Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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Mechanism for Diels–Alder of alkene with substituted thiophene sulfone with loss of sulfur dioxide

I came across a synthesis of centrohexaindane that has the following steps: This is a Diels–Alder reaction that gives an aromatic ring. I know that alkynes will give this reaction as follows: But in ...
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Coordination complex - nitrito-N & nitrito-O

I am currently learning the coordination compounds and encountered a new isomerism called linkage isomerism. I am thinking that if I want to get some $\ce{[Co(NO2)6]^3-}$, I should have to dissolve $\...
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Synthesis of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid: Methods

I am trying to synthesizing 1-naphthaleneacetic acid from naphthalene and monochloroacetic acid. I found some patents and papers, and I have tried to synthesis but the yield is low. I used iron powder ...
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How can I weigh the compound that melts at room temperature?

I am conducting an organic synthesis experiment involving 2,3,5-tribromothiophene. The melting point of 2,3,5-tribromothiophene is about 25-28 ℃, so it melts easily during weighing. Whenever I weigh ...
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Procedure for laboratory synthesis of tertiary amines [closed]

I am having difficulty finding a procedure for making tertiary amines in the lab, any is fine but I am specifically interested in tributylamine.
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question about filtration

I'm conducting an organic synthesis experiment. In this experiment I used solid catalyst, and reagents are dissolved in 10 mL solvent. After the reaction is complete, I should filter the catalyst. I ...
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Chlorination of (1S)-1-phenylethan-1-ol to (1S)-2-chloro-1-phenylethan-1-ol

I am wondering if it is possible to chlorinate/brominate (1S)-1-phenylethan-1-ol on the second carbon of the ethanol. Though unconventional given that it is usually made by the enantioselective ...
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What is reduction potential of Au(I)-GSH to make Au25(SG)18 clusters? [closed]

I am tryring to make Au25 glutathione clusters and was wondering what is the reduction potential for Au(I)-GSH to make Au(0) in clusters Au25(SG)18.
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Carbon 11 radiolabeled inhaled Beta-2 agonist or corticosteroids, is it possible?

Background Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive imaging modality that can provide in vivo quantitative information of biological processes at a biochemical level. PET relies upon ...
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What type of reaction is this? (Modified organic nucleoside synthesis)

What type of reaction is shown in step F of this patent image? I tried looking it up in SciFinder, but I didn't get any results, and I have not seen this before. Thank you! Edit 1: I'm also wondering ...
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How to make silicic acid, potassium silicate or calcium silicate?

I am a student of tropical agriculture. I am taking the class of agronomic chemistry and plant nutrition. I want to make use of silicate source I have at home for e.g. zeolite, wood ashes, ...
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Hydrolysis of nitriles: Amide vs Carboxylic acid

I was recently studying the preparation of amides,and one of the methods listed was acid hydrolysis of a nitrile. Up until now I thought acid hydrolysis of nitriles yielded carboxylic acids. How are ...
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Alkylation of enolates using tertiary halide

I was recently studying the alpha alkylation of enolates using LDA followed by subsequent treatment with primary halides to give the product.I was wondering what happens with teritary halides. My ...
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Alpha-haloketone reaction with H2O in acid medium

I need help with this reaction, I know that in the first step an alpha haloketone is formed, but I can't figure out what reaction is going to happen between the alpha Haloketone and $\ce{H2O/H+}$. I ...
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Can the guanidinium ion give stable N-nitrosamines under mild metalworking conditions?

