Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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Acid boric preparation

Is there a simple reaction to yield boric acid ($\ce{H3BO3}$) from boron trifluoride ($\ce{BF3}$)?
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How concentrated does sulfuric acid need to be for nitric acid synthesis (H2SO4 + nitrate salt distillation)?

So I have a home lab setup and recently found myself in need of some nitric acid. I could just buy some, but I thought it would be a useful exercise to make my own. I have plenty of nitrate salts ...
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how is the esterification of amino acid carried on in this reaction

i was asked to synthesis this compound from this amino acid, i first alkylated the alpha carbon using enolate alkylating method then i esterficated the amino acid but i'm doubtful that my steps are ...
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Synthesis of Pyrene from Benzene

I know of this ring expansion reaction that can fuse a benzene ring with another benzene ring: Performing this reaction twice gives us phenanthrene How would one go about synthesizing pyrene from ...
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What is “activated red phosphorus”? What made it so long to be discovered?

[WP = white phosphorus ; RP = red phosphorus ; ARP = activated red phosphorus] Tom from Extraction & Ire did a video two years ago(2018) on converting WP to RP by keeping the former in sunlight ...
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Retrosynthesis suggestion [closed]

Am I even close to solve this problem or it is a complete disaster?
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1answer
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Weinreb ketone synthesis [closed]

For this problem, Can I use weinreb ketone synthesis? I found the product but not sure it is the right one If the amide react with either R1-Mgbr or R2-Li, then it produces the ketone?
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What does washing and drying a solution mean?

After combining two solutions, a direction in a 1970s British chemistry book says to wash the new solution with a mixture of baking soda, table salt, and water. Then it says to dry it with anhydrous ...
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55 views

Why does the titanium go to the tungsten filament in the crystal bar process?

I've tried to read a report by the US atomic energy commission [1], but couldn't really find the answer, or maybe I missed it. Why is the gaseous titanium deposited on the tungsten wire/filament ...
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How to synthesize 4‐[(4,4‐dimethylpentyl)oxy]‐2,2,8,8‐tetramethylnonane starting with 4,4‐dimethylpent‐1‐ene?

My attempt: I don’t know how to add another chain. I think I probably need to react with another A molecule, but I don’t know the mechanism. Can anyone help me with this?
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Which amino acids can be totally synthesized? [closed]

I can't find information regarding which amino acids (say the proteinogenic ones or in general) can be totally synthesized. Is there a reference?
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Nickel(II) acetylacetonate crystals coming out blue

An experiment in my class has us synthesising the acetylacetonate complex from hydrated nickel chloride being added to a solution of ammonia, acetylacetone and water. The products came out pale blue, ...
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How does the position of hydroxyl group in a nucleotide monomer affect the dehydration synthesis of nucleotides?

In dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, the hydrogen atom from the 3' carbon on the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide reacts with the hydroxyl group on the phosphate group of another nucleotide to ...
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Why did ammonium chloride fumes turned pink in this synthesis?

I was watching the synthesis of tetrasulfur tetranitride performed by Tom on his Youtube channel, Explosion & fire. He followed the basic route: adding ammonia gas to sulfur chlorides ($\ce{SCl2}$ ...
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How are organic compounds with radioactive atoms synthesized? [closed]

We often see reactions such as these in textbooks to highlight how reaction mechanisms work: How are the radioactive substrates required for these mechanisms synthesized in the first place? There ...
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Laboratory and commercial preparations of aniline other than reduction of nitroarenes [closed]

Till now I could only find one laboratory preparation of aniline, i.e. reducing nitrobenzene with $\ce{Sn}$ and concentrated $\ce{HCl}$. I'm confused if Hofmann degradation is only commercial. I'd ...
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Synthesis Problem? [closed]

What I tried to do is this: Opening the epoxide using $\ce{^-OCH2CH2CH3}$. But then I have two alcohols and I get stuck. It's possible in one way but takes more than 4 steps...
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Why did my synthesis of calcium peroxide fail? [closed]

