Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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Synthesis of active chemical manganese dioxide (CMD) for primary alcohol oxidation

This paper1 uses chemical manganese dioxide (CMD) instead of activated manganese dioxide for mild alcohol oxidation. I'm looking for a route on how to synthesize active CMD. Could this work? $$\ce{...
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2-Iodoxybenzoic acid oxidation reaction

I was thinking about using 2-Iodoxybenzoic acid to selectively oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes. I've found papers using various solvents like acetone/water mixture1, 2-methyl-2-propanol2, DMSO ...
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How can I make cerium(IV) chloride? [closed]

How can I make CeCl4? I have some ideas but am worried I'm going to mess it up since this is the first time I've worked with lanthanides.
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Decarboxylation of primary amino acids

Since primary amino acids like glycine, alanine can't be decarboxylated under oxidative conditions, what would be the best catalyst for this reaction? I was thinking about copying decarboxylases with $...
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Can I synthesize potassium hydroxide from readily available materials?

Where I live, KOH is not readily available and is cost prohibitive to ship. A number of other materials are available, however. I have read similar questions and their answers here, but most are too ...
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Making bioplastic at high school level chemistry using PLA/Starch blends

I'm currently working on a high school chemistry essay about biodegradable plastics. I know that there is an easy way to synthesize Thermoplastic Starch (TPS), a starch-based bioplastic using glycerol ...
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Gram-scale meaning

Is there a standard for an experiment to be considered gram-scale? More precisely, is an experiment considered gram-scale if the starting material weights at least 1 gram, or is the product taken into ...
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If I have a suggestion in general or would like to suggest a modification or an alternative use, can I email directly to the correspondent? [migrated]

with the availability of journal article and technology online, how can I suggest an alternative use or a modification to the method reported on webpage or journal article? The obvious route is ...
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How can I convert 3-bromocyclohexene to cyclohexane?

My attempt: or Which one of the methods seems viable?
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Can you develop algorithms to predict synthesis of peptides?

This may be a very foolish question, but do (complex) algorithms exist to predict the steps and materials involved (or therefore different options and paths) in synthesis for the given input of for ...
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Is it possible to filter Stille catalysts using syringe filter?

I'm conducting an organic synthesis involving Stille coupling. Stille coupling uses $\ce{Pd2(dba)3}$ and $\ce{P(o-tol)3}$ as catalysts. Both catalysts dissolves in toluene which is the solvent of my ...
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In solid-phase peptide synthesis, why are the formation of aspartimides a problem but not “glutamides”?

I'm studying solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) at the moment, and a common problem is the formation of aspartimides, which disrupt the synthetic process. I understand how they form and why are they ...
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About the Vilsmeier-Haack formylation of this compound

I was reading an article and found the following reaction sequence: The second step involves a formylation of the hydrazone with the Vilsmeier reagent to, first synthesize the pyrazole ring and then, ...
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Synthesis of (1S,2S,4S)-4-ethenyl-5-methylcyclohexane-1,2-diol

I'm trying to devise a synthesis for the following question. I am aware it involves retrosynthetic, Wittig, Grignard and diels alder reactions, but unfortunately I can't really grasp all concepts ...
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Making a bridge on a cyclic molecule

So, my question is how would I make a bridge as seen on the following molecule (right side)? As for the molecule on the left, I am supposed to make it using that molecule as a base. The only ...
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Synthesis of diethyloxalate from ethene

Outline the steps involved in the following transformation: $\ce{C2H4}$ to $\ce{(COOC2H5)2}$ (diethyl oxalate). I am familiar with the transformation of $\ce{C2H4}$ to ethyl acetate $\ce{CH3COOC2H5}$ ...
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Mechanism for Diels–Alder of alkene with substituted thiophene sulfone with loss of sulfur dioxide

I came across a synthesis of centrohexaindane that has the following steps: This is a Diels–Alder reaction that gives an aromatic ring. I know that alkynes will give this reaction as follows: But in ...
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Coordination complex - nitrito-N & nitrito-O

I am currently learning the coordination compounds and encountered a new isomerism called linkage isomerism. I am thinking that if I want to get some $\ce{[Co(NO2)6]^3-}$, I should have to dissolve $\...
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Synthesis of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid: Methods

I am trying to synthesizing 1-naphthaleneacetic acid from naphthalene and monochloroacetic acid. I found some patents and papers, and I have tried to synthesis but the yield is low. I used iron powder ...
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How can I weigh the compound that melts at room temperature?

