Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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16 views

Why can't I make hexyl acetate from isoamyl acetate

In the organic chemistry course, we did a lab where we had to transform isoamyl acetate (banana) into hexyl acetate (pear). The experiment did not work. Indeed, we did a fractional distillation to ...
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Too much leftover in zinc sulfate reaction?

I'm doing a reaction of zinc metal and sulfuric acid to get zinc sulfate. I've been trying to learn the chemistry lately so I tried to measure out correct molar amounts. My understanding from the ...
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How much the computation chemistry can predict the stability and properties of the (metallo-)organic molecules? [closed]

I have this vision for the pandemia preparedness platform (aka CERN/ITERA/Mars mission for preparedness) https://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/91025/can-we-prepare-for-pandemics-by-predicting-...
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Photosynthesis being a synthesis reaction [closed]

If a synthesis reaction is a reaction in which two or more substances react together to form just one product, then how is it that photosynthesis has two products; glucose and oxygen?
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Easy way to derivatize silsesquioxanes

I have a polymer end-capped with a Polysilsesquioxane (POSS) like this one: where R=i-butyl. I haven't found much info on what type or reactions these POSS groups can undergo. I would like to know ...
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Selective halogenation of an alkane

Is it possible to selectively halogenate a certain position on an alkane chain, and also get a good yield? I understand that to form such haloalkanes, taking a different substrate other than alkane (...
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Laboratory preparation of catechol

The wikipedia page says that catechol is prepared from phenol and hydrogen peroxide. As this is a very simple proces, compared to the OrgSyn procedure from salicylaldehyde, I would prefer it. Does ...
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Condensation reaction between catechol and acetone

I was thinking of ways to synthesize 2,2-bis(dihydroxyphenyl) propane and I thought it could be made by a condensation reaction between dihydroxybenzene (catechol) and acetone in strongly acidic ...
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41 views

How would one favor the formation of p-TsCl over o-TsCl in the chlorosuflonation of toluene? [closed]

I found an old synthesis of $\ce{o-TsCl}$ that purportedly gives a yield of $85\%$ here and was wondering how, still using chlorosulfonic acid, I could favor the formation of $\ce{p-TsCl}$ instead.
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What is a good substitue for monoethanolamine in creating conductive silver nanoparticles?

In this paper (https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2017/ra/c7ra05125e) and a few others, chemists create PAA-coated silver nanoparticles in a colloidal conductive ink. (Mods - I cant seem to ...
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43 views

Sodium hydride 60% dispersion in mineral oil [closed]

I've got a bottle of sodium hydride 60% dispersion in mineral oil. It's not "in mineral oil" it's just powder with an oil coating. I'm using it in an inert reaction, is there a way to remove the oil?
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chitosan question [closed]

when chitosan is coated on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles, are the amine groups of the chitosan pointed out?
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The Limitation of Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis In Case of Polyglycine

I was wondering if I could use your experience and all the precautions you would like to recommend for a long peptide synthesis via SPPS. I've already got a low loading resin so this way I'll minimize ...
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62 views

Solvent for reaction mixture

I'm looking for some suitable solvent for ether cleavage of Guaiacol (o-Methoxyphenol) using aluminium triiodide ($\ce{AlI3}$) with $\ce{DMSO}$. The original paper calls for using hot acetonitrile as ...
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How is bromothymol blue synthetised?

In a classical reaction, phenolphthalein is synthetised from phthalic anhydride and phenol with acid catalyst. When one uses substituted phenols, one obtains similar compounds (e. g. cresolphthalein, ...
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Simple synthesis of thiocyanates

Can sodium thiocyanate be synthesised by combining equimolar amounts of ammonia, sodium hydrosulfide and carbon dioxide in the presence of phosphorous pentoxide by the following reaction: NH3 + NaSH + ...
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What's the purpose of an ice bath when preparing a nitration mix from KNO3

Most preparations for nitrocellulose from KNO3+H2SO4 mixture require the use of an ice bath during the process of dissolving KNO3 into H2SO4. Last time I did this I omitted this step and the ...
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Synthesis of the tetrachloroaluminate(III) anion

Looking for random chemicals, I found a reference on the anion and thought that it could be synthesised from common laboratory reagents: $$ \begin{align} \ce{2 Al + 2 NaOH + 2 H2O &-> 2 NaAlO2 ...
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98 views

What is the mechanism of this reaction?

