Order of -I in Halogens is −F > −Cl > −Br > −I
Order of +M in Halogens is −F > −Cl > −Br > −I
So whenever halogens are in resonance (as in p-fluorophenol and p-chlorophenol), we take combined effect as:
−F < −Cl < −Br < −I
and consider halogens as an overall EWG.
Hence, p-chlorophenol is more acidic than p-fluorophenol.
First, there is a little mistake in your reasoning. You said that the carbanion is more stable on the unsubstituted side but actually, forming an enolate on the more substituted side will give a more stable substituted alkene. Remember, the negative charge is not concentrated on carbon. It is concentrated on the oxygen atom as the system is conjugated. That ...
I think, it is a result of the word having multiple definitions in different contexts. Specifically, the original definition in context of chemistry
Electrolyte is a solid, causing electrical conductivity when dissolved
in a liquid.
Later works extended it to non-solids, of course, but the root "lyte" (AFAIK, Greek for "earth") remained....
This can be attributed to the electronegativity of nitrogen and the lone pairs in halogens. Most bonds are all about energy if it releases more energy, it would be the "correct" structure/interaction. In boron, there are no lone pairs and backbonding occurs even if donor atom is more electronegative. But in case of halogens we have lone pairs and ...