I am conducting an organic synthesis experiment involving 2,3,5-tribromothiophene. The melting point of 2,3,5-tribromothiophene is about 25-28 ℃, so it melts easily during weighing. Whenever I weigh ...
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Procedure for laboratory synthesis of tertiary amines [closed]

I am having difficulty finding a procedure for making tertiary amines in the lab, any is fine but I am specifically interested in tributylamine.
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Carbon 11 radiolabeled inhaled Beta-2 agonist or corticosteroids, is it possible?

Background Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive imaging modality that can provide in vivo quantitative information of biological processes at a biochemical level. PET relies upon ...
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What type of reaction is this? (Modified organic nucleoside synthesis)

What type of reaction is shown in step F of this patent image? I tried looking it up in SciFinder, but I didn't get any results, and I have not seen this before. Thank you! Edit 1: I'm also wondering ...
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How to make silicic acid, potassium silicate or calcium silicate?

I am a student of tropical agriculture. I am taking the class of agronomic chemistry and plant nutrition. I want to make use of silicate source I have at home for e.g. zeolite, wood ashes, ...
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Hydrolysis of nitriles: Amide vs Carboxylic acid

I was recently studying the preparation of amides,and one of the methods listed was acid hydrolysis of a nitrile. Up until now I thought acid hydrolysis of nitriles yielded carboxylic acids. How are ...
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Alkylation of enolates using tertiary halide

I was recently studying the alpha alkylation of enolates using LDA followed by subsequent treatment with primary halides to give the product.I was wondering what happens with teritary halides. My ...
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Alpha-haloketone reaction with H2O in acid medium

I need help with this reaction, I know that in the first step an alpha haloketone is formed, but I can't figure out what reaction is going to happen between the alpha Haloketone and $\ce{H2O/H+}$. I ...
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Can the guanidinium ion give stable N-nitrosamines under mild metalworking conditions?

Can the guanidinium ion react with inorganic nitrite under mild basic metalworking conditions ($\mathrm{pH\ 8 - 10}$ and temperature $\lt \pu{70^\circ C}$) to give stable N-nitrosamines? Usually, the ...
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The things you wish you would have done before doing a PhD in Organic Chemistry? [closed]

Hello there fellow chemists. I am really interested in doing a PhD in Organic chemistry. I haven't really thought which field I would like to specialize in, but it's definitely on my mind ever since ...
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Examples to show how useful or not useful of dimerization, trimerization, tetramerization and their likes in synthesizing alkenes and other compounds?

this answer shows that dimerization is a synthetic method On wikipedia, 1-octene is showed to made from numerous dimerizations or a tetramerization. When I read that piperazine $\ce{C4H10N2}$ is made ...
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Chemically producing sodium metal from magnesium

Anyone with experience making sodium metal ($\ce{Na}$) with the following process? Reactants: $\pu{14 g}$ magnesium powder, $\pu{20 g}$ sodium hydroxide; Catalysts: $1$ to $\pu{2 g}$ menthol crystals; ...
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how to prepare acid washed sand for disruption of cell wall and the amount required for disruption

the sample is a mixed sample of maize(yellow and white) undergoing fermentation. while conducting an analysis for extraction of crude enzyme.Acid washed sand was required for the liberation of enzyme ...
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101 views

Make pyridine from furfural

Furfural $(\ce{C5H4O2})$ has been used as a feedstock for synthesis. Furfurylamine $(\ce{C5H7NO})$ is made from furfural. Given that industrial manufacturing ammonia is matured, how about combining ...
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Why doesn't aromatic substitution add at multiple positions in one reaction?