I've been stuck with this for some time. I just don't see it. As the reactant is Pd(0), I think oxidative addition will happen to the bromine. Then I would say an insertion reaction happens. However ...
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50 views

Problem with synthesis of calcium formate

I just tried preparing calcium formate by adding $\ce{Ca(OH)2}$ to ammonium formate, but I observed no bubble formation and no smell of ammonia. Why doesn't calcium hydroxide, being a strong base, ...
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88 views

Mysterious precipitate in reaction of copper sulfate and calcium hypochlorite

So I can’t seem to figure this reaction out. I’m pretty new to chemistry and am still learning it in high school so please don’t think I’m stupid. I have reacted 2 solitons (copper sulfate) and ( ...
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212 views

Reference request on potassium cyanide production method

I kindly ask for a reference for the following claim about potassium cyanide, found at potassium.atomistry.com: It is also obtained by the action of a mixture of steam and nitrogen on potassium ...
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56 views

Copper (II) chloride reduction with Hydrogen gas

I've been looking into making pure copper (I) chloride, but using ascorbic acid is relatively expensive for me. I'd also like to avoid having water in any part of the synthesis to minimize the ...
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36 views

Source of highly nucleophilic iodide [closed]

What is be the best commercially available source of highly nucleophilic iodide in non-polar solvent? Solvents used are cyclohexane, benzene, chlorobenzene. I can get ahold of bromide quaternary ...
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194 views

Why cobalt reacts favorably with nitrogen?

I used also iron, nickel, zinc, copper. However, cobalt gives the easiest and straight forward yield of nitrides (XPS and SAED verified). It is so easy to get cobalt nitride that I don't even have to ...
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Preparation of compounds using acetoacetic ester synthesis

I've been given the following exercise in organic chemistry, and I'm at a complete loss. The text book doesn't cover the subject at all. I have some knowledge of melonic ester synthesis. As an ...
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167 views

Reduction of amino acids to corresponding amino alcohols

I've stumbled upon an interesting article about reduction of amino acids and from there to reduction of L-valine to L-valinol using $\ce{LiAlH4}$ in THF. Article says that because of the cost of $\...
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Best method to increase the chain length of allyl to butane-1,2-diol [closed]

Best method to increase the carbon chain length of allyl. and also add 2 OH carbon after reducing double bond give (S)-4-R-butane-1,2-diol and (R)-4-R-butane-1,2-diol . R= Any Ak, Cb, Cy, Hy
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203 views

How to obtain sodium oxide from sodium chloride?

Under what conditions can $\ce{Na2O}$ be made from $\ce{NaCl}?$ I know $\ce{NaCl}$ doesn't oxidise under normal ambient conditions, but in the presence of what temperature and pressure ranges is this ...
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method of separating product and conserving the catalyst

I'm looking for a way to separate reaction product of iodobenzene with ethyl 2-methyl-3-oxopentanoate in 1,4-dioxane (toluene is an alternative as a solvent). The catalyst being used is Pd2(dba)3 with ...
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153 views

Obtaining mercury from mercury(II) nitrate

I was thinking about obtaining mercury from mercury(II) nitrate. Is it possible? I've tried putting chunks of Fe into it, I've got the logic from the voltaic table (where Fe is on the left side of Hg, ...
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Reference request on formate potash process

Wikipedia article on Potassium Formate mentions a so-called "formate potash process" for production of potassium, presumably referring to elemental metal. Concise encyclopedia chemistry by Mary ...
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Reaction with ethyl chloroacetate and potassium carbonate

I am carrying out a reaction using ethyl chloroacetate, potassium carbonate in acetone for a compound containing $\ce{-NH}$ group. So, the substitution will be at $\ce{-NH}$ position. I have tried ...
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Methylammonium lead(II) iodide perovskites in bulk form

