Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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Why does Bachmann reaction differ in batch characteristics as opposed to flow characteristics

I have studied this reaction for over a year and it makes zero sense. When synthesizing HMX from Bachmann reaction, an important intermediate is DPT. DPT is formed by reaction of nitric and hexamine ...
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Why schiff base reaction between 8-aminoquinoline & 2-carbaldehyepyridine doesn't precipitate

-I Have 2 problems I followed a method but one of them a low yield and the other didn't precipitate(give red liquid) -I used ethanol instead of methanol but it worked with one and the other didn't ...
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Synthesis and retrosynthetic analysis of dicyclohexylamine

I need to consider the retrosynthetic analysis and synthesis of dicyclohexylamine. For the retrosynthetic analysis, I have relied on the method of disconnections, which consists in splitting the ...
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How to prepare thiocyanate of the first row Transition metals

I need thiocyanate of Ni, Fe, Co,Cu, Zn and even Mn for a complex reaction. Using KSCN with Nitrates of these metals works well with Cu but not with the rest. Did I make mistake or is there other ...
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What impacts would electromagnetic confinement cause to Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis through CVD?

I don't know if this question is too complex or not, but I would still like to know if this even make any sense. The idea is "simple": adding electromagnets to the outside of the chamber, ...
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Functional groups in graphene oxide

There is already a large number of literature on graphene oxide stating that the number of epoxy groups is quite similar to the number of ethyl groups. However, I was wondering if the number of ...
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Does the metal complexing of crown ether influence its reactivity?

I am conducting a SN2 reaction experiment with 1-aza-18-crown-6 and bromide compound. I used 1 equivalent of bromide compound and 1.1 equivalent of aza crown, but in the TLC plate the aza crown spot ...
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Mixture is eluted too early from alumina in flash column chromatography

I have recently tried to purify my reaction mixture by column chromatography. Because my reaction mixture had poor resolution in silica-based TLC, I used neutral alumina-based TLC plate. After I ...
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How to convert phenylacetic acid to 3-phenylpropionitrile?

I understand that phenylacetic acid reacts with $\ce{KSCN}$ can form phenylacetonitrile plus the side product ($\ce{CO2}$ and $\ce{KSH}$). This is Letts nitrile synthesis However, the problem is to ...
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Does the Darzens reaction work with an alpha-chlorocarboxylic acid and an aldehyde?

Is it possible that a reaction of an alpha-chlorocarboxylic acid with an aldehyde work for the Darzens reaction to produce an epoxide (with NaOH as the base, and H3O+ workup)?
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Mechanism for reaction of beta-ketoacid with AcONa, AcOH with heat

I am unsure of how to go about designing a mechanism for the following molecule's reaction with AcONa and AcOH with heat. I thought perhaps it may work as a cyclisation reaction, forming an ether; or ...
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Histidine-Boc deprotectection

A question on Fmoc-solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). Is Boc-protected Histidine too labile? Merck's website shows Boc is labile to treatment with Piperidine. Anyone with such experience?
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Is formation of cyclic carbonate from trimethyl orthoformate and vicinal aromatic 1,2-diol possible? [closed]

Hello, my question is, "is it possible cyclic carbonate formation between trimethyl orthoformate and vicinal aromatic 1,2-diol"
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Meaning of equivalents in organic synthesis

The use of "equivalents" as used in titrations/chemical analysis is an obsolete concept except in some countries. The original meaning of equivalent weights is the weight of a compound that ...
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Recovery of precipitated polymer

I have recently newly synthesized the polymer. Based on its structure I tried to precipitate its concentrated solution in dichloromethane by dropping it into methanol. It seemed to work. The methanol ...
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Is there a heat-based alternative to photosynthesis?

I can imagine one main disadvantage of a process using sunlight to metabolize sugars would be that wherever there is little/no sun (nighttime), plants don't grow. Heat is more abundant than sunlight ...
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Question regarding AIBN in toluene

Hi guys, I am trying to perform bromination of this compound using AIBN as a radical initiator. However, it seems like AIBN is only sold commercially as 0.2 M in toluene. Is it possible to use AIBN ...
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How to synthesize sodium metabisulfite?

