Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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Are patents included in literature reviews? [migrated]

I'm writing a literature review on synthesis and biological activity of some organic compounds, and half the references I found on SciFinder are patents. Are patents typically included in literature ...
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Mechanism of Hypervalent Iodine Phenolic Coupling

I need some help understanding the hypervalent iodine phenolic coupling reaction taking place in this synthesis of morphine, the reaction uses $\ce{PhI(OAc)2}$ as the hypervalent reagent and ...
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Why are halogens base sensitive groups (Wolff-Kishner Reduction)?

So while studying about Wolff-Kishner reduction reaction to form alkanes from carbonyl groups. I read that it is not suitable for base sensitive groups as the environment is highly basic and as an ...
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How can I synthesize 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoic acid from toluene or benzene?

I am trying to design a proper synthesis route for 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoic acid, though methyl 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoate—using an ester group in lieu of a carboxylic acid—would also ...
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Ring formation via oxymercuration-demercuration

I'm solving past problems from a 2014 Organic Chemistry II course (from a publicly available Harvard summer school Canvas page), when I came across this question: The answer (which is the reactant) ...
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Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol?

Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol? I was reading an article by Rentsch and Kalesse [1] and I came across this reaction, but could not figure out how the final compound is formed: Reference Rentsch, A.; ...
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Synthesis of anhydrous sodium tungstate

I am interested in preparing an anhydrous sample of sodium tungstate (Na2WO4), which is normally found as the dihydrate. Finding an example of this in literature is proving difficult, I am interested ...
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Converting bromobenzene to 1‐bromo‐3‐methylbenzene

I started by taking $\ce{FeCl3}$ to reduce electron-giving capacity of $\ce{Br}.$ Then we need a methyl at meta, so I thought about Friedel–Crafts acylation, but then also methyl will come at para.
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Retro Diels–Alder reaction in synthesis of corallopyronin A

I was looking at the synthesis of corallopyronin A in the following paper by Rentsch and Kalesse: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51 (45), 11381–11384. There is one reaction which is described as ...
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Synthesizing 2-bromoaniline from bromobenzene

I am trying to synthesize 2-bromoaniline from bromobenzene. I came up with a reaction path, but I want your thoughts on whether this is feasible and can produce a decent yield. Sulfonation of ...
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Make Acetic Acid from wood

I would like to know if it would be possible to make Acetic Acid from Wood. I know that you can charcoal wood to get the gases, cool it, and get the liquid. This would yield a bunch of chemicals in a ...
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How to synthesize 3‐cyclopentylpropanal from (chloromethyl)cyclopentane?

I am not sure on how to start, but I think of these two possible ways: Reacting the starting material with Grignard reagent and then oxidise the product with PCC to produce the aldehyde; Hydrolysis ...
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Why use Stork enamine alkylation?

I recently learned about the Stork enamine alkylation method of adding electrophiles to the beta carboxyl position on a molecule. But I can't seem to find out why a direct synthesis is not possible (...
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Reaction analogous to burning that causes cooling rather than releasing heat [closed]

Is it physically and chemically possible to design both a gas and a solid substance, such that there would be a technologically feasible initiation of a chain reaction analogous to the spark that ...
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Why does B12H12 Borane not exist? [duplicate]

Whenever I searched "$\ce{B12H12}$ Borane", I can't seem to find anything, and get met with only the dianion of $\ce{B12H12}$. Why doesn't $\ce{B12H12}$ exist on its own?
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When writing a paper should I describe the procedure thoroughly? [closed]

I have not written any article on a chemistry subject yet, and I want to use good practices from the start. What I have noticed reading papers, is that a lot of times it is not specified the exact ...
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How do I synthesise this tertiary amide from these 5 compounds?