I am trying to obtain $\ce{(MA)PbI3}$ as a bulk powder using lead(II) iodide and methylammonium iodide as precursors. I have not yet tried simply mixing the two in methanol/ethanol and removing the ...
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Hydroxy Protecting Groups that are not Cleaved Under Acidic Conditions

I am currently designing a synthesis requiring the use of hydroxy protecting groups. The problem I am having is that the protecting group must be able to survive highly acidic conditions. I would have ...
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Phosphoryl bromide reaction with benzoic acid

I am trying to find out how $\ce{POBr3}$ reacts with $\ce{-COOH}$ group (benzoic acid to be specific). I found that it performs an elimination reaction with alcohols to give alkenes. I have also seen ...
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How to get rid needle clogging on electrospinning of PLA/PCL/PMMA/Collagen?

For my thesis research, I dissolved PLA and PCL in chloroform: methanol (3:1), PMMA (350.000 MW, 13 wt%) in acetone, and collagen in acetate acid--and then, I mixed them together. The problem is when ...
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What is the largest one step radical cyclization ever achieved?

When I was an undergrad, roughly around 2005, I took a grad level class that covered various topics in advanced organic synthesis. I don't remember much clearly from the class, but one thing that I ...
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68 views

Balanced equation for Schweizer's reagent production?

In Thompson's Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments the chemical formula for Schweizer's reagent is represented as $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4](OH)2}$ (although Wikipedia represents it as $\ce{[Cu(NH3)4(...
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Selective Esterification of Amino Acid

I am going to prepare tert-butyl protected threonine. I was going for the classic esterification methodology which is acid catalyzed (sulfuric acid) esterification under reflux of tert butyl alcohol + ...
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Molar ratios not leading to complete reaction in Schweizer's reagent production

In my home lab, I've reacted $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$ with aqueous ammonia to produce Schweizer's reagent. However, I'm surprised by the amount of ammonia required to react with this amount of $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$. ...
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39 views

Organometallic Synthesis: Cp2Ti(I)Me from TiCl4

I've been working on this synthesis question for a couple days but I'm a little stuck. The question is: Using only $\ce{TiCl_{4}}$, $\ce{NaCp}$, $\ce{PhLi}$, $\ce{MeI}$, and $\ce{EtMgBr}$, ...
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339 views

Making aspirin without acetic anhydride

I want to make aspirin. Normal method is to react salicylic acid with acetic anhydride, but it is extremely hard to find acetic anhydride. How may I synthesize aspirin with acetic acid and salicylic ...
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Why is t-BuOK necessary for this synthesis?

1-chloro-2-methylpropane --> 2-chloro-2-methylpropane. My understanding is that an E2 reaction produces two types of alkenes, the major product for non-sterically hindered bases is the more ...
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How to dissolve PLA/PCL/PMMA?

I have a research about electrospun membrane synthesis where I dissolve PLA pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours and also PCL pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours too. Another ...
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463 views

How to convert Mn2O3 to Mn3O4?

I was preparing $\ce{Mn3O4}$ but it was when characterized by XRD, a $\ce{Mn2O3}$ phase existed. Now how can I convert $\ce{Mn2O3}$ to $\ce{Mn3O4}$?
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97 views

Why is it ill advised to eat the solid aspirine formed from salicylic acid + acetic anhydride

In the laboratory notes it is indicated that it is ill advised to eat the solid formed from this experiment. An esterification reaction, in which salicylic acid is treated with acetic anhydride. If ...
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How can the free amino acid B be enantioslectively synthesitzed?

I would like to know how this reaction actually works. I think its an ring metathesis, espececially with the Grubbs catalysator II. But I dont know how to this reaction examole really works especially ...
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Shi Epoxidation Issues - Any help would be appreciated

As part of my PhD project, I'm currently looking into running a Shi Epoxidation reaction. The first step is to reproduce the current literature on this reaction by using trans-stilbene as my substrate....
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79 views

Synthesis of copper selenide

If I react selenium powder with copper chloride powder above the melting point of selenium (221 °C), will I end up with a chunk of copper selenide, with the chlorine given off as gas, or will I lose ...

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