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Unlike other reducing metal hydrides (e.g., $\ce{NaBH4}$ and $\ce{LiAlH4}$), diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAL-H) is a liquid at room temperature and dissolve in many hydrocarbons such as toluene and hexanes, which also have very low freezing points. For example, hydrocarbons toluene and hexanes both have freezing points around $\pu{-95 ^\circ C}$. Thus, ...


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If you can find another solvent in which to run the reaction, you don't need the ammonia as a solute. The Birch reduction is a reaction with solvated electrons, not with ammonia, and the key is identifying a solvent that can hold the solvated electrons for reaction with the substrate. Many solvents that are liquid at room temperature and atmospheric ...


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Wolff–Kishner reduction is the method for the reduction of aldehydes and ketones to corresponding alkanes. First, the carbonyl compound condenses with hydrazine to form the corresponding hydrazone. The resulting hydrazone is treated with base to induce the reduction of the $\mathrm{sp^2}$-carbon to $\mathrm{sp^3}$-$\ce{CH2}$, and the oxidation of the ...


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The reason for this is because OH and OR groups are much more electron-donating. Typically, when you have an aldehyde or ketone, the electronegative electron is slightly more negative and thus the carbonyl carbon is more positive. However, with an OH or OR group attached (i.e in carboxylic acid and esters), the group can push electrons towards the carbon ...


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