Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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1answer
34 views

Retrosynthesis of spirocyclic compounds?

I have been trying to complete this retrosynthesis problem for a few days but can’t figure out how to get from Ester starting compound to a spirocyclic compound. I have tried removing the Ester but ...
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Why benzenediazonium bromide and iodide are not important?

When we think of aryldiazonium compounds, the first compound that comes to mind is benzenediazonium chloride. Sure thing, the compound is versatile and has been used to make a vast array of organic ...
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Why 4-aminophenol and not 2-aminophenol? [closed]

I wanted to know that although phenol is an electron donating group and therefore 2-aminophenol can also be a substitute as well as 4-aminophenol, Why is that 4-aminophenol can only react to make ...
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What is the order of adding chemicals in Hummers method for graphite oxide?

I am trying to make graphene oxide but failing miserably. The XRD peak is at 24 (2θ) instead of being near 10. Raman shows correct g and d peaks but are not very sharp. The colour of the end product ...
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Has anyone actually prepared Zn(HCO3)2 absent the presence of pressurized aqueous CO2?

Under normal conditions, I am not certain, as per Atomistry on $\ce{ZnCO3}$, the following quote: The hemihydrate, $\ce{2ZnCO3.H2O}$, was obtained by precipitating the solution of a zinc salt with ...
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What method do i use to synthesize propyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-ether, and why? (repost with own thoughts and research) [duplicate]

I need to know which method to use to synthesize propyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-ether. I concidered Electrophilic addition of alcohols to alkenes, but im not really sure how the method works, and anything ...
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1answer
58 views

What method do I use to synthesize propyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-ether and why?

I need to know which method to use to synthesize propyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-ether. I considered electrophilic addition of alcohols to alkenes, but I'm not really sure how the method works, and ...
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28 views

How would you go about solving the synthesis problem attached below to get to the correct answers? [closed]

How would you go about solving the synthesis problem attached below to get to the correct answers?
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1answer
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Kolbe Schmitt followed by methylation

The first step in this synthesis is a Kolbe Schmitt process, but why is two equivalents of base needed? Also, what is the purpose of the two equivalents of methyl iodide? I assumed that there will be ...
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0answers
34 views

Bioinformatics tools for predicting synthetic reaction for identified drugs?

We are aware of many bioinformatics open source tools like AUTODOCK, Smina for drug discovery through structure based virtual screening. I was wondering if there are validated bioinformatics tools ...
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1answer
133 views

How to convert benzene to N,N-dimethylbenzamide?

This is my solution to convert benzene to N,N-dimethylbenzamide. If you think is the right way, even just saying the equations are correct would help me! Thanks in advance.
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Why bridged bicyclic compound isn't a preferred product over fused bicylic compound in Robinson Annulation reaction?

Why a doubly-fused cyclohexanone is formed instead of bridged cyclohexanone like product which would be more flexible (entropically-favoured)? Also, the OH group not being at the bridgehead carbon ...
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What are the organic reactions that are taking place in this reaction?

I know that A is the product of a Knoevenagel condensation between the aldehyde and the diethyl malonate, due to the acidic protons of the latter, but I don't know what the reaction between that ...
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Synthesis of Schiff Bases in Aqueous Media

The paper https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2013/909217/ describes a possibility to synthesize salicylaldehyde-based Schiff Bases using water as a solvent. Yields shown for the microwave-assisted ...
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1answer
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How to achieve regioselective (base-catalyzed) enolization of a carbonyl group in a diketone?

One can convert a ketone to an enolate, either base- or acid-catalyzed. Let's say you now have a diketone. You choose to treat this compound with base (e.g. hydroxide anion, alkoxide anion, LDA/THF, ...
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1answer
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Synthetic route to a spirocyclic amide

I have a task to come up with a synthesis of the following molecule (2-azaspiro[5.5]undecan-3-one), but no starting materials have been explicitly specified: This is my idea. I think that all the ...
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2answers
287 views

Synthetic route to hydroxychloroquine

This drug hydroxychloroquine has become a new burning topic of discussion as a chemistry enthusiast: I know that in an industrial preparation we need to account fpr a lot of factors like temperature, ...
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Reaction of alkenes with AlCl3/HCl

I stumbled upon an interesting organic chemistry problem: Previously I thought $\ce{AlCl3}$ would only be used with benzene in acylation and alkylation, but apparently it can also be used in ...
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2answers
56 views

Nitrocellulose (flash paper) synthesis without Sulfuric Acid?

