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Nitrobenzene does protonate at the nitrogroup in concentrated acid. Obviously, then the group becomes even more electron-withdrawing, and a bathochromic shift is observed. W. F. Forbes provided an excellent article for You in 1958, freely available now: https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/v58-200 The "B-band" (CT band from the ring onto the ...


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It is complicated, as this paper from Olah et al. here shows, but this passage offers a possible explanation: With the reactive nitronium salts, the isomer distribution of the nitration of anisole shows the highest ortho/para ratio (2.7-2.4), reflecting the "early" (i.e., starting aromatic-like) nature of the transition state of highest energy. ...


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