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1

If a catalyst is not supposed to affect the reaction's final equilibrium position how do we explain the catalyst selectivity seen here? If you wait long enough so that all three reactions attain equilibrium, the presence or absences of catalysts have no effect on the product mixtures. In the examples, however, the reactions without catalysts are all slow. ...


2

Catalysts very much do affect end products because they may act differently on competing reactions. For instance, given ethylene and oxygen a suitable catalyst may promote formation of ethylene oxide and not as strongly promote oxidizing the ethylene to carbon dioxide and water. (In this particular case, a silver catalyst with carefully controlled ...


4

I think your book is wrong (what book is it?) This statement from the Wikipedia page on Azo coupling here seems definitive enough: In alkaline media, diazonium salt can react with most primary and secondary amines that exist as a free base and produce triazene It also includes a reaction scheme showing a secondary amine (pyrrolidine) coupling with a phenyl ...


4

The bulk of silica is indeed silicon dioxide, but at surface there is a discontinuity. The dangling O, exist as OHs, as silanols. Therefore silica surface itself is full of silanols, which are used for functionalizing silica. Native silica looks like the following with various types of silanols. APTES is a very common chemistry in the silica modification ...


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