Questions tagged [medicinal-chemistry]

Medicinal chemistry is the process of design, synthesis, and testing of molecules (drugs) for the treatment of infection and disease. The medicinal-chemistry tag should be applied to all questions relating to this process, from the theoretical aspects of drug design (screening, computational studies, synthesis planning) to the practical aspects of the actual synthesis, characterisation and testing of the molecule.

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How to make a paste out of vinegar?

I am trying to make a smooth vinegar cream for short term use of up to about 3 months (i.e. no preservatives are needed if stored in a cool place). Vinegars such as apple cider vinegar or pure acetic ...
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2 votes
1 answer
151 views

Ritalin/Concerta/Methylphenidate is an amphetamine?

FIDE (the governing body of international chess competition) says here: The most relevant banned substances for chess are: • Amphetamines – e.g. Adderall, Ritalin (...) Image: I think either ...
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1 answer
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Selective secondary amide/lactam hydrolysis

I am working on a synthesis for a compound (4-aminophenol with alkyl chain and lactam at carbon 2). The final step of the synthesis involves hydroylsis of the secondary amide at carbon 4. My problem ...
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3 votes
1 answer
193 views

What are the physicochemical properties related to medical drugs in the PubChem database?

I am not a chemist, in fact, I come from a computer science background. However, I am involved in a project related to artificial intelligence-based drug discovery. For this, I am trying to make a ...
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1 vote
0 answers
42 views

Why is Amphotericin B insoluble in water in the pH range that makes it zwitterionic?

Here is the structure of Amphotericin B, with its carboxylic acid and amine groups circled in red: According to this source, The carboxylic acid group has a pKa of 5.5 and the amine group has a pKa ...
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1 answer
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What is a spiroketal compound?

I read a medicinal chemistry book about SGLT2 inhibitors. One of them is tofogliflozin. In that book, they refer to it as spiroketal. Is the spiroketal functional group the red part in this picture? ...
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0 votes
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45 views

Translating from milligrams in the pill to Ki at the receptor

Many places (e.g. Wikipedia) report the action of a drug on the various receptors, transporters, ion channels, and the like in terms of the Ki(nM). (This is for drugs that act primarily through such ...
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How are cyclodextrins used to form inclusion complexes with drug molecules?

I'm talking about practical application. A cyclodextrin molecule hosts a drug molecule inside of it in order to increase solubility and stability of the drug. But how do we make sure this inclusion ...
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3 votes
0 answers
118 views

How stable is Remdesivir when vial vacuum is broken and/or it is reconstituted with sterile water?

I was recently looking at how long can Remdesivir be stored in its different forms. I came up across several articles provided by the FDA and Gilead Sciences and others. What caught my eye was the ...
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1 vote
3 answers
52 views

When an aqueous extract of a substance is said to be administered at a certain quantity, is the quoted mass analogous to one as original substance?

I'm trying to read studies about the possible toxicity of the leaves of some plant often said to possess positive medicinal properties. In the studies, performed on rats, it is usually said that an ...
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2 answers
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Why are most medicines in salt form? [duplicate]

Is there a reason for why most medicines are in salt form? Why not have them in conjugate base form?
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5 votes
2 answers
66 views

Why are nanoliposome encapsulated antibiotics still so unavailable despite being so effective?

I wasnt sure how the phrase the headline question really nor if this is the right place to ask it, but i'm primarily interested in the chemical synthesis aspect and the experience of chemists ...
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6 votes
0 answers
180 views

Are there any ADME predictions tools available for Python/RDKit?

Is there any Pythonic way (a.k.a: a module, an rdkit package, etc) or an API I can use for ADME predictions? I need to prioritize some compounds for purchase/synthesis and some sort of ADME scoring ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How does Combinatorial Chemistry differ from Rational Drug Design?

I stumbled on Vertex Pharmaceuticals - Wikipedia. It was one of the first biotech firms to use an explicit strategy of rational drug design rather than combinatorial chemistry. Then I looked up ...
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4 votes
0 answers
58 views

Can bis-quaternary aromatic compounds act directly on acetylcholine receptors?

The book Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterase Agents gives examples of bis-quaternary aromatic compounds that are capable of inhibiting acetylcholinesterase. Page 400 gives examples of some such ...
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2 votes
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Why does sodium citrate in water turn black when blueberries are added?

