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Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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Diels Alder, please help [closed]

So, I'm pretty sure I've got the reaction mechanism and the conformation down, but I'm having trouble understanding with the least stable adduct is preferentially formed, can anyone explain?
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The easier route to make cantharidin [closed]

As a student studying diels alder reactions, I have found a compound called cantharidin. I was asked why does this compound decompose (into Furan, dimethylmaleic anhydride, among others) at high ...
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How i can make an animated organic reaction mechanism?

I'm wondering if there is a software that helps to make an animated organic mechanism and show how arrows go. It would be clearer in visualizations.
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Retrosynthesis of ketones

Hello, anyone can help with the retrosynthesis and disconection displayed? Many thanks
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1answer
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questions about the synthesis of iodobenzene from aniline

I am conducting an experiment about synthesis of iodobenzene from aniline, referring to this site(and various sites) (http://www.prepchem.com/synthesis-of-iodobenzene/). Below is my experimental ...
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1answer
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Can you make imines from Formaldehyde or Acetaldehyde?

Title says it all. Wondering if imine formation would work with an aldehyde, even better would be formaldehyde.
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Reaction between Salicylaldehyde and 2-Benzoylpyridine

In a paper by Sheng et al (10.1016/j.dyepig.2018.07.036) the authors synthesize the compound MZC as shown in the scheme below. I'm looking for information about what the reaction mechanism is that ...
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Production of ketones from alkanes

We can produce aldehydes in one step from alkanes, by using $\ce{O2}$ and $\ce{Mo2O3}$. Can we do this for ketones too? If not do we have another way?
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How to remove MEHQ from Methacrylic acid monomer without reduced pressure distillation?

I am aware that the standard way to remove MEHQ from Methacrylic Acid is to perform reduced pressure distillation. The papers I see suggest using ~ 10 Torr pressure to perform distillation. Sandler's ...
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1answer
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Can thiols be created using a Grignard reagent?

I'm trying to find information on the synthesis of thiols via Grignard reagents. While looking at the synthesis routes on Wikipedia, it said that a Grignard reagent will react with sulphur to form ...
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Converting phenol to para-nitrophenol via nitrosophenol

Our class 12 text book says that if we treat phenol with mixture of concentrated $\ce HNO_3$ and $\ce H_2SO_4$, instead of nitration, the ring is oxidized to quinone. So, the book proposes that we ...
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1answer
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Synthesis of 3-(2-oxocyclohexyl)propanenitrile

Does this seem correct? The point is to draw the mechanisnm of which 3-(2-oxocyclohexyl)propanenitrile is synthesized from 1-(cyclohex-1-en-1-yl)pyrrolidine.
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1answer
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Formation of (Gamma) Methylparaconic acid

I came across this question recently, I tried to devise a mechanism but I'm struck here, My try - Moreover, I think my mechanism is somewhat inefficient because of formation of some byproducts, ...
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1answer
95 views

Why is ethanol distilled off before adding water?

I am doing a malonic synthesis shown below, and I wonder why I should distill ethanol off before adding water in the first step of the reaction (First I add absolute ethanol and solid sodium).
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1answer
79 views

How to predict ease of oxidation or reduction for a given oxidising or reducing agent? [closed]

I have never understood which agent will be able to oxidize or reduce which type of reactants and yield which type of products will be formed. For example I want to know about DIBAL-H and how is it ...
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1answer
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Predicting products of a reaction and balancing [closed]

2BiOCl + NaOH = BiOH + NaCl. This is the reaction where I am trying to get Bismuth Hydroxide as one product and salt. My problem is what is the state of Bismuth Hydroxide? Whether it is BiOH or Bi (OH)...
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2answers
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Conversion of oxalic acid to malonic acid

The reagents I have used here are $\ce{LiAlH_4}$ which reduces the carboxylic groups into alcohol.Used $\ce{HIO_4}$ which breaks up the molecule into methanal. Then I applied Grignard reagent which ...
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1answer
120 views

Synthesis of 1-methylcyclopentene from cyclopentene

I have to put a methyl group on a cyclopentene. My teacher made this solution (the picture). But my first guess was just to use $\ce{CH3Cl}$ and $\ce{AlCl3}$. Why can't you do that?
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1answer
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Ortho vs para alkylation of chlorobenzene

I have a question to the solution regarding the product formed in a reaction with chlorobenzene with the use of (i) $\ce{CH3CH2Cl}$ and (ii)$ \ce{AlCl3}$. Since the -Cl substituent is ortho- para-...
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P2NP synthesis ammonium acetate catalyst?