So basically I'm at a loss as to how to proceed. I started with the idea of converting the primary alcohol into an aldehyde and that is where I stoped. I understand that each substituent of the ...
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Cosmetic emulsifier

Hello and good morning! I currently have polysorbate 80 but I am looking into buying Peg 40 hydrogenated castor oil. I need an emulsifier in an oil to water facial cleanser. (20:80 oil to “water.” “...
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Acid boric preparation [closed]

Is there a simple reaction to yield boric acid ($\ce{H3BO3}$) from boron trifluoride ($\ce{BF3}$)?
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How concentrated does sulfuric acid need to be for nitric acid synthesis (H2SO4 + nitrate salt distillation)?

So I have a home lab setup and recently found myself in need of some nitric acid. I could just buy some, but I thought it would be a useful exercise to make my own. I have plenty of nitrate salts ...
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how is the esterification of amino acid carried on in this reaction

i was asked to synthesis this compound from this amino acid, i first alkylated the alpha carbon using enolate alkylating method then i esterficated the amino acid but i'm doubtful that my steps are ...
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Synthesis of Pyrene from Benzene

I know of this ring expansion reaction that can fuse a benzene ring with another benzene ring: Performing this reaction twice gives us phenanthrene How would one go about synthesizing pyrene from ...
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What is “activated red phosphorus”? What made it so long to be discovered?

[WP = white phosphorus ; RP = red phosphorus ; ARP = activated red phosphorus] Tom from Extraction & Ire did a video two years ago(2018) on converting WP to RP by keeping the former in sunlight ...
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Retrosynthesis suggestion [closed]

Am I even close to solve this problem or it is a complete disaster?
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Weinreb ketone synthesis [closed]

For this problem, Can I use weinreb ketone synthesis? I found the product but not sure it is the right one If the amide react with either R1-Mgbr or R2-Li, then it produces the ketone?
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What does washing and drying a solution mean?

After combining two solutions, a direction in a 1970s British chemistry book says to wash the new solution with a mixture of baking soda, table salt, and water. Then it says to dry it with anhydrous ...
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Why does the titanium go to the tungsten filament in the crystal bar process?

I've tried to read a report by the US atomic energy commission [1], but couldn't really find the answer, or maybe I missed it. Why is the gaseous titanium deposited on the tungsten wire/filament ...
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How to synthesize 4‐[(4,4‐dimethylpentyl)oxy]‐2,2,8,8‐tetramethylnonane starting with 4,4‐dimethylpent‐1‐ene?

My attempt: I don’t know how to add another chain. I think I probably need to react with another A molecule, but I don’t know the mechanism. Can anyone help me with this?
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Which amino acids can be totally synthesized? [closed]

I can't find information regarding which amino acids (say the proteinogenic ones or in general) can be totally synthesized. Is there a reference?
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Nickel(II) acetylacetonate crystals coming out blue

An experiment in my class has us synthesising the acetylacetonate complex from hydrated nickel chloride being added to a solution of ammonia, acetylacetone and water. The products came out pale blue, ...
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How does the position of hydroxyl group in a nucleotide monomer affect the dehydration synthesis of nucleotides?

In dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, the hydrogen atom from the 3' carbon on the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide reacts with the hydroxyl group on the phosphate group of another nucleotide to ...
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Why did ammonium chloride fumes turned pink in this synthesis?

I was watching the synthesis of tetrasulfur tetranitride performed by Tom on his Youtube channel, Explosion & fire. He followed the basic route: adding ammonia gas to sulfur chlorides ($\ce{SCl2}$ ...
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How are organic compounds with radioactive atoms synthesized? [closed]

We often see reactions such as these in textbooks to highlight how reaction mechanisms work: How are the radioactive substrates required for these mechanisms synthesized in the first place? There ...
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Laboratory and commercial preparations of aniline other than reduction of nitroarenes [closed]

Till now I could only find one laboratory preparation of aniline, i.e. reducing nitrobenzene with $\ce{Sn}$ and concentrated $\ce{HCl}$. I'm confused if Hofmann degradation is only commercial. I'd ...
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Synthesis Problem? [closed]