When you do aromatic substitutions, you usually see the major products with one substituent added. My question is why can't you add multiple substituents in one reaction? For example, the image below ...
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Can I synthesize an Amide simply by heating an amine and a carboxylic acid (with a vacuum pump)?

I am interested in creating an amide of stearic acid. I thought that simply mixing both of them in some solvent, heating the solution, and using a vacuum pump to distill the liberated water (to drive ...
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Why are nanoliposome encapsulated antibiotics still so unavailable despite being so effective?

I wasnt sure how the phrase the headline question really nor if this is the right place to ask it, but i'm primarily interested in the chemical synthesis aspect and the experience of chemists ...
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Carbon Nanotube Host Molecule

I have seen several chemical papers on where carbon nanotubes are made into host-guest molecules, with the researchers inserting molecules or ions inside the tubes. These talk about the properties of ...
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Chromium (IV) Oxide Sol Gel Process Synthesis and Properties

Is it is possible to solely synthesize an CrO2 aerogel through the Sol-Gel process? All documents I find are of a mix of oxides containing CrO2 as a supporting matrix but not alone. Would the CrO2 ...
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Hazard and precautionary statements

Is there a scientific database where one can find all the H and P statements for all chemicals? I would like to avoid using wikipedia but I can't find a database from a trusted source.
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Source for literature yields [closed]

I'm required to compare and justify the yields of my reactions against literature yields, but I cannot find any sources of literature yields for the reactions, or any reactions for that matter. Are ...
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How can someone in the lab synthesize n-allyl-4methyl-benzenesulfonamide from 4-toluenesulfonyl chloride and allylamine [closed]

I am trying to figoure out the conditions and choice of solvents and catalysts in order to run this synthesis.
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TEMPO Radical Analogue

After investigating what makes the persistent radical TEMPO stable, I was wondering if another compound which is more feasible for my needs would be comparable to it. Would oxidizing 2,2’-dimethyl-...
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Succinic anhydride esterification won't go forward

I'm trying to react succinic anhydride with a decyl alcohol to produce mono-decyl succinate. Literature and Google searches suggest that the monoesterification should proceed without catalyst. However ...
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Is it possible to add R chain that contains a carbonyl (ketone) to the alpha carbon?

I'm trying to synthesize 2‐(3‐oxobutyl)cyclohexan‐1‐one from cyclohexanone: I thought about LDA, then adding an R group that has a ketone. Is that possible? As far as I know, we can add halogen or ...
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113 views

Electrolysis of brine solution gives sodium hydroxide , chlorine and hydrogen gas but catner kellener cell it forms amalgam [closed]

Sodium hydroxide is generally prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride in Castner-Kellner cell. A brine solution is electrolyzed using a mercury cathode and a carbon anode. Sodium ...
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Best way to handle phosphorus tribromide

I need to do an alcohol bromination using PBr3 and I've never done this reaction before. Reading about PBr3 I found it is water/air-sensitive and the bottle I bought doesn't have a seal. So how am I ...
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How to efficiently weight DCC (N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide)?

I have to run a reaction using N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and at room temperature, it is solid, but it's very hard to weigh. I know its melting point is around 40 degrees. Is it better to melt it ...
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How is lapping slurry made?

I've recently gained an interest in the whole topic of lapping and the creation of flat surfaces. Lapping is done in different ways, but the one I'm interested in is essentially just rubbing 2 ...
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Mechanism of Hypervalent Iodine Phenolic Coupling

I need some help understanding the hypervalent iodine phenolic coupling reaction taking place in this synthesis of morphine, the reaction uses $\ce{PhI(OAc)2}$ as the hypervalent reagent and ...
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Why are halogens base sensitive groups (Wolff-Kishner Reduction)?

So while studying about Wolff-Kishner reduction reaction to form alkanes from carbonyl groups. I read that it is not suitable for base sensitive groups as the environment is highly basic and as an ...

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