I am going to try to prepare some P2NP from benzaldehyde and nitroethane following this procedure: The aldehyde (5g), 5 ml. of the nitroalkane, and 2g of ammonium acetate were added to 20 ml of ...
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1answer
42 views

Sephadex and purification of products [closed]

Sephadex is useful for the separation and purification of many natural products. Is it also useful for the separation and purification of artificial chemicals (in organic synthesis ) or not and why ?
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1answer
121 views

Malic acid 3-step synthesis

I was quite puzzled by the answer for this question in my Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives tutorial question set. It is question 6 (a), on the synthesis of malic acid, as shown in the image below. ...
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1answer
255 views

What happens to the methanol formed by the hydrolysis of methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate (oil of wintergreen) when synthesising salicylic acid?

Here are the reaction equations for reference (you may recognise this as a preliminary step for the synthesis of aspirin). Steps for synthesis of salicylic acid: 1) methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate + sodium ...
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What is the blue ppt I got from reacting sodium bicarbonate with copper II sulfate?

I planned to synthesise basic copper carbonate but instead obtained a blue ppt. The steps in this synthesis were to pour aqueous sodium bicarbonate into heated aqueous copper II sulfate with constant ...
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1answer
240 views

How to acid-wash sand?

I need some acid-washed sand to smooth out boiling in diethyl ether synthesis. I aready have pre-washed sand for general filtration purposes, but it is not labeled as acid-washed. Unfortunately, I ...
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How to incease the yield of dialkyl carbonate synthesis reaction?

Long story short, I'm working on the synthesis of dialkyl carbonate subtances based on fatty alcohol (octadecyl alcohol to be specific) and dimethyl carbonate, with n-butyltin oxide as catalyst. As ...
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Does magnetite form from iron and oxygen at 650C?

I made some $\ce{KCN}$ from potassium ferrocyanide, $\ce{K2CO3}$ and 1 mole carbon. After cooling I added hot 2% $\ce{NaOH}$ to dissolve the $\ce{KCN}$ and filtered the iron.However when dry this ...
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1answer
147 views

Evaporation of concentrated formic acid and semi-concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature

I recently looked at a reaction where CO is synthesized using formic acid and sulfuric acid, which seems to be one of the easier to control reactions for this, and obviously ventilation etc is ...
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How can I solve this synthesis?

I have this task to do: My solution: Is that possible? Can you please help me with the steps 2 and 3? This is what I did, but my teacher told me I should make the diketone (compound no. 5) from ...
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1answer
299 views

Would the reaction to produce amides from acyl chlorides also produce carboxylic acids?

As part of my A-level chemistry course, I have been taught that an acyl chloride will react violently with water to produce a carboxylic acid and hydrochloric acid. I have also been taught that an ...
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1answer
366 views

Understanding the synthesis of twistane [closed]

What are the products P and Q? This was a question in my test series, but I don't have any experience with bridge head compound regarding the cis and trans transformation. I need help understanding ...
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1answer
71 views

In a two electrode system, is the applied current density referring to just the working electrode or to the auxiliary electrode as well?

I'm doing an experiment electrosynthesizing a polymer using a two electrode cell and it says to do it under 0.5 mA/cm^2. However, I am unsure if that means 0.5 mA per square centimeter of surface area ...
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1answer
84 views

Methylnitrobenzene ring formation Synthetic Route

I know the malonic ester is probably used to make propanoic acid or some carboxylic acid, and then joined to the methylnitrobenzene. But I just can't figure out what glues to the methyl. I know the ...
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1answer
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Bridged ring system reduction through Wolf Kisher: Is it possible?

Is it possible for a ketone like this to undergo the Wolf Kishner mechanism? If so, what would be the product? It seems unlikely to me as disrupting the stable equitorial carbonyl seems unfavorable......
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1answer
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How to synthesize tetrabutyl titanate from titanium dioxide powder?