Can the guanidinium ion react with inorganic nitrite under mild basic metalworking conditions ($\mathrm{pH\ 8 - 10}$ and temperature $\lt \pu{70^\circ C}$) to give stable N-nitrosamines? Usually, the ...
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The things you wish you would have done before doing a PhD in Organic Chemistry? [closed]

Hello there fellow chemists. I am really interested in doing a PhD in Organic chemistry. I haven't really thought which field I would like to specialize in, but it's definitely on my mind ever since ...
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Examples to show how useful or not useful of dimerization, trimerization, tetramerization and their likes in synthesizing alkenes and other compounds?

this answer shows that dimerization is a synthetic method On wikipedia, 1-octene is showed to made from numerous dimerizations or a tetramerization. When I read that piperazine $\ce{C4H10N2}$ is made ...
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Chemically producing sodium metal from magnesium

Anyone with experience making sodium metal ($\ce{Na}$) with the following process? Reactants: $\pu{14 g}$ magnesium powder, $\pu{20 g}$ sodium hydroxide; Catalysts: $1$ to $\pu{2 g}$ menthol crystals; ...
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how to prepare acid washed sand for disruption of cell wall and the amount required for disruption

the sample is a mixed sample of maize(yellow and white) undergoing fermentation. while conducting an analysis for extraction of crude enzyme.Acid washed sand was required for the liberation of enzyme ...
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Make pyridine from furfural

Furfural $(\ce{C5H4O2})$ has been used as a feedstock for synthesis. Furfurylamine $(\ce{C5H7NO})$ is made from furfural. Given that industrial manufacturing ammonia is matured, how about combining ...
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Can I synthesize an Amide simply by heating an amine and a carboxylic acid (with a vacuum pump)?

I am interested in creating an amide of stearic acid. I thought that simply mixing both of them in some solvent, heating the solution, and using a vacuum pump to distill the liberated water (to drive ...
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Why are nanoliposome encapsulated antibiotics still so unavailable despite being so effective?

I wasnt sure how the phrase the headline question really nor if this is the right place to ask it, but i'm primarily interested in the chemical synthesis aspect and the experience of chemists ...
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Carbon Nanotube Host Molecule

I have seen several chemical papers on where carbon nanotubes are made into host-guest molecules, with the researchers inserting molecules or ions inside the tubes. These talk about the properties of ...
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Chromium (IV) Oxide Sol Gel Process Synthesis and Properties

Is it is possible to solely synthesize an CrO2 aerogel through the Sol-Gel process? All documents I find are of a mix of oxides containing CrO2 as a supporting matrix but not alone. Would the CrO2 ...
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Hazard and precautionary statements

Is there a scientific database where one can find all the H and P statements for all chemicals? I would like to avoid using wikipedia but I can't find a database from a trusted source.
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Source for literature yields [closed]

I'm required to compare and justify the yields of my reactions against literature yields, but I cannot find any sources of literature yields for the reactions, or any reactions for that matter. Are ...
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How can someone in the lab synthesize n-allyl-4methyl-benzenesulfonamide from 4-toluenesulfonyl chloride and allylamine [closed]

I am trying to figoure out the conditions and choice of solvents and catalysts in order to run this synthesis.
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TEMPO Radical Analogue

After investigating what makes the persistent radical TEMPO stable, I was wondering if another compound which is more feasible for my needs would be comparable to it. Would oxidizing 2,2’-dimethyl-...
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Succinic anhydride esterification won't go forward

I'm trying to react succinic anhydride with a decyl alcohol to produce mono-decyl succinate. Literature and Google searches suggest that the monoesterification should proceed without catalyst. However ...
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Is it possible to add R chain that contains a carbonyl (ketone) to the alpha carbon?

I'm trying to synthesize 2‐(3‐oxobutyl)cyclohexan‐1‐one from cyclohexanone: I thought about LDA, then adding an R group that has a ketone. Is that possible? As far as I know, we can add halogen or ...
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Electrolysis of brine solution gives sodium hydroxide , chlorine and hydrogen gas but catner kellener cell it forms amalgam [closed]

Sodium hydroxide is generally prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride in Castner-Kellner cell. A brine solution is electrolyzed using a mercury cathode and a carbon anode. Sodium ...
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Best way to handle phosphorus tribromide

I need to do an alcohol bromination using PBr3 and I've never done this reaction before. Reading about PBr3 I found it is water/air-sensitive and the bottle I bought doesn't have a seal. So how am I ...
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How to efficiently weight DCC (N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide)?