I recently started making oral rehydration therapy for someone I'm taking care of who developed POTS after COVID-19 infection. (ORT was recommended by their doctor.) I use the standard ingredients of ...
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2 votes
0 answers
48 views

Why is chlorpromazine not characterized as tricyclic? [closed]

Chlorpromazine is an old ("typical") anti-psychotic medication with a chemical structure which I as a non chemist find almost identical to that of all "ine" tricyclic anti ...
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3 votes
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Bioisosteric replacement using SMARTS (KNIME and RDKit)

I am trying to create a KNIME workflow that would accept a list of compounds and carry out bioisosteric replacements (we will use the following example here: carboxylic acid to tetrazole) ...
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2 votes
0 answers
69 views

On drug-like criteria and QM9 dataset

According to the book Machine Learning Meets Quantum Physics QM9 is built up from $\sim 134 \mathrm{k}$ drug-like molecules with up to nine heavy atoms (C, N, O, or F). I'm assuming that drug-like ...
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3 votes
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Why does high blood gas partition coefficient of a inhalational anaesthetic drug mean slower induction of anesthesia?

High blood gas partition coefficient of a drug corresponds to higher solubility of the drug in blood leading to high concentration of the drug in blood with respect to gas (air in alveoli). If the ...
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-1 votes
2 answers
1k views

Antibacterial properties of Ethanol and Isopropanol [closed]

Ethyl alcohol is widely used in beverages, while isopropyl alcohol is commonly sold as an antiseptic. However, some use both ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol as antibacterial protection. I am ...
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1 vote
0 answers
386 views

Is levomenthol superior to Menthol as a pain killer in humans and what are the ways to determine this?

I desire to learn whether levomenthol is superior to Menthol as a pain killer in humans. I didn't find a wiki article about levomenthol and the article Menthol doesn't mention this molecule. The ...
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8 votes
2 answers
273 views

Why are drugs mixed with their sodium salts?

I have come across quite a few drugs that are of the form $\ce{HA + NaA}$, where $\ce{A}$ is your target organic compound. A few examples of this are: Carmicide which is a mixture of Sodium Citrate ...
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1 vote
2 answers
74 views

Is a liquid vitamin E supplement possible without additives? [closed]

Looking at E vitamin products sold commercially, all “pure vitamin E oil” products seem to be for skincare rather than consumption as a supplement. I have read that d-alpha tocopherol is the form of ...
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2 votes
0 answers
141 views

Calculating the solubility of aspirin in water

I am trying to investigate the relationship between the solubility of aspirin in water with the relationship to some variables. In my investigation, I seem to be stuck with the calculation of finding ...
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0 votes
1 answer
73 views

What is the maximum amount of medicine that could accumulate in the body if the compound has a half-life of 24 hours? [closed]

If a patient is prescribed 25 mg per day of a compound that has a half-life of roughly 24 hours, what is the maximum accumulated amount of the medicine that would build in the patients body?
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How did the tablet become like this?

How did the tablet become like this? There was a gap in the packet, so I'm guessing it reacted with moisture but is it so? Edit: Composition of 'Tendocare'- Chondroitin Sulfate and Vitamin C ...
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0 votes
3 answers
198 views

Strontium-89 vs strontium-90

Why is radioactive strontium-89 is considered medically useful for bones (along with other benefits) whereas strontium-90 (also being radioactive) is harmful for human body? How does the addition of ...
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4 votes
1 answer
215 views

Why is barium used instead of bismuth as a contrast in gastrointestinal xrays?

Why is barium used instead of bismuth as a contrast in gastrointestinal x-rays? Bismuth is a heavy metal that has a relatively low toxicity in comparison to barium. Is there a particular property of ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
83 views

Separation of sugar and fat in a column chromatography [closed]

I am chemist at organic and bioorganic chemistry,I want to know if we are separating sugar and fat in a column chromatography who will be down first ? and why ? Thank you.
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-1 votes
1 answer
38 views

Which of these chemicals share a likeness in structure with benzodiazepines causing false-positives in urine tests? [closed]

Below are potential culprits: Quetiapine, Oxcarbazepine, and Valproate feature in the current medicine regime. Olanzapine was discontinued quite recently. Quetiapine XR (increased to 400mg) and an ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
33 views

Medicines in the fridge [closed]

Why are there some medicines that are put in the fridge? Thanks
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16 votes
1 answer
12k views

How to count free rotatable bonds

I am having difficulties to count the number of free rotating bonds for the Lipinski and Veber rules. What are the rules in doing so? In Vemurafenib (shown above), which bonds are considered ...
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2 votes
1 answer
100 views

Tip of my tongue: what is the name of this process?

