Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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345 views

Synthesing tetrahydropyran from ethylene oxide

I thought that the first step must be using a Grignard reagent to add carbons, but I need a hydroxyl group on the carbon on the other side to make it a diol and produce the product given, but nothing ...
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Synthesis question: Using reductive amination to form pyrrolidine

What molecule results from treating 4-oxopentanal with $\ce{NH4Cl}$ and $\ce{NaCNBH3}$? Why? Is this a good, high yield reaction? I believe that pyrrolidine is formed because amination will convert ...
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Is the field of total synthesis “dead”? What are some current challenges in organic synthesis at large? [closed]

I hope this is not too opinion based (I know stack users tend to be very picky about this rule), but I was just wondering if the field of total synthesis is considered "mature" by chemists ...
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Definition of throughput

I wonder what's the exact meaning of throughput in chemistry synthesis, eg. in organic synthesis or production of pharmaceutical products. For instance, what are their units? How are they measured? I'...
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Diazotisation of 2-aminophenol-N-methyl-4-sulphonamide with 1-acetylamino-7-naphthol [closed]

I have been trying to make diazonium salt of 2-aminophenol-N-methyl-4-sulphonamide (Compound 1) in $\ce{HCl}$ with $\ce{NaNO2}$ solution. Then I want to make coupling with 1-acetylamino-7-naphthol. ...
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How can I synthesize phenylpiracetam from styrene or benzaldehyde?

I am trying to design a proper synthesis route for phenylpiracetam. I am thinking a good starting material would be styrene or benzaldehyde. Here is my proposed route. Is there a better method? ...
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107 views

How do I prepare 2-(3-azido-3-oxopropoxy)ethyl methacrylate from methacrylic acid?

I am having some trouble finding a proper synthesis route for the following product. Originally, I was thinking of reacting methacrylic acid with a large excess of ethylene glycol (along with an acid ...
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Mechanism of conversion of Cr from FeCr2O4 (chromite)

The basic steps involved in the conversion of $\ce{FeCr2O4 -> Cr}$ involves, $$\ce{FeCr2O4 ->[NaOH / air, \Delta] Na_2CrO4 ->[C, \Delta] CrO3 ->[Al, \Delta] Cr}$$ Basically, I'm having ...
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1answer
111 views

Method for regioselective hydroalkylation of terminal alkyne

I'm trying to figure out a method to add a linear alkyl chain R and a hydrogen atom H across the triple bond of a terminal alkyne. The alkyl chain should end up on the internal carbon (C-2): My ...
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Conversion of Erythrosine to Fluorescein

I am a home-chemist and I love dyes. I recently got my hands on sodium salt of erythrosine (tetra-iodinated fluorescein). I want to convert erythrosine to fluorescein. I speculate that using dilute ...
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When can you use the direct flame of a Bunsen burner, and when must you boil a beaker of water first?

I'd like to ask when you would do the following: use the direct Bunsen flame to heat a substance; place the substance in a test tube, which is placed in a beaker of water, then boil the water with the ...
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Enamine Formation in a Diketone

I am trying to form an enamine, and I was trying to figure out if the following reaction is possible: Would this reaction terminate after the formation of the shown product, or will the other ...
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Can potassium nitrate and sulfuric acid be used to nitrate organics?

If we are doing a classic nitration to produce glyceryl trinitrate, one uses a mix of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids. Additionally, one can produce concentrated nitric acid by distilling it ...
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Dispersity of synthetic DNA [closed]

Recently I was reading an article about DNA nanostructures and I was wondering-- I know that DNA in living systems is monodisperse, but when we make DNA synthetically, is it truly monodisperse or ...
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How do I prepare the following compound from diphenylmethane? [closed]

I am having trouble with the preparation of this product from diphenylmethane as a starting material. One of my thoughts was to attach the butene into the structure, but I don't see how it is viable. ...
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How does a cyclization occur with a carboxylic acid and (CF3CO)2O?

The product of the reaction below is unsaturated, bicyclic ketone, but I'm confused as to how (CF3CO)2O reacts with it to cause the cyclization. There is no base involved so I don't know how the ...
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How do you calculate the amount of substance from molar mass and volume [closed]

I am struggling with one calculation and it goes like this: Calculate, how much of $\ce{CO2}$ is made during the reaction: $\ce{2CO + O2}$, if we use $\pu{33,6 dm^3}$ of $\ce{O2}$, also calculate ...
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Retrosynthesis of spirocyclic compounds?

