank you.
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1answer
35 views

Which of these chemicals share a likeness in structure with benzodiazepines causing false-positives in urine tests? [closed]

Below are potential culprits: Quetiapine, Oxcarbazepine, and Valproate feature in the current medicine regime. Olanzapine was discontinued quite recently. Quetiapine XR (increased to 400mg) and an ...
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1answer
31 views

Medicines in the fridge [closed]

Why are there some medicines that are put in the fridge? Thanks
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1answer
6k views

How to count free rotatable bonds

I am having difficulties to count the number of free rotating bonds for the Lipinski and Veber rules. What are the rules in doing so? In Vemurafenib (shown above), which bonds are considered ...
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1answer
92 views

Tip of my tongue: what is the name of this process?

I remember back in Chemistry class, we did this thing where we would drop some liquid into a solvent. The moment it touched the solvent, it would turn into a gel sphere with the solvent inside it, and ...
10
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1answer
242 views

Why is there a comparative lack of variety in positive counterions in drugs?

Pharmaceutical salts are important in the process of drug development. Using different chemical species to neutralise the parent drug can produce a diverse series of compounds, and this process is ...
2
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2answers
749 views

NaHCO3 required to raise pH of weak HCl solution from 3.5 to 7.2 (doubting my calculations)

I'm a dentist, working on a medical device that will make shots at the dentist office hurt a lot less. The device mixes a drug (2% Lidocaine) that has been acidified with $\ce{HCl}$ to pH 3.5 for ...
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0answers
703 views

How do you remove residual Lawesson's reagent after thionation?

I am currently synthesizing a peptidomimetic bioisostere that replaces an oxygen with a sulfur. I use lawesson's reagent to achieve this, and althought the reaction works and despite running it ...
5
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39 views

Cytotoxicity of Ru-complexes

I have a basic question: why are Ru(II)-complexes cytotoxic? What I know is that depending on the used ligand some of them interact with the DNA either via DNA-pi-stacking (intercalation) or binding ...
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58 views

How to find all published Pharmacophore Structure of a Drug target?

Other than literature review how do you find the structures of Pharmacophore of a drug target? I am searching Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK) inhibitors and I have reviewed lots of literature but ...
13
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1answer
190 views

Trustworthiness of IC50 values

My two questions: Is replication of recording $\text{IC}_{50}$ values prior to (primary?) publication less common than performing a reaction several times to determine a more reliable record? Provided ...
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1answer
533 views

Does chlorine in tap water usually contain traces of cornstarch (or its derivatives)? [closed]

My online research has been challenging to separate out the corn starch or corn Derivatives that are obviously in chlorine weather in tap water or pools. There is medical support backing it but I ...
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1answer
549 views

What concentration of small molecule binding is considered weak or strong?

In the chemistry literature, I often see a stated concentration (nanomolar, micromolar, millimolar) followed by qualitative judgment on the potency of the small molecule for protein inhibition. What ...
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0answers
815 views

Reasoning for baking soda treating poison ivy rashes

A quick Google search will show that baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) mixed with water in a 3 to 1 ratio will make a paste to be applied on poison ivy rashes. This is commonly advertised as a home ...
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3answers
6k views

Determine from pKa if acid or base

I'm studying medicine, not chemistry, but I hope you can help me anyway. I just had to solve a question where it is given that the drug Propranolol has a $\text{p}K_{\text{a}}$ of 9.5 and the un-...
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1answer
188 views

What is the significance of Sphingolipids in human?

I want to know the significance of sphingolipids in human. I have learnt that sphingomyelin is the most significant type of sphingolipid in human. Also that the sphingomyelin serves as a structural ...
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1k views

Betaine HCl stomach pH

It seems betaine HCL is often recommended for those suffering from "low stomach acid" -- which, as I understand, is having too high stomach pH for proper digestion (especially for proteolysis via ...
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22 views

For Penicillin Binding proteins, why is the Enzyme-peptide complex less stable than an enzyme-β-lactam complex?

I'm trying to figure this out. I cannot find any publications that go into good detail about the chemistry of PBP inhibition by β-lactam antibiotics. PBPs cross-link adjacent pentapeptides to form ...
2
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1answer
475 views

In the graph provided, which of the substances is the most efficient in acting as an antacid?

If every dot represents the addition of 0.1 g of the respective base. I suppose that the best would be the one that reaches the highest pH, in the shortest time, for example Calcium Carbonate, but if ...
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1answer
6k views

What kind of materials are plastic syringes made from?