What I tried to do is this: Opening the epoxide using $\ce{^-OCH2CH2CH3}$. But then I have two alcohols and I get stuck. It's possible in one way but takes more than 4 steps...
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Why did my synthesis of calcium peroxide fail? [closed]

I dissolved calcium acetate in about $\pu{80 mL}$ of water and added $\pu{30 mL}$ of 60% peroxide. I should have obtained calcium peroxide which is insoluble in water, but i saw no precipitate. I read ...
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Synthesing tetrahydropyran from ethylene oxide

I thought that the first step must be using a Grignard reagent to add carbons, but I need a hydroxyl group on the carbon on the other side to make it a diol and produce the product given, but nothing ...
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Synthesis question: Using reductive amination to form pyrrolidine

What molecule results from treating 4-oxopentanal with $\ce{NH4Cl}$ and $\ce{NaCNBH3}$? Why? Is this a good, high yield reaction? I believe that pyrrolidine is formed because amination will convert ...
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Definition of throughput

I wonder what's the exact meaning of throughput in chemistry synthesis, eg. in organic synthesis or production of pharmaceutical products. For instance, what are their units? How are they measured? I'...
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How can I synthesize phenylpiracetam from styrene or benzaldehyde?

I am trying to design a proper synthesis route for phenylpiracetam. I am thinking a good starting material would be styrene or benzaldehyde. Here is my proposed route. Is there a better method? ...
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132 views

How do I prepare 2-(3-azido-3-oxopropoxy)ethyl methacrylate from methacrylic acid?

I am having some trouble finding a proper synthesis route for the following product. Originally, I was thinking of reacting methacrylic acid with a large excess of ethylene glycol (along with an acid ...
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Mechanism of conversion of Cr from FeCr2O4 (chromite)

The basic steps involved in the conversion of $\ce{FeCr2O4 -> Cr}$ involves, $$\ce{FeCr2O4 ->[NaOH / air, \Delta] Na_2CrO4 ->[C, \Delta] CrO3 ->[Al, \Delta] Cr}$$ Basically, I'm having ...
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Method for regioselective hydroalkylation of terminal alkyne

I'm trying to figure out a method to add a linear alkyl chain R and a hydrogen atom H across the triple bond of a terminal alkyne. The alkyl chain should end up on the internal carbon (C-2): My ...
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Conversion of Erythrosine to Fluorescein

I am a home-chemist and I love dyes. I recently got my hands on sodium salt of erythrosine (tetra-iodinated fluorescein). I want to convert erythrosine to fluorescein. I speculate that using dilute ...
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159 views

When can you use the direct flame of a Bunsen burner, and when must you boil a beaker of water first?

I'd like to ask when you would do the following: use the direct Bunsen flame to heat a substance; place the substance in a test tube, which is placed in a beaker of water, then boil the water with the ...
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Enamine Formation in a Diketone

I am trying to form an enamine, and I was trying to figure out if the following reaction is possible: Would this reaction terminate after the formation of the shown product, or will the other ...
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Can potassium nitrate and sulfuric acid be used to nitrate organics?

If we are doing a classic nitration to produce glyceryl trinitrate, one uses a mix of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids. Additionally, one can produce concentrated nitric acid by distilling it ...
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Dispersity of synthetic DNA [closed]

Recently I was reading an article about DNA nanostructures and I was wondering-- I know that DNA in living systems is monodisperse, but when we make DNA synthetically, is it truly monodisperse or ...
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How do I prepare the following compound from diphenylmethane? [closed]

I am having trouble with the preparation of this product from diphenylmethane as a starting material. One of my thoughts was to attach the butene into the structure, but I don't see how it is viable. ...
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How does a cyclization occur with a carboxylic acid and (CF3CO)2O?

The product of the reaction below is unsaturated, bicyclic ketone, but I'm confused as to how (CF3CO)2O reacts with it to cause the cyclization. There is no base involved so I don't know how the ...

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