I am looking for ways to produce sodium bisulfite from $\ce{SO2}$ and $\ce{NaOH}$, but sources talking about $\ce{Na2S2O5}$ is quite scarce. Do you have any recommendations of articles, books or any ...
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How do you calculate the growth rate in colloidal synthesis?

I was reading about nucleation and growth theory in solution processing, which is partially explained by the La Mer theorem if the system is under thermodynamic equilibrium. There is a relation ...
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Why isn't formyl chloride stable? [duplicate]

I am currently studying methods of synthesising ketones and aldehydes and one of the methods is Friedel-Crafts acylation. However, my teacher told our class that we can't use this to make benzaldehyde ...
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Preventing solvent evaporation for small scale synthesis

I have been conducting an organic synthesis with quite expensive starting material, so whenever I setup the reaction I only use 0.1 g of starting material. I use 4 mL of toluene to adjust the ...
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Nylon 6,6 synthesis yield

This is the nylon 6,6 reaction Having these data available, I would need to know the theoretical quantities, in grams, of the monomers My attempt: Adipoyl chloride is our limiting reactant so ...
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Buchwald-Hartwig coupling troubleshooting

I am conducting a synthesis using below scheme. And Below is some information about my reaction history. The basic condition is 1 eq of 1-aza-18-crown-6, 1.4 eq of 3-bromothiophene, 1 mol% of ...
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1 answer
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How to synthesize anhydrous zinc(II) nitrate?

I'm interested in making anhydrous zinc nitrate. I know it decomposes fairly rapidly if you heat it. It is also soluble in ethanol. Would another desiccant or a molecular sieve do the trick? Or maybe ...
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4 votes
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Converting benzaldehyde to benzophenone in no more than two steps

This is a question from my book, as stated in the title: How will you convert benzaldehyde to benzophenone in no more than two steps? I can do it in three steps - first using $\ce{PhMgBr}$ on ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Can I synthesize 4-aminophenol and/or acetic anhydride at home? [closed]

I am going to try to synthesize acetaminophen as a possible science fair project, or just for fun, but doing it with precursors to the precursors of it might be more fun for myself then just using the ...
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Reduction of unsymmetrical ketones using BINAL-H (Enantioselectivity)

I am struggling with a problem regarding the enantioselectivity of BINAL-H for quite some time now. The reaction scheme shows the reaction with (S)-BINAL-H as it is observed plus the transition state ...
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Has tellurium(II) iodide been properly characterized ever?

According to Wikipedia, tellurium tetraiodide decomposes on heating: $$\ce{TeI4 ->[\Delta] TeI2 + I2}$$ However, the reaction is somewhat wrong as according to this 2008 paper: Solid tellurium ...
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Amides from carboxylic acid and ammonia?

Would it be possible to synthesize amide by simply reacting carboxylic acid with ammonia and then driving off water at higher temperatures? Or would ammonia be also driven off in the process? Google ...
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Partial reduction of anthraquinone to anthrone using stannous chloride?

I've heard of using $\ce{SnCl2}$ in the Stephen's reaction where you reduce a nitrile down to an aldehyde. I've come across a laboratory manual that discusses using tin in the partial reduction of ...
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Does the halogenation of an alkane also produce haloalkanes of a longer chain length?

Take a typical halogenation of an alkane reaction (the bromination of methane). $$\ce{Br_2->Br· + Br· (in the presence of UV light)} $$ $$\ce{Br· + CH4->·CH3 + HBr} $$ One of the possible ...
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Can all 20 H atoms of pentagonal dodecahedrane be substituted with high yield and a wide range of substituents? What limits full substitution?

I first came across dodecahedrane in comments below What dodecahedral molecule is Linus Pauling likely holding in this photograph? Does it have 40 carbon atoms? Wikipedia's Dodecahedrane; Derivatives; ...
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Has a fully methylated pentagonal dodecahedrane been synthesized or at least attempted? If not, is there some reason it could not exist?

I first came across dodecahedrane in comments below What dodecahedral molecule is Linus Pauling likely holding in this photograph? Does it have 40 carbon atoms? Wikipedia's Dodecahedrane; Derivatives; ...
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1 answer
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Why is S-alanine acetylated in the synthesis of S-cathinone?