I have been trying to complete this retrosynthesis problem for a few days but can’t figure out how to get from Ester starting compound to a spirocyclic compound. I have tried removing the Ester but ...
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Why benzenediazonium bromide and iodide are not important?

When we think of aryldiazonium compounds, the first compound that comes to mind is benzenediazonium chloride. Sure thing, the compound is versatile and has been used to make a vast array of organic ...
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What is the order of adding chemicals in Hummers method for graphite oxide?

I am trying to make graphene oxide but failing miserably. The XRD peak is at 24 (2θ) instead of being near 10. Raman shows correct g and d peaks but are not very sharp. The colour of the end product ...
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64 views

Has anyone actually prepared Zn(HCO3)2 absent the presence of pressurized aqueous CO2?

Under normal conditions, I am not certain, as per Atomistry on $\ce{ZnCO3}$, the following quote: The hemihydrate, $\ce{2ZnCO3.H2O}$, was obtained by precipitating the solution of a zinc salt with ...
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What method do I use to synthesize propyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-ether and why?

I need to know which method to use to synthesize propyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-ether. I considered electrophilic addition of alcohols to alkenes, but I'm not really sure how the method works, and ...
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388 views

Kolbe Schmitt followed by methylation

The first step in this synthesis is a Kolbe Schmitt process, but why is two equivalents of base needed? Also, what is the purpose of the two equivalents of methyl iodide? I assumed that there will be ...
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Bioinformatics tools for predicting synthetic reaction for identified drugs?

We are aware of many bioinformatics open source tools like AUTODOCK, Smina for drug discovery through structure based virtual screening. I was wondering if there are validated bioinformatics tools ...
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207 views

How to convert benzene to N,N-dimethylbenzamide?

This is my solution to convert benzene to N,N-dimethylbenzamide. If you think is the right way, even just saying the equations are correct would help me! Thanks in advance.
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Why bridged bicyclic compound isn't a preferred product over fused bicylic compound in Robinson Annulation reaction?

Why a doubly-fused cyclohexanone is formed instead of bridged cyclohexanone like product which would be more flexible (entropically-favoured)? Also, the OH group not being at the bridgehead carbon ...
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What are the organic reactions that are taking place in this reaction?

I know that A is the product of a Knoevenagel condensation between the aldehyde and the diethyl malonate, due to the acidic protons of the latter, but I don't know what the reaction between that ...
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Synthesis of Schiff Bases in Aqueous Media

The paper https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2013/909217/ describes a possibility to synthesize salicylaldehyde-based Schiff Bases using water as a solvent. Yields shown for the microwave-assisted ...
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1answer
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How to achieve regioselective (base-catalyzed) enolization of a carbonyl group in a diketone?

One can convert a ketone to an enolate, either base- or acid-catalyzed. Let's say you now have a diketone. You choose to treat this compound with base (e.g. hydroxide anion, alkoxide anion, LDA/THF, ...
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Synthetic route to a spirocyclic amide

I have a task to come up with a synthesis of the following molecule (2-azaspiro[5.5]undecan-3-one), but no starting materials have been explicitly specified: This is my idea. I think that all the ...
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Synthetic route to hydroxychloroquine

This drug hydroxychloroquine has become a new burning topic of discussion as a chemistry enthusiast: I know that in an industrial preparation we need to account fpr a lot of factors like temperature, ...
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Reaction of alkenes with AlCl3/HCl

I stumbled upon an interesting organic chemistry problem: Previously I thought $\ce{AlCl3}$ would only be used with benzene in acylation and alkylation, but apparently it can also be used in ...
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2answers
81 views

Nitrocellulose (flash paper) synthesis without Sulfuric Acid?

According to the Wikipedia page on Nitrocellulose: The process uses nitric acid to convert cellulose into cellulose nitrate and water: $$\ce{3HNO3 + C6H10O5 ->[H2SO4] C6H7(NO2)3O5 + 3H2O}$$ ...
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Trying to synthesize and crystallize iron (iii) ammonium sulfate

I've been following instructions (from here, the first method) to synthesize iron (iii) ammonium sulfate and crystallize it. The first attempt was a fail, I spilled most of my solution and what I ...
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70 views

Is it possible to synthesize a benzene ring with every carbon on the ring substituted?