I remember back in Chemistry class, we did this thing where we would drop some liquid into a solvent. The moment it touched the solvent, it would turn into a gel sphere with the solvent inside it, and ...
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9 votes
1 answer
315 views

Why is there a comparative lack of variety in positive counterions in drugs?

Pharmaceutical salts are important in the process of drug development. Using different chemical species to neutralise the parent drug can produce a diverse series of compounds, and this process is ...
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1 vote
0 answers
2k views

How to convert lidocaine hydrochloride to lidocaine base?

I'm a hobbyist, no pro. I've got a formulation for a topical anesthetic I'm trying to mimic. It calls for lidocaine, ethoxydiglycol (also known as diethylene glycol monoethyl ether) and a couple of ...
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2 votes
2 answers
1k views

NaHCO3 required to raise pH of weak HCl solution from 3.5 to 7.2 (doubting my calculations)

I'm a dentist, working on a medical device that will make shots at the dentist office hurt a lot less. The device mixes a drug (2% Lidocaine) that has been acidified with $\ce{HCl}$ to pH 3.5 for ...
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2 votes
0 answers
1k views

How do you remove residual Lawesson's reagent after thionation?

I am currently synthesizing a peptidomimetic bioisostere that replaces an oxygen with a sulfur. I use lawesson's reagent to achieve this, and althought the reaction works and despite running it ...
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5 votes
0 answers
49 views

Cytotoxicity of Ru-complexes

I have a basic question: why are Ru(II)-complexes cytotoxic? What I know is that depending on the used ligand some of them interact with the DNA either via DNA-pi-stacking (intercalation) or binding ...
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1 vote
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How to find all published Pharmacophore Structure of a Drug target?

Other than literature review how do you find the structures of Pharmacophore of a drug target? I am searching Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDK) inhibitors and I have reviewed lots of literature but ...
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13 votes
1 answer
218 views

Trustworthiness of IC50 values

My two questions: Is replication of recording $\text{IC}_{50}$ values prior to (primary?) publication less common than performing a reaction several times to determine a more reliable record? Provided ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
805 views

Does chlorine in tap water usually contain traces of cornstarch (or its derivatives)? [closed]

My online research has been challenging to separate out the corn starch or corn Derivatives that are obviously in chlorine weather in tap water or pools. There is medical support backing it but I ...
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2 votes
1 answer
713 views

What concentration of small molecule binding is considered weak or strong?

In the chemistry literature, I often see a stated concentration (nanomolar, micromolar, millimolar) followed by qualitative judgment on the potency of the small molecule for protein inhibition. What ...
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4 votes
0 answers
988 views

Reasoning for baking soda treating poison ivy rashes

A quick Google search will show that baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) mixed with water in a 3 to 1 ratio will make a paste to be applied on poison ivy rashes. This is commonly advertised as a home ...
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2 votes
3 answers
7k views

Determine from pKa if acid or base

I'm studying medicine, not chemistry, but I hope you can help me anyway. I just had to solve a question where it is given that the drug Propranolol has a $\text{p}K_{\text{a}}$ of 9.5 and the un-...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the significance of Sphingolipids in human?

I want to know the significance of sphingolipids in human. I have learnt that sphingomyelin is the most significant type of sphingolipid in human. Also that the sphingomyelin serves as a structural ...
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3 votes
2 answers
2k views

Betaine HCl stomach pH

It seems betaine HCl is often recommended for those suffering from "low stomach acid" -- which, as I understand, is having too high stomach pH for proper digestion (especially for proteolysis via ...
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2 votes
0 answers
28 views

For Penicillin Binding proteins, why is the Enzyme-peptide complex less stable than an enzyme-β-lactam complex?

I'm trying to figure this out. I cannot find any publications that go into good detail about the chemistry of PBP inhibition by β-lactam antibiotics. PBPs cross-link adjacent pentapeptides to form ...
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2 votes
1 answer
664 views

In the graph provided, which of the substances is the most efficient in acting as an antacid?

If every dot represents the addition of 0.1 g of the respective base. I suppose that the best would be the one that reaches the highest pH, in the shortest time, for example Calcium Carbonate, but if ...
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0 votes
1 answer
10k views

What kind of materials are plastic syringes made from?

I'm trying to figure out what kind of materials my disposable plastic syringe is made from. I have a Medefil MIS-1130 syringe and when I visited the company website I couldn't find any information on ...
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