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Vinegar/Hydrogen Peroxide Mixture Toxicity

Vinegar is a mild acid (dilute acetic acid ). Hydrogen peroxide is a moderate base at 3%, although hardly toxic level. The two mixed together would release some energy as the hydrogen of the acid and ...
Darby's user avatar
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0 votes

Which branches of chemistry and in what order to learn (self study)?

I got interested in chemistry and read the books General Chemistry by pettruci for the theory and caveman chemistry for a practical + historical account which was very interesting. Once you follow the ...
dvc's user avatar
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4 votes

What does ‘D’ in GADP (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate) stand for?

PubChem provides a list of synonyms, amongst which the most reasonable lead to the acronym GADP is "Glyceraldehyde, 3-(dihydrogen phosphate), D- (8CI)" Acronyms don't always have to be very ...
Buck Thorn's user avatar
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-1 votes

order of effectiveness at promoting nucleophilic addition

The author might have considered the leaving tendencies of the groups as well. Let us say we have 2,4,6-nitrochlorobenzene. The ring is sufficiently activated for any of the groups to be substituted. ...
JackSparrow's user avatar
11 votes
Accepted

Retrosynthesis of 4-ethyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3-dioxane

We can start the retrosynthesis by disconnecting the two $\ce{C-O}$ bonds of the acetal. This takes us to a diol that can be formed by reduction of a 1,3-dicarbonyl. A methyl group can be added by ...
GabrielAlx's user avatar
7 votes

Retrosynthesis of 4-ethyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3-dioxane

Start with the commercially available methyl 3-oxo-valerate, also called ethyl propionylacetate vendor here Dimethylate with potassium carbonate and MeI in refluxing acetonitrile or acetone. Reduce ...
Waylander's user avatar
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6 votes

Mechanism of cyclic ether formation from alcohol

Per your request Bromocresol: Because the reaction is acid-catalyzed, both alcohol 1 and the product, tetrahydropyran 5, must have the same molecular formula $\ce{C14H18O}$ and the same degree of ...
user55119's user avatar
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1 vote

Leaving group ability vs Stability of Transition state for determining rate of E2 elimination reaction

The transition state you are comparing isn't the actual transition state. They are the original molecules themselves. The 'stability of transition state' you are referring to is used to decide the ...
JackSparrow's user avatar
0 votes

Cannot understand the stereospecificity and stereoselectivity of a conpound formed in a reaction

Nancy, welcome to ChemSE. I presume you have read @Karstens link and you understand the basics of hydroboration. The presumption is that 1,3,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-ene (1), as shown, is racemic because ...
user55119's user avatar
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3 votes

H-NMR: Why are coupling and integration values not matching?

I finally found the answer to my question on page 88 of supporting information to the first reference[1], which gives the $^1\ce{H}$-NMR data as follows: $(\pu{400 MHz}, \ce{CDCl3})$: 7.75-7.20 (m, ...
jona173's user avatar
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1 vote

Why is Piperidine more basic than Pyridine?

Piperidine is indeed more basic than pyridine, and here's why: In piperidine, the nitrogen atom is in an sp3 hybridized environment, allowing it to donate electrons more freely compared to pyridine, ...
Ryan Smith's user avatar
8 votes
Accepted

why is alpha-linolenic acid "alpha"?

The nomenclature of these acids seems to be a historical convention. Alpha-linolenic acid was first isolated in pure form in 1909 by Ernst Erdmann and F. Bedford (Ref.1). The following passage from ...
Dodo's user avatar
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4 votes
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3,3'-methylimino-di-propionic acid diethyl ester, to 1-Methyl-4-piperidone, via an Intermediate

This is a good question but there are few similar kind in CSE web base (see here and here for examples). However, it did not catch our reviewers' attention because of the unique nature on its starting ...
Mathew Mahindaratne's user avatar
2 votes

Synthesis of alkynes by double dehydrohalogenation; don't allenes also form?

You may get some allene, but the alykene would be by some measure the major product. This sort of elimination is typically carried out with a particuarly strong base such as NaNH2. Once you have ...
Kirandk's user avatar
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1 vote

Why is chlorine atom in chlorobenzene deactivating the benzene ring when it has M+ effect, which is stronger than I- in other cases?

