Questions tagged [terminology]

For questions relating to terminology and naming conventions for chemical compounds and reactions.

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Formal way to say bubble / bubbling

I know this question might seem too simplistic but I've been looking everywhere for a better than bubble but I have not found it. The most similar word would be effervescence but that's slightly ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Definition of amino acid side chain

Is the α-carbon considered a part of amino acid side chain? Is the nitrogen atom on the backbone is considered a part of the side chain of the proline?
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1 vote
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Degree of polymerization with structure-based polymer naming

Polymers may be named using either a structure-based or a source-based nomenclature, as detailed in the IUPAC Purple Book.[1] Therefore, the polymer descibed by $\require{enclose}\ce{\enclose{...
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5 votes
2 answers
427 views

Name of particles in a suspension

What is the proper name given to the particles in a suspension? Suspensae perhaps? When these particles are brought out of suspension, and precipitate down to the bottom of the mixture, what is that ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Should chemical names in figures be capitalised? [duplicate]

If I draw a molecule (for example glucose) and I want to name it, should I write glucose or Glucose? My aim is to draw a molecule, add the name below and then use this as a figure in a Word text.
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4 votes
1 answer
999 views

Why does almost every drug that causes dependence have this "-ine" suffix?

I noticed that many drugs that cause dependence have the suffix word "-ine". For example: Caffeine, nicotine, benzodiazepine, methamphetamine, cocaine, and morphine. My questions: Why do ...
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1 vote
0 answers
42 views

What is reversible change for ideal gas?

What are the reversible and irreversible changes for an ideal gas? Is it the change that keeps the ideal gas law during the change? Is any reversible change a sum of changes satisfying the ideal gas ...
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2 answers
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Can you coat/ "plate" things with non metals or compounds? [closed]

I was recently watching a video on electro plating I understand that it only works with metals so I wondered if there's a method to do the same thing but with non-metals.
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the meaning of a “halide component” for Friedel–Crafts reaction? [closed]

Among the given halides, which one can be used as halide component for Friedel–Crafts reaction? (a) Isopropyl chloride (b) Bromobenzene (c) Chlorobenzene (d) Chloroethene I don't understand what a &...
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6 votes
1 answer
259 views

Is there a canonical variable for period and group?

For example, "Z" is the standard symbol for atomic number. I'm writing a manuscript that uses the group and period of elements within some equations, and so far I'm just denoting them as $G_{...
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0 votes
0 answers
13 views

How is relative interaction energy defined and quantified?

I understand the interaction energy is the energy associated or caused by the interaction between the objects. So, for atoms it has to be the sum of van der Waals interaction and Coulomb interaction. ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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What does “efficiency” refer to for a refrigerator?

A problem from my textbook mentions a refrigerator working with $35\,\%$ efficiency. I thought that in this case the coefficient of performance (COP) was used, specifically $Q_\mathrm{cold}/W,$ which ...
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8 votes
1 answer
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Naming of the chemical elements and original sentences by the discoverers

Does anyone recall a printed or an online compilation where the names of all the chemical elements are listed along with the original sentence, from a research paper, containing the name of the ...
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2 votes
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What is the name of the physical quantity that is given in kJ/g?

The chemical potential $\mu$ of a pure phase corresponds to the Gibbs free energy $G$ divided by the amount of substance $n$: $${G\over n} = \mu,$$ so the units of $\mu$ are $\pu{kJ mol^-1}.$ What do ...
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4 votes
1 answer
130 views

Why use "molecular equation" to refer to a chemical equation describing a precipitation reaction?

When we describe a precipitation reaction using a chemical equation, we have the choice of either writing the net ionic equation (i.e. leaving out spectator ions) or writing the respective ionic ...
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3 votes
2 answers
199 views

What are skew positions in the conformation of cyclohexane?

I encountered a question which mentioned the skew position during discussion of the conformers of cyclohexane (chair/boat). Here is the question (grammatical errors have been emended): Which of the ...
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4 votes
1 answer
102 views

What do the suffixes on Y-90s and Y-90v mean?