According to the Wikipedia page on Nitrocellulose: The process uses nitric acid to convert cellulose into cellulose nitrate and water: $$\ce{3HNO3 + C6H10O5 ->[H2SO4] C6H7(NO2)3O5 + 3H2O}$$ ...
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Trying to synthesize and crystallize iron (iii) ammonium sulfate

I've been following instructions (from here, the first method) to synthesize iron (iii) ammonium sulfate and crystallize it. The first attempt was a fail, I spilled most of my solution and what I ...
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66 views

Is it possible to synthesize a benzene ring with every carbon on the ring substituted?

We recently began covering aromatic electrophillic substitution in my first year organic chemistry course, and we've been discussing the nature of certain functional groups being activating $(\ce{-OH},...
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What is the best way to make a substantial amount of soot in a high school laboratory?

I need to make about 50 grams of soot (carbon black particles) in a high school laboratory. What would be the best way to do this? The purpose of needing 50 grams of soot is because I would like to ...
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L-lysine acetate synthesis

Is it possible to synthesize L-lysine acetate in the following steps? First, mix L-lysine HCl with an excess of NaOH and just enough water so that the total water in the product is enough to solve all ...
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1answer
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How can a β,γ-unsaturated ketone be converted to 1-pyrroline?

I am working towards a natural product. Presented are three intermediate compounds. After oxidation of the hydroxyl to a carbonyl, I want to introduce an imino-nitrogen atom into the structure. This ...
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1answer
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Preparation of potassium cyanide from potassium ferrocyanide via HCN

Does anyone have any experience with the preparation of potassium cyanide from potassium ferrocyanide via $\ce{HCN}$ method? I did some math and am going to proceed eventually, any advice would be ...
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4answers
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How to prepare cyclohexanone without starting with cyclohexanol?

What's an easy way to prepare cyclohexanone if I dont have direct access to cyclohexanol? I'm willing to synthesize cyclohexanol from more common materials, then make cyclohexanone from that. But most ...
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2answers
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Chemoselectively dihydroxylate a terminal alkene in the presence of an internal alkene?

The goal is to dihydroxylate the exo alkene, and then convert to a ketone. Any suggestions would be apprecitated to either chemoselectively convert the terminal alkene, or directly convert the ...
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1answer
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Too much leftover in zinc sulfate reaction?

I'm doing a reaction of zinc metal and sulfuric acid to get zinc sulfate. I've been trying to learn the chemistry lately so I tried to measure out correct molar amounts. My understanding from the ...
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1answer
60 views

Photosynthesis being a synthesis reaction [closed]

If a synthesis reaction is a reaction in which two or more substances react together to form just one product, then how is it that photosynthesis has two products; glucose and oxygen?
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Easy way to derivatize silsesquioxanes

I have a polymer end-capped with a Polysilsesquioxane (POSS) like this one: where R=i-butyl. I haven't found much info on what type or reactions these POSS groups can undergo. I would like to know ...
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Selective halogenation of an alkane

Is it possible to selectively halogenate a certain position on an alkane chain, and also get a good yield? I understand that to form such haloalkanes, taking a different substrate other than alkane (...
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Laboratory preparation of catechol

The wikipedia page says that catechol is prepared from phenol and hydrogen peroxide. As this is a very simple proces, compared to the OrgSyn procedure from salicylaldehyde, I would prefer it. Does ...
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Condensation reaction between catechol and acetone

I was thinking of ways to synthesize 2,2-bis(dihydroxyphenyl) propane and I thought it could be made by a condensation reaction between dihydroxybenzene (catechol) and acetone in strongly acidic ...
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1answer
43 views

How would one favor the formation of p-TsCl over o-TsCl in the chlorosuflonation of toluene? [closed]

I found an old synthesis of $\ce{o-TsCl}$ that purportedly gives a yield of $85\%$ here and was wondering how, still using chlorosulfonic acid, I could favor the formation of $\ce{p-TsCl}$ instead.
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What is a good substitue for monoethanolamine in creating conductive silver nanoparticles?

