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There are three mechanisms to discuss here: $S_N2$, $S_N1$ for $RX$ and nucleophilic aromatic substitution by addition-elimination for $ArX$: $S_N2$ and $S_N1$: (Image from https://www.quora.com/Why-steric-hindrance-doesnt-affect-Sn1-reaction) $S_N2$ is concerted (one step), so this one step is rate determining, or the slowest of the mechanism. In $S_N1$, ...


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Simple answer is consider the stability of carbocations. You already got the tertiary carbocation in hand that is much stable than secondary carbocation, which would be resulted by ring expantion. Sure, a methide migration would give you another tertiary carbocation, but before you get that, the reaction progress has to climb another actvation barrier, which ...


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Number the carbon atoms from 1 to 7 in order from left to right. When a carbanion function forms at carbon atom #3, it can then attack either carbon atom #1 or carbon atom #7. To get carbon #7 into position for the latter attack, however, you need a bond rotation around the bond between carbon atoms 4 and 5. That could become restricted if a carbanion ...


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Fluorine ion and chlorine ion are very corrosive in nature, so In water they easily form the hydrohaloacid as order of acidic strength in water is $hi>hbr>hcl>hf$ hence the stability order will be $F^{-} >Cl^{-} >Br^{-} >I^{-}$ which also shows stability of their acids.


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The taste of halogenated organic compounds mainly depends on the halogen atoms involved. Study showed that halogenation of aliphatic series imparted sweetness and halogenation of aromatic compounds increased/decreased the intensity of sweetness/bitteness. This increase/decrease of intensity is due to the efficacy of halogen atoms which is directly related to ...


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If we consider $\ce{HX}$ as the common formula for hydrogen halogenides, then there is an equilibrium $$\ce{HX(aq) + H2O <=> X-(aq) + H3O+(aq)}$$ that can be expressed also as: $$\ce{acid1 + base2 <=> base1 + acid2}$$ The equilibrium is competition of 2 acids, $\ce{HX}$ ansd $\ce{H3O+}$. $\ce{H3O+}$ is the strongest acid stable in aquaeous ...


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