I dissolved calcium acetate in about $\pu{80 mL}$ of water and added $\pu{30 mL}$ of 60% peroxide. I should have obtained calcium peroxide which is insoluble in water, but i saw no precipitate. I read ...
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Synthesing tetrahydropyran from ethylene oxide

I thought that the first step must be using a Grignard reagent to add carbons, but I need a hydroxyl group on the carbon on the other side to make it a diol and produce the product given, but nothing ...
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Synthesis question: Using reductive amination to form pyrrolidine

What molecule results from treating 4-oxopentanal with $\ce{NH4Cl}$ and $\ce{NaCNBH3}$? Why? Is this a good, high yield reaction? I believe that pyrrolidine is formed because amination will convert ...
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Definition of throughput

I wonder what's the exact meaning of throughput in chemistry synthesis, eg. in organic synthesis or production of pharmaceutical products. For instance, what are their units? How are they measured? I'...
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How can I synthesize phenylpiracetam from styrene or benzaldehyde?

I am trying to design a proper synthesis route for phenylpiracetam. I am thinking a good starting material would be styrene or benzaldehyde. Here is my proposed route. Is there a better method? ...
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1answer
119 views

How do I prepare 2-(3-azido-3-oxopropoxy)ethyl methacrylate from methacrylic acid?

I am having some trouble finding a proper synthesis route for the following product. Originally, I was thinking of reacting methacrylic acid with a large excess of ethylene glycol (along with an acid ...
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2answers
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Mechanism of conversion of Cr from FeCr2O4 (chromite)

The basic steps involved in the conversion of $\ce{FeCr2O4 -> Cr}$ involves, $$\ce{FeCr2O4 ->[NaOH / air, \Delta] Na_2CrO4 ->[C, \Delta] CrO3 ->[Al, \Delta] Cr}$$ Basically, I'm having ...
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1answer
114 views

Method for regioselective hydroalkylation of terminal alkyne

I'm trying to figure out a method to add a linear alkyl chain R and a hydrogen atom H across the triple bond of a terminal alkyne. The alkyl chain should end up on the internal carbon (C-2): My ...
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Conversion of Erythrosine to Fluorescein

I am a home-chemist and I love dyes. I recently got my hands on sodium salt of erythrosine (tetra-iodinated fluorescein). I want to convert erythrosine to fluorescein. I speculate that using dilute ...
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When can you use the direct flame of a Bunsen burner, and when must you boil a beaker of water first?

I'd like to ask when you would do the following: use the direct Bunsen flame to heat a substance; place the substance in a test tube, which is placed in a beaker of water, then boil the water with the ...
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Enamine Formation in a Diketone

I am trying to form an enamine, and I was trying to figure out if the following reaction is possible: Would this reaction terminate after the formation of the shown product, or will the other ...
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Can potassium nitrate and sulfuric acid be used to nitrate organics?

If we are doing a classic nitration to produce glyceryl trinitrate, one uses a mix of concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids. Additionally, one can produce concentrated nitric acid by distilling it ...
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Dispersity of synthetic DNA [closed]

Recently I was reading an article about DNA nanostructures and I was wondering-- I know that DNA in living systems is monodisperse, but when we make DNA synthetically, is it truly monodisperse or ...
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How do I prepare the following compound from diphenylmethane? [closed]

I am having trouble with the preparation of this product from diphenylmethane as a starting material. One of my thoughts was to attach the butene into the structure, but I don't see how it is viable. ...
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How does a cyclization occur with a carboxylic acid and (CF3CO)2O?

The product of the reaction below is unsaturated, bicyclic ketone, but I'm confused as to how (CF3CO)2O reacts with it to cause the cyclization. There is no base involved so I don't know how the ...
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How do you calculate the amount of substance from molar mass and volume [closed]

I am struggling with one calculation and it goes like this: Calculate, how much of $\ce{CO2}$ is made during the reaction: $\ce{2CO + O2}$, if we use $\pu{33,6 dm^3}$ of $\ce{O2}$, also calculate ...
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1answer
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Retrosynthesis of spirocyclic compounds?