I'm writing software that needs to differentiate the following "isotopes" for a dose calibrator (as used in nuclear medicine). My software needs to normalize various inputs for "...
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1 answer
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What is the difference between structure and morphology in polymer blends?

When talking about polymer blends there is a difference between its structure and morphology, but I am not sure what it is. These two terms are used interchangeably in materials I use to study, but I ...
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4 votes
1 answer
179 views

Why is the term "nascent nitrogen" still used in metallurgical industries?

Continuation of Why do nitrogen-containing organic compounds give N2 as the combustion product? (comment converted into question) Nascent state is an obsolete theory in chemistry and is discredited. ...
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8 votes
1 answer
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If something is not hydrophilic, is it necessarily hydrophobic?

Is it possible to create hydrophobic water? Two species are phobic within some medium under some conditions when they don't here together (cohere if they're the same species; adhere otherwise). To be ...
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4 votes
3 answers
311 views

What is the difference between structure assignment and structure prediction?

I am absolutely new to structural bioinformatics (only started last week). I am working on the secondary structure assignment/prediction (actually I am not sure) of proteins using machine learning. ...
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5 votes
1 answer
124 views

What is/was "uraneous oxide"? Was it an accepted name for a compound or mixed oxides of uranium?

In This National Technical Reports Library page for a 1965 report Method for Coating Actinide Particles in the list of keywords both Uranium compounds and Uraneous oxide are listed. But I don't find ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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what does it mean to say oxygen in a given context?

My textbook "chemistry by Julia" says the following When it comes to expressing the molar mass of elements such as oxygen and hydrogen, we have to be careful to specify what form of the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
319 views

What is the name for the relationship between two elements in the same group?

I'm looking for a specific term which can be used to describe two elements in the same group of the Periodic Table. This would be useful since elements in the same group tend to have similar chemical/...
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1 vote
1 answer
876 views

The definition of n-factor, what was it when it was introduced?

I realize that n-factor is an outdated concept however I am interested in its formal definition when it was introduced. We have many definitions now on how to calculate n-factor depending on the type ...
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3 votes
2 answers
163 views

Why is the IUPAC definition of adsorption so different from other definitions?

NB: This question has been edited. Originally, some of the confusion was caused by me not knowing that condensed phase could refer to solid phases as well. This has been removed, but the confusion ...
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0 answers
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Atomic weight and its units [duplicate]

I am quite confused when it comes to this, there are quite a lot of definitions of the above terms in numerous books and websites. However the definitions do not match each other. So, here are the two ...
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4 votes
1 answer
146 views

New York Times Crossword: Is "electrically balanced" in chemistry "apolar" (given), "neutral," or something else entirely?

As a lifelong New York Times crossword puzzler, I was baffled by clue 38-Across in today's puzzle (Saturday, May 22, 2021). The solution is a 6-letter word, and the clue is: Electrically balanced, in ...
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3 votes
0 answers
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What does it mean to "shear" an emulsion?

The following instructions are given for a preparation and I am wondering what it means to "shear an emulsion"? The water phase components and the oil phase components are each mixed in ...
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3 votes
1 answer
458 views

Meaning of the term "Activation of alkene"

While reading organic texts, I have come across authors referring to "Activation of alkene" what does that mean !? Does it mean to include the alkene in resonance or what else exactly ? I ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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What is the term for a collection of chiral molecules of unequal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers?

This is what I found on wiki: In chemistry, a racemic mixture, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Homochirality can also refer to enantiopure ...
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15 votes
2 answers
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Help understanding how "steric effects" are distinct from "electronic effects"?

@jakebeal's excellent answer to Why do animal cells “mistake” rubidium ions for potassium ions? includes the following passage: In the case of potassium versus sodium, which are both very important ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Is Combinatorial Chemistry related to combinatorics in math?

If the answer is no, then I don't understand the adjective "Combinatorial". Barring decompositions, aren't the five main types of chemical reactions combinatorial? You must combine at least ...
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1 vote
1 answer
76 views

Exactly how the subscripted numbers are given to the different types of boron sheets (borophenes)?

