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The course of the reaction depends on whether or not a proton source other than ammonia is present. In the absence of an alcohol (ethanol, tert-butanol) the α-dione 1 adds an electron from sodium to give a resonance stabilized radical anion 2. A second electron is added to afford enediolate 3. [This is the same species formed with sodium in the acyloin ...


This reaction was conducted using a 3- to 5-fold excess of ethyl cyanoacetate (ECA) and KOH over the arylnitro compounds in dimethylformamide (DMF). It is also important to realize that most KOH is 15% water, which allows for a source of protons in this basic medium. Steps 1 --> 3 (Scheme 1) illustrate a possible route to nitrone 4. In so doing the ECA ...


Imines survive, that's for sure. Some 20 years ago junkies developed a way of turning a relatively innocent drug, which was then legal (and which has since ceased to be legal in many jurisdictions for this very reason) into a much more potent substance. I'd rather not identify it precisely; let's just say it is prominently featured in a TV series with name ...


Yes red p hi reduces ketones aldehydes and alcohols easily. Reduction of Carboxylic acid only occurs under vigorous conditions. The product is always alkane.

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