I came across a method of synthesizing enantiomerically pure S-cathinone using S-alanine which is chlorinated to the corresponding acid chloride which is used in a Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene. ...
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Making C14 or C13 chlorobenzene site specific label

Imagine that you want to make chlorobenzene with a carbon-14 label in one site only, the only site you want it to be in is on the carbon bearing the chlorine. Can you think of a better and shorter ...
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Diels-Alder and Synthesis Problem: Confused about how to add carbon chain and double bonded oxygen

I am working on this synthesis problem. My first step was converting the dienophile given into a diene via E2 elimination. From the product given, I concluded that the dienophile will carry the double ...
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3 answers
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How to get tin(II) oxide from tin(IV) oxide? [closed]

How to get $\ce{SnO}$ from the deposited $\ce{SnO2}$? Any method is ok. If just heat the $\ce{SnO2}$, can it change to $\ce{SnO}$?
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Why are strong oxidizing agents "incompatible" with ferrocyanide according to SDS?

As I've mentioned in this question, I am making $\ce{Na3Fe(CN)6}$ from $\ce{Na4Fe(CN)6}$ by oxidizing the ferrocyanide using sodium permanganate. The SDS of sodium ferrocyanide as well as potassium ...
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Synthesis of sodium ferricyanide

I need to synthesize sodium ferricyanide, $\ce{Na3Fe(CN)6}$, for some benchtop experiments where I don't want any potassium ions in solution. The way I am doing that right now is oxidizing $\ce{Na4Fe(...
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Preparation of m-nitroaniline from m-dinitrobenzene [duplicate]

Consulting various Organic Chemistry resources, I have found two reactions for the purpose stated in the subject: First reaction: Second reaction: But, I cannot find the reaction mechanism by which ...
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Are there any organic compounds with three or more oxygen atoms bonded together in a straight chain?

Recently, there was a question which enquired about some oxygen rich compounds that burn themselves completely and thus not requiring any external atmospheric oxygen. The author came up with the ...
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Mechanism of this addition-elimination process

In Part 1 of the synthesis of Maoecrystal V (found on synarchive), the last step subjects a $\ce {\alpha, \beta}$-unsaturated ketone to $\ce {I2}$ and pyridine, as shown below: I am wondering what is ...
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Dimerization of aniline to biphenyl

I've been looking for ways to synthesize biphenyl - $\ce{(C6H5)2}$. The Ullmann coupling is inaccessible, as bromobenzene is inaccessible in my country due to the manufacture of PCP. I had the idea to ...
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Potassium from Potassium superoxide [closed]

Is it possible to get $\ce K$ from $\ce K{O_2}$ using a synthesis reaction? If yes, can you describe it?
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What is the protocol for esterification reaction between nanocellulose and tartaric acid?

I am trying to prepare nanocellulose esters via esterification with Tartaric acid. I know that the traditional method employs a strong acid such as sulfuric acid. What would the process look like in ...
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1 answer
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Selective secondary amide/lactam hydrolysis

I am working on a synthesis for a compound (4-aminophenol with alkyl chain and lactam at carbon 2). The final step of the synthesis involves hydroylsis of the secondary amide at carbon 4. My problem ...
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2 answers
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Substitution in aryl halides

I need to propose a route for the synthesis of 2-(bromomethyl)benzonitrile from 1-bromo-2-(bromomethyl)benzene. In the attached figure, the structure of the starting compound and the species to be ...
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Accidental hydrolysis of tert-butyl chloride

Yesterday, I performed the synthesis of tert-butyl chloride from tert-butyl alcohole in my practical organic chemistry class. However, I only obtained a relatively low yield of about 30 %. Since I ...
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1 answer
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What is the maximum amount of carbon atoms that can comprise a fullerene?

As the fullerene sum formula can be defined as $\ce{C_n}$ with $n$ being any even integer number, is there any fundamental theoretical limit as to how big $n$ can get? If there is no limit to the ...
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1 answer
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pKa of the alpha proton of an alpha amino ester [closed]

Is there a theoretical pKa value for the proton on the alpha carbon of a methylated amino acid, or just a general alpha amino methyl ester?
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