I have to run a reaction using N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and at room temperature, it is solid, but it's very hard to weigh. I know its melting point is around 40 degrees. Is it better to melt it ...
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How is lapping slurry made?

I've recently gained an interest in the whole topic of lapping and the creation of flat surfaces. Lapping is done in different ways, but the one I'm interested in is essentially just rubbing 2 ...
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Mechanism of Hypervalent Iodine Phenolic Coupling

I need some help understanding the hypervalent iodine phenolic coupling reaction taking place in this synthesis of morphine, the reaction uses $\ce{PhI(OAc)2}$ as the hypervalent reagent and ...
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Why are halogens base sensitive groups (Wolff-Kishner Reduction)?

So while studying about Wolff-Kishner reduction reaction to form alkanes from carbonyl groups. I read that it is not suitable for base sensitive groups as the environment is highly basic and as an ...
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How can I synthesize 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoic acid from toluene or benzene?

I am trying to design a proper synthesis route for 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoic acid, though methyl 2‐amino‐3‐(chlorosulfonyl)benzoate—using an ester group in lieu of a carboxylic acid—would also ...
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Ring formation via oxymercuration-demercuration

I'm solving past problems from a 2014 Organic Chemistry II course (from a publicly available Harvard summer school Canvas page), when I came across this question: The answer (which is the reactant) ...
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Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol?

Does DIBAL-H reduce alcohol? I was reading an article by Rentsch and Kalesse [1] and I came across this reaction, but could not figure out how the final compound is formed: Reference Rentsch, A.; ...
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Synthesis of anhydrous sodium tungstate

I am interested in preparing an anhydrous sample of sodium tungstate (Na2WO4), which is normally found as the dihydrate. Finding an example of this in literature is proving difficult, I am interested ...
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Converting bromobenzene to 1‐bromo‐3‐methylbenzene

I started by taking $\ce{FeCl3}$ to reduce electron-giving capacity of $\ce{Br}.$ Then we need a methyl at meta, so I thought about Friedel–Crafts acylation, but then also methyl will come at para.
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Retro Diels–Alder reaction in synthesis of corallopyronin A

I was looking at the synthesis of corallopyronin A in the following paper by Rentsch and Kalesse: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51 (45), 11381–11384. There is one reaction which is described as ...
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Synthesizing 2-bromoaniline from bromobenzene

I am trying to synthesize 2-bromoaniline from bromobenzene. I came up with a reaction path, but I want your thoughts on whether this is feasible and can produce a decent yield. Sulfonation of ...
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Make Acetic Acid from wood

I would like to know if it would be possible to make Acetic Acid from Wood. I know that you can charcoal wood to get the gases, cool it, and get the liquid. This would yield a bunch of chemicals in a ...
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How to synthesize 3‐cyclopentylpropanal from (chloromethyl)cyclopentane?

I am not sure on how to start, but I think of these two possible ways: Reacting the starting material with Grignard reagent and then oxidise the product with PCC to produce the aldehyde; Hydrolysis ...
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Why use Stork enamine alkylation?

I recently learned about the Stork enamine alkylation method of adding electrophiles to the beta carboxyl position on a molecule. But I can't seem to find out why a direct synthesis is not possible (...
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Reaction analogous to burning that causes cooling rather than releasing heat [closed]

Is it physically and chemically possible to design both a gas and a solid substance, such that there would be a technologically feasible initiation of a chain reaction analogous to the spark that ...
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Why does B12H12 Borane not exist? [duplicate]

Whenever I searched "$\ce{B12H12}$ Borane", I can't seem to find anything, and get met with only the dianion of $\ce{B12H12}$. Why doesn't $\ce{B12H12}$ exist on its own?
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When writing a paper should I describe the procedure thoroughly? [closed]

I have not written any article on a chemistry subject yet, and I want to use good practices from the start. What I have noticed reading papers, is that a lot of times it is not specified the exact ...
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How do I synthesise this tertiary amide from these 5 compounds?

So basically I'm at a loss as to how to proceed. I started with the idea of converting the primary alcohol into an aldehyde and that is where I stoped. I understand that each substituent of the ...

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