I'm trying to figure out what kind of materials my disposable plastic syringe is made from. I have a Medefil MIS-1130 syringe and when I visited the company website I couldn't find any information on ...
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1answer
782 views

General Alkaloid Extraction Process

I'm getting into alkaloid extraction from various ethnobotanicals. It is a bit frustrating trying to extract alkaloids from ethnobotanicals without good guides out there, and I wanted to make my own ...
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1answer
46 views

Different names for Fidaxomicin (OPT-80)?

Is OPT in OPT-80 an abbreviation? If so, what is the full name?
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544 views

Why is Fmoc base-labile and Moz acid-labile?

I'm learning about the Zuckermann approach to combinatorial chemistry in my MedChem lecture. My textbook claims that the Fmoc protecting group is base-labile while the Moz protecting groups is acid-...
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2answers
6k views

Why do halogen substituents make molecules more lipophilic?

According to my medicinal chemistry text book, halogens increase a drug’s lipophilicty. This makes no sense to me for two reasons: Halogens are all quite electronegative and they will form a $\ce{C-X}...
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2answers
153 views

Extracting herbs with grape juice

I tried searching my question on google and did not find anything. I am looking to extract herbs with pure 100% grape juice http://www.lakewoodjuices.com/product_detail/id-32/ ( it is pasteurized ) ...
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1answer
123 views

XlogP of octanol and water itself

According to Pubchem, the XLogP of octanol is 3 and that of water is -0.5. Why aren't they both 0 or 1 which seems to make more sense to me?
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1answer
948 views

Classical bioisosteres

Classical bioisosteres are functional groups that satisfy with the Grimm's hydride displacement law and Langmuir's definition of isosteres. My question is why chlorine can be replaced by ...
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2answers
4k views

Is ciprofloxacin acidic or basic?

I would expect an aqueous solution of ciprofloxacin to be basic for the following reasons: The carboxyl group has pKa = 6.09 and the secondary amino group has pKa = 8.74. Because 8.74 is further from ...
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0answers
1k views

Shape of the blood CO2 dissociation curve

What equation determines the shape of the blood $\ce{CO2}$ dissociation curve? I know that since it factors all possible forms of $\ce{CO2}$ carriage, there are a bunch of factors (e.g. Henry's law, ...
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1answer
73 views

Arterial blood CO2 content, division and partial pressure

My lecturer cites Boron and Boulpaep's Medical Physiology (2nd edition) for the following claims: the total $\ce{CO2}$ content of arterial blood is $26.4$ mmol/L or $48\%$ v/v (not sure if these ...
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1answer
525 views

Is lithium L-threonate a potential brain medicine?

Lithium ions have known neuroprotective qualities. That would explain its therapeutic benefit in some mental disorders. It is also well known that lithium carbonate must be taken in toxic doses to get ...
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2answers
2k views

What's the difference between pharmacotherapy and chemotherapy

Is it fair to say that pharmacotherapy (the use of pharmaceuticals to treat disease) is a subset of chemotherapy (the use of chemicals to treat disease)? If not, why? Aside from the fact the former ...
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248 views

Why are trifluoromethyl diazirines so stable?

Why are trifluoromethyl diazirines so stable? Trifluoromethyl diazirines stability is well documented, however I am yet to find an explanation of why... Can it be homoaromatic or even aromatic? 2 pie ...
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3answers
4k views

How do water insoluble medications get absorbed in the blood stream?

If a chemical is ingested (supplement or drug) orally, which is insoluble in water, how can it be absorbed into the body? Is there something inside a capsule that the compound is mixed with?
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1answer
902 views

Regarding the mechanism for biological activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine

Graham Patrick explains the mechanism for the activity of tyramine, amphetamine and ephedrine in his book Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry as follows: Some amines such as tyramine , amphetamine ...
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276 views

Combining amphetamine and MAOIs

Could combining amphetamine and a (possibly selective) MAOI (MonoAmine Oxidase Inhibitor) increase the amphetamines potency without serious toxic side effects? If so by what factor, and would this be ...
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1answer
131 views

Are the tars in cannabis considerably more dangerous than those in tobacco?

The claim that "the tars in cannabis are considerably more dangerous than those in tobacco" is made in Patricks An Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry (4th edition, p. 169). It's just a simple one ...
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2answers
2k views

Effect of enatiomers in pharmaceuticals [closed]

Often (or always?) one enantiomer of a certain drug will be effective and the other ineffective or harmful. The famous example is thalidomide, where one enantiomer caused mutilation of the unborn ...
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1answer
88 views

Skin adhesive that can be used daily without damaging skin

What is the branch of chemistry that deals with skin adhesives? Is there an adhesive that is not water soluble that is safe to use every day?
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1answer
67 views

How are hormone levels measured?

I have been searching google and didn't found any links that describes how this process is performed - I mean the chemical procedure, not the process of taking the blood from the vein.