I have been trying to complete this retrosynthesis problem for a few days but can’t figure out how to get from Ester starting compound to a spirocyclic compound. I have tried removing the Ester but ...
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339 views

Why benzenediazonium bromide and iodide are not important?

When we think of aryldiazonium compounds, the first compound that comes to mind is benzenediazonium chloride. Sure thing, the compound is versatile and has been used to make a vast array of organic ...
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What is the order of adding chemicals in Hummers method for graphite oxide?

I am trying to make graphene oxide but failing miserably. The XRD peak is at 24 (2θ) instead of being near 10. Raman shows correct g and d peaks but are not very sharp. The colour of the end product ...
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Has anyone actually prepared Zn(HCO3)2 absent the presence of pressurized aqueous CO2?

Under normal conditions, I am not certain, as per Atomistry on $\ce{ZnCO3}$, the following quote: The hemihydrate, $\ce{2ZnCO3.H2O}$, was obtained by precipitating the solution of a zinc salt with ...
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1answer
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What method do I use to synthesize propyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-ether and why?

I need to know which method to use to synthesize propyl-2-(2-methylpropyl)-ether. I considered electrophilic addition of alcohols to alkenes, but I'm not really sure how the method works, and ...
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Kolbe Schmitt followed by methylation

The first step in this synthesis is a Kolbe Schmitt process, but why is two equivalents of base needed? Also, what is the purpose of the two equivalents of methyl iodide? I assumed that there will be ...
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Bioinformatics tools for predicting synthetic reaction for identified drugs?

We are aware of many bioinformatics open source tools like AUTODOCK, Smina for drug discovery through structure based virtual screening. I was wondering if there are validated bioinformatics tools ...
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How to convert benzene to N,N-dimethylbenzamide?

This is my solution to convert benzene to N,N-dimethylbenzamide. If you think is the right way, even just saying the equations are correct would help me! Thanks in advance.
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Why bridged bicyclic compound isn't a preferred product over fused bicylic compound in Robinson Annulation reaction?

Why a doubly-fused cyclohexanone is formed instead of bridged cyclohexanone like product which would be more flexible (entropically-favoured)? Also, the OH group not being at the bridgehead carbon ...
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What are the organic reactions that are taking place in this reaction?

I know that A is the product of a Knoevenagel condensation between the aldehyde and the diethyl malonate, due to the acidic protons of the latter, but I don't know what the reaction between that ...
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Synthesis of Schiff Bases in Aqueous Media

The paper https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2013/909217/ describes a possibility to synthesize salicylaldehyde-based Schiff Bases using water as a solvent. Yields shown for the microwave-assisted ...
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1answer
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How to achieve regioselective (base-catalyzed) enolization of a carbonyl group in a diketone?

One can convert a ketone to an enolate, either base- or acid-catalyzed. Let's say you now have a diketone. You choose to treat this compound with base (e.g. hydroxide anion, alkoxide anion, LDA/THF, ...
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Synthetic route to a spirocyclic amide

I have a task to come up with a synthesis of the following molecule (2-azaspiro[5.5]undecan-3-one), but no starting materials have been explicitly specified: This is my idea. I think that all the ...
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386 views

Synthetic route to hydroxychloroquine

This drug hydroxychloroquine has become a new burning topic of discussion as a chemistry enthusiast: I know that in an industrial preparation we need to account fpr a lot of factors like temperature, ...
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Reaction of alkenes with AlCl3/HCl

I stumbled upon an interesting organic chemistry problem: Previously I thought $\ce{AlCl3}$ would only be used with benzene in acylation and alkylation, but apparently it can also be used in ...
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2answers
111 views

Nitrocellulose (flash paper) synthesis without Sulfuric Acid?

According to the Wikipedia page on Nitrocellulose: The process uses nitric acid to convert cellulose into cellulose nitrate and water: $$\ce{3HNO3 + C6H10O5 ->[H2SO4] C6H7(NO2)3O5 + 3H2O}$$ ...
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Trying to synthesize and crystallize iron (iii) ammonium sulfate

I've been following instructions (from here, the first method) to synthesize iron (iii) ammonium sulfate and crystallize it. The first attempt was a fail, I spilled most of my solution and what I ...

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