I was going to start a project on Borophene, and hence I was going through a review journal, 2D Boron: Boraphene, Borophene, Boronene, where they have said many types of borophenes had been proposed. ...
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17 votes
4 answers
3k views

Why "monoxide" but not "diodine"?

When naming compounds, sometimes when there are two vowels in a row the second is elided: this happens for example with "mono-oxide", which becomes "monoxide" instead. Why is this ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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What is the proper use of the term "pi-donor ligand"?

Robert Crabtree's The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals (7e) describes a pi-donor ligand as being a pi-donor "as a result of the lone pairs that are left after one lone pair has ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Are there terms for ions of chlorine other than chloride?

An ion of chlorine with a charge of −1 is called a chloride ion/anion. Are there terms for other ions of chlorine, for example, $\ce{Cl+}$ or $\ce{Cl^2-}?$
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1 vote
1 answer
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Who coined the term "gas evolution reaction"?

I found a paper from 1812 which specifically mentions the evolution of a gas [1]. There is a similar reference from 1808, except it uses the term evolution to speak of green light emitted when a ...
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6 votes
1 answer
555 views

Exact meaning of "degree of crosslinking" in polymer chemistry

In the ion-exchange chromatography literature, a term "degree of crosslinking" appears frequently. Ion exchange resins are typically made from divinylbenzene and styrene. One of the stated ...
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2 votes
1 answer
558 views

Which one of the following is NOT a haloalkane? [closed]

Which one of the following is NOT a haloalkane? A) Freon B) Teflon C) Iodoform D) Vinyl chloride Every compound here seems to me as a haloalkane: Freon, Teflon, iodoform, and vinyl chloride. My text ...
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2 votes
2 answers
140 views

What is the difference in mosM and mOsm units, if there is any at all?

I'm reading Agre's paper on aquaporins [1] and he uses a unit called "mosM" throughout the paper, for example: … ocytes were transferred from 200 mosM to 70 mosM modified Barth's buffer. I ...
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2 votes
2 answers
364 views

Is reforming and isomerization the same thing?

Okay, just to give an idea of my current understanding. Reforming is a step one can do after one has cracked some hydrocarbons. As such, the process of reforming is dependent on a separate process, ...
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4 votes
0 answers
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What is the definition of energy-independent basis?

I am reading this article by Zatsarinny and Fischer [1]. At some point they span a wave function $\Psi_{E}$ in terms of energy independent basis $$\Psi_{E}=\sum_{k} A_{E k} \Psi_{k}$$ For example, The ...
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9 votes
2 answers
947 views

Meaning of the Term "Heavy Metals" in CofA?

I've always wondered, what is the meaning of the following terms on a certificate of analysis: "Heavy Metals" "Heavy Metals (as Pb)" What exactly is comprised in "heavy ...
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Name of proton directly bonded to a functional group e.g. carbonyl

For example, a carbon bonded to a carbonyl group is the alpha carbon, and has alpha protons. Following that there are beta and gamma carbons and protons. Is there a specific name for the proton in an ...
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-1 votes
2 answers
647 views

Why are alkenes considered nonpolar?

Alkenes have C–C sigma bonds, C=C pi bonds, and also C–H sigma bonds. I know that C–C and C=C bonds will not give any polarity, but what about the C–H bond? I think it should give some polarity ...
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7 votes
3 answers
836 views

Can precipitation occur in states of matter other than liquids?

This answer to Are precipitation and crystallization both analogous between chemistry and meteorology? discusses the history and use of the term "precipitation" in chemistry. From what I ...
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3 votes
1 answer
149 views

Are precipitation and crystallization both analogous between Chemistry and Meteorology?

A comment under the Space SE question Is there really precipitation on Mars? Does frost count? brings up the use of the term "precipitation" in chemistry and we wonder if precipitation in ...
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6 votes
2 answers
2k views

What is the intuition behind 'mol' as a unit 'symbol'

Why are moles written with 'mol' as opposed to something which is easier to write with one character, or even two?
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9 votes
1 answer
1k views

What do "USP 26" and "USP 42" mean?

I am being asked by a colleague if the Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) we buy in our lab is "USP 26" or "USP 42". I've never heard those terms before. I searched up online but found ...
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