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There exist different approaches to synthesize cyclohexanol and/or cyclohexanone from cyclohexane. One method is to use O2 and Vanadium oxides at 400°C and 15 atmospheres. Another method is to oxidize with H2O2 at 80°C with a catalyzer made from Silica gel treated by a silicone derivates holding an amino drop at the end of the alkyl chain fixed on Si. The so ...


The Lemieux-Johnson oxidation (details here) using catalytic $\ce{OsO4}$ or $\ce{RuO4}$ turned over with $\ce{NaIO4}$ will do the transformation you want in one step. These conditions should be selective for the exo double bond.


To confirm, you want to make (R)-4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohex-1-ene? Do you have to start from (S)-limonene? If not, consider the Diels-Alder reaction of isoprene and methyl vinyl ketone (e.g. , though this is not an enantioselective synthesis I imagine you can add chiral auxiliaries somewhere to increase that selectivity)


If you use about equimolar amounts of zinc and the acid, the reaction would about asymptotically converge to depletion of the substance with the lower molar amount. The white precipitate is a mark the solution is saturated with zinc sulphate heptahydrate. The solution becoming thickened by the suphate may further decrease the rate of zinc dissolution. You ...


I think you're being a little too strict with your definition of what a synthesis reaction is. A better way to describe it might be building more complex molecules from simpler ones. Wouldn't you say $\ce{C6H12O6}$ is more complex than $\ce{CO2}$ and $\ce{H2O}$?

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