We recently began covering aromatic electrophillic substitution in my first year organic chemistry course, and we've been discussing the nature of certain functional groups being activating $(\ce{-OH},...
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What is the best way to make a substantial amount of soot in a high school laboratory?

I need to make about 50 grams of soot (carbon black particles) in a high school laboratory. What would be the best way to do this? The purpose of needing 50 grams of soot is because I would like to ...
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L-lysine acetate synthesis

Is it possible to synthesize L-lysine acetate in the following steps? First, mix L-lysine HCl with an excess of NaOH and just enough water so that the total water in the product is enough to solve all ...
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1answer
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How can a β,γ-unsaturated ketone be converted to 1-pyrroline?

I am working towards a natural product. Presented are three intermediate compounds. After oxidation of the hydroxyl to a carbonyl, I want to introduce an imino-nitrogen atom into the structure. This ...
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1answer
126 views

Preparation of potassium cyanide from potassium ferrocyanide via HCN

Does anyone have any experience with the preparation of potassium cyanide from potassium ferrocyanide via $\ce{HCN}$ method? I did some math and am going to proceed eventually, any advice would be ...
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4answers
255 views

How to prepare cyclohexanone without starting with cyclohexanol?

What's an easy way to prepare cyclohexanone if I dont have direct access to cyclohexanol? I'm willing to synthesize cyclohexanol from more common materials, then make cyclohexanone from that. But most ...
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2answers
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Chemoselectively dihydroxylate a terminal alkene in the presence of an internal alkene?

The goal is to dihydroxylate the exo alkene, and then convert to a ketone. Any suggestions would be apprecitated to either chemoselectively convert the terminal alkene, or directly convert the ...
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1answer
23 views

Too much leftover in zinc sulfate reaction?

I'm doing a reaction of zinc metal and sulfuric acid to get zinc sulfate. I've been trying to learn the chemistry lately so I tried to measure out correct molar amounts. My understanding from the ...
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1answer
60 views

Photosynthesis being a synthesis reaction [closed]

If a synthesis reaction is a reaction in which two or more substances react together to form just one product, then how is it that photosynthesis has two products; glucose and oxygen?
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Easy way to derivatize silsesquioxanes

I have a polymer end-capped with a Polysilsesquioxane (POSS) like this one: where R=i-butyl. I haven't found much info on what type or reactions these POSS groups can undergo. I would like to know ...
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Selective halogenation of an alkane

Is it possible to selectively halogenate a certain position on an alkane chain, and also get a good yield? I understand that to form such haloalkanes, taking a different substrate other than alkane (...
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37 views

Laboratory preparation of catechol

The wikipedia page says that catechol is prepared from phenol and hydrogen peroxide. As this is a very simple proces, compared to the OrgSyn procedure from salicylaldehyde, I would prefer it. Does ...
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100 views

Condensation reaction between catechol and acetone

I was thinking of ways to synthesize 2,2-bis(dihydroxyphenyl) propane and I thought it could be made by a condensation reaction between dihydroxybenzene (catechol) and acetone in strongly acidic ...
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1answer
49 views

How would one favor the formation of p-TsCl over o-TsCl in the chlorosuflonation of toluene? [closed]

I found an old synthesis of $\ce{o-TsCl}$ that purportedly gives a yield of $85\%$ here and was wondering how, still using chlorosulfonic acid, I could favor the formation of $\ce{p-TsCl}$ instead.
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What is a good substitue for monoethanolamine in creating conductive silver nanoparticles?

In this paper (https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2017/ra/c7ra05125e) and a few others, chemists create PAA-coated silver nanoparticles in a colloidal conductive ink. (Mods - I cant seem to ...
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1answer
47 views

Sodium hydride 60% dispersion in mineral oil [closed]

I've got a bottle of sodium hydride 60% dispersion in mineral oil. It's not "in mineral oil" it's just powder with an oil coating. I'm using it in an inert reaction, is there a way to remove the oil?

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