In this paper (https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2017/ra/c7ra05125e) and a few others, chemists create PAA-coated silver nanoparticles in a colloidal conductive ink. (Mods - I cant seem to ...
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1answer
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Sodium hydride 60% dispersion in mineral oil [closed]

I've got a bottle of sodium hydride 60% dispersion in mineral oil. It's not "in mineral oil" it's just powder with an oil coating. I'm using it in an inert reaction, is there a way to remove the oil?
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chitosan question [closed]

when chitosan is coated on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles, are the amine groups of the chitosan pointed out?
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The Limitation of Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis In Case of Polyglycine

I was wondering if I could use your experience and all the precautions you would like to recommend for a long peptide synthesis via SPPS. I've already got a low loading resin so this way I'll minimize ...
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1answer
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Solvent for reaction mixture

I'm looking for some suitable solvent for ether cleavage of Guaiacol (o-Methoxyphenol) using aluminium triiodide ($\ce{AlI3}$) with $\ce{DMSO}$. The original paper calls for using hot acetonitrile as ...
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2answers
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How is bromothymol blue synthetised?

In a classical reaction, phenolphthalein is synthetised from phthalic anhydride and phenol with acid catalyst. When one uses substituted phenols, one obtains similar compounds (e. g. cresolphthalein, ...
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1answer
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Simple synthesis of thiocyanates

Can sodium thiocyanate be synthesised by combining equimolar amounts of ammonia, sodium hydrosulfide and carbon dioxide in the presence of phosphorous pentoxide by the following reaction: NH3 + NaSH + ...
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What's the purpose of an ice bath when preparing a nitration mix from KNO3

Most preparations for nitrocellulose from KNO3+H2SO4 mixture require the use of an ice bath during the process of dissolving KNO3 into H2SO4. Last time I did this I omitted this step and the ...
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1answer
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Synthesis of the tetrachloroaluminate(III) anion

Looking for random chemicals, I found a reference on the anion and thought that it could be synthesised from common laboratory reagents: $$ \begin{align} \ce{2 Al + 2 NaOH + 2 H2O &-> 2 NaAlO2 ...
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1answer
101 views

What is the mechanism of this reaction?

I've been stuck with this for some time. I just don't see it. As the reactant is Pd(0), I think oxidative addition will happen to the bromine. Then I would say an insertion reaction happens. However ...
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1answer
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Problem with synthesis of calcium formate

I just tried preparing calcium formate by adding $\ce{Ca(OH)2}$ to ammonium formate, but I observed no bubble formation and no smell of ammonia. Why doesn't calcium hydroxide, being a strong base, ...
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2answers
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Mysterious precipitate in reaction of copper sulfate and calcium hypochlorite

So I can’t seem to figure this reaction out. I’m pretty new to chemistry and am still learning it in high school so please don’t think I’m stupid. I have reacted 2 solitons (copper sulfate) and ( ...
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2answers
222 views

Reference request on potassium cyanide production method

I kindly ask for a reference for the following claim about potassium cyanide, found at potassium.atomistry.com: It is also obtained by the action of a mixture of steam and nitrogen on potassium ...
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1answer
98 views

Copper (II) chloride reduction with Hydrogen gas

I've been looking into making pure copper (I) chloride, but using ascorbic acid is relatively expensive for me. I'd also like to avoid having water in any part of the synthesis to minimize the ...
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37 views

Source of highly nucleophilic iodide [closed]

What is be the best commercially available source of highly nucleophilic iodide in non-polar solvent? Solvents used are cyclohexane, benzene, chlorobenzene. I can get ahold of bromide quaternary ...
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Have IH₃ and IH₅ already been synthesized?

I've seen a paper by Sikalov [1] that says that $\ce{IH3}$ and $\ce{IH5}$ should be observable. Has anyone actually tried to synthesize such molecules? References Sikalov, A. A. Hypervalent Halogen ...

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