How do you synthesize tetrabutyl titanate $(\ce{[CH3(CH2)3O]4Ti})$ from titanium dioxide ($\ce{TiO2}$) powder? As I know, we can get $\ce{TiO2}$ from tetrabutyl titanate, but how can we do the ...
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Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution in ring with 4 Substituents

Does the chlorine still get substituted by OH in this case? I was also wondering, if it does get substituted, does anything happen between the ethanol substituent and the phenol -OH? I'm suspecting ...
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2answers
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HCl/H2O with alkene: Which one reacts?

I think that the initial step forms a tertiary amine, which then in the presence of the ketone and trace acid undergoes nucleophilic addition. But then, for the $\ce{HCl/H2O}$ in the last step, which ...
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4answers
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Chlorinating specifically one carbon on a symmetrical alcohol

The final target molecule is 1-chloro-2-amino propane. The amination step would be simple via reductive amination of 1-chloro-iso-propanone. Obtaining 1-chloro-iso-propanone would be from ...
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1answer
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biodiesel synthesis

I want to do the synthesis of biodiesel with the cooking oil ( it contains colza and sunflower) in ethanol and KOH. After 1 hour of reaction, I let the solution to rest for3 days. At this stage, I ...
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Indigo synthesis from anthranilic acid [closed]

I am going to perform the synthesis of indigo via Heumann's methods which uses anthranilic or aniline as a starting materials. I am looking for the indigo synthesis procedure which includes all ...
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2answers
230 views

Producing sulphur dioxide for using in a reaction

I am doing an investigatory project on studying the coloured reactions of d-block and f-block elements. I have included two reactions that require sulphur dioxide as a part of my study. $$\ce{5SO2 ...
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0answers
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N,N-dimethylindol-3-ylglyoxylamide from indole

I would like to know how to obtain the following molecule, whose technical name should be something like N,N-dimethylindol-3-ylglyoxylamide (let's call it DMIG for short) One of the constraints being ...
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1answer
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Enthalpy of formaton [closed]

today I was doing a set of HW problems regarding enthalpy and stumble upon one problem that I found confusing.It was the standard enthalpy of formation for CaCO3 is -1207.6 kJ mol when 30.7 g of ...
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0answers
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How to start learning computational chemistry , and link it with organic chemistry? [duplicate]

I'm a post-graduate chemistry student, and am thinking about studying organic chemistry. In my country the are only two paths: synthesis or natural products. I'm trying to find a junction between ...
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3answers
167 views

Conversion from t-butanol to alkene

How can I accomplish the above conversion? My thoughts: One way of introducing the double bond, would be using the appropriate Grignard Reagent after oxidation of t-butanol (somehow) I think that ...
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0answers
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Substitution of a cyclic diether by a halogen

I’m in an organic synthesis class and I have to draw a mechanism for the reaction in the picture. At first I thought it was just forming a free radical but I haven’t been able to find any way to do ...
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0answers
551 views

Why is Red Phosphorous used in the Nagai Method? [duplicate]

The most common method of producing Dextromethamphetamine (Crystal Meth) is supposedly the Nagai Method, where Pseudoephedrine, Hydriodic acid and Red Phosphorous are refluxed overnight, producing a ...
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1answer
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Is there a way to determine if a compound is oxygen or water sensitive?

The synthesis of $\ce{CoH[P(OPh)3]4}$ requires the use of an inert atmosphere e.g. nitrogen as the compound is air-sensitive. Is there any way to tell whether it is the oxygen or water vapour in the ...
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What are the ways to abiogenically synthetesize Uric acid? [duplicate]

The only link I could find was, but I couldn't find it anywhere: Horbaczewski, Johann (1882). "Synthese der Harnsäure" [Synthesis of uric acid]. Monatshefte für Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer ...
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1answer
125 views

Synthesis of Hydrogen Fluoride

At almost 300°C, $\ce{CaF2}$ reacts with sulfuric acid and this reaction produces $\ce{HF}$. Is there any way to make a relatively dilute (10-20%) hydrofluoric acid with $\ce{CaF2}$ as the source of ...