Think about the lone pairs of halides. In case of fluorine, it is 2p-orbitals, in case of chlorine, it is 3p-orbitals and so on. Benzene, being an aromatic compound, interacts with electron-donating ...
jona173's user avatar
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4 votes

How is it known that proteins are polymers of amino acids?

Insulin was one of the the first proteins to be studied by x-ray crystallography and the history is well known and illustrates why we know the chemical composition of proteins Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin ...
matt_black's user avatar
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1 vote

Why is this amine called this way?

The longest possible chain that contains the most number of substituents and functional groups in their respective priority orders. For example if the chain which contains say OH group is longer than ...
Yuvraj Shekhawat's user avatar
1 vote

How is it known that proteins are polymers of amino acids?

Proteins are by definition polypeptides, linear chains of aminoacids linked by amide bonds. There are various layers of information that allow one to conclude that a sample consists of protein. Atomic ...
Buck Thorn's user avatar
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2 votes
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Mesomeric effect comparison

An aldehyde would surely have higher $-M$ effect than a carboxylic acid. Because in a Carboxylic acid there is an $-OH$ group resonating with the $\ce{C=O}$. Hence lowering it's $-M$ effect on the ...
Amit's user avatar
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-1 votes

Why is this amine called this way?

Always first identify the longest continuous carbon chain! In the case of 3-(aminomethyl)hexane, the longest continuous carbon chain is of 6, hence it ends with an hexane. In the case of 2-ethylpentan-...
Ronith's user avatar
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3 votes

Salt & hand sanitizer

When you mix salt with hand sanitizer containing ethanol (alcohol) as the primary solvent, the salt disrupts the polymeric thickener's ability to maintain viscosity(sanitizers have ethanol + polymeric ...
Ronith's user avatar
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3 votes

What exactly does 'isomerism' mean?

It's about how you define isomerism. And as you have quoted IUPAC Gold Book in your answer, so there's no debate at all on the topic. Since IUPAC is the final body that defines definitions in ...
Amit's user avatar
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3 votes
Accepted

What exactly does 'isomerism' mean?

According to the widely understood understanding, isomerism refers to molecules with the same molecular formula (same number of each type of atom) but different arrangements of those atoms. There can ...
Ronith's user avatar
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5 votes

How is it known that proteins are polymers of amino acids?

Today, we are very certain proteins are polymers of amino acids. We also know that some proteins are bound to cofactors, are linked to sugars (glycoproteins), and have all kinds of other modifications....
Karsten's user avatar
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7 votes
Accepted

Identify the more acidic hydrogen in 1-(methylsulfanyl)propane-2-thione

The +M effect is as you describe if it is there. But it can come only through sulfur taking up a positive formal charge, which is most favored when you have a cation to begin with. Here you have an ...
Oscar Lanzi's user avatar
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2 votes
Accepted

Why is the Markovnikov product favoured in electrophilic addition of alkenes in non-polar solvents?

The reason why water adds to the end that is best able to stabilize a carbocation and not the less sterically hindered end can be understood by looking at a similar heterocyclic 3 membered ring (just ...
GabrielAlx's user avatar
-2 votes

Why is the Markovnikov product favoured in electrophilic addition of alkenes in non-polar solvents?

The preference for Markovnikov addition in non-polar solvents, especially in cases like the addition of hypochlorous acid to propene in carbon tetrachloride, involves several factors that are not ...
S 9K32's user avatar
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0 votes

Iminium formation rate between formaldehyde and secondary amine

The formation of iminium ions from formaldehyde and a secondary amine typically involves the initial reaction between formaldehyde and the amine to form a hemiaminal, followed by dehydration to yield ...
S 9K32's user avatar
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-1 votes

Minimum molar mass of organic compound with given mass fraction of carbon

Yes you are correct. It is that simple(assuming no other information is provided in the question) (Total Molecular Mass) x (percentage%) = (Molar mass of C) [10% is 0.1] (Total Molecular Mass) x 0.1 = ...
Ronith's user avatar
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2 votes
Accepted

Minimum molar mass of organic compound with given mass fraction of carbon

Yes, you are correct: the number of carbon atoms should be the unity. Further, to prevent any disputes about the organic nature of the compound, a carbon–hydrogen bond would be nice to have. ...
andselisk's user avatar
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