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There are 2 things to consider: What would be the energy difference between before and after rearrangement from initial $2^\circ$-carbocation (I) and each of rearranged carbocations II and III: It is obvious that the rearrangement of carbocation I to give carbocation II by ring expansion have minimal energy change since both initial and final carbocations ...


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To my knowledge, Friedel-Crafts alkylation of pyrrole with aluminum chloride ($\ce{AlCl3}$) is unattainable. However, recent literature suggests F-C alkylation of pyrrole with other catalysts is possible. For example, an asymmetric Friedel–Crafts alkylation of pyrrole with nitroalkenes catalyzed by a copper complex of a bisphenol A-derived Schiff base is ...


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The reaction is used industrially to make hydroquinone (source: wikipedia), but often using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidation agent in the presence of a catalyst. A study on catalytic hydroxylation of benzene comes to the following conclusion: experimental evidences have allowed first discarding Fenton-like mechanisms and later proposing the plausible ...


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Calcium hypochlorite is supposed to be added to water. If a little water is added to the hypochlorite, it can start to oxidize and produce stronger chloric acid. The SDS says to avoid water and moisture. To test this, try adding just a few drops of water to a pile of powder or a pill and see if a reaction begins. Unless you have a vandal, it is not likely ...


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Note that chlorine can be created just by adding water. $$\ce{Cl- + ClO- + H2O <=> Cl2 ^ + 2 OH-}$$ Enough $\ce{CO2}$ dissolved in wet tablets of calcium hypochlorite ( mixed calcium hypochlorite, chloride and hydroxide) would speed up the above, as it would release hypochlorous acid $\ce{HClO}$, which is weaker than carbonic acid. $\ce{HClO}$, ...


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It is almost certain that the gas you saw was chlorine (Cl2). It is a VERY TOXIC gas, so stay away!! Hypochlorite releases chorine gas when pH is too low. That is why bleach must not be mixed with acid. Never! In this case it is probably Muratic (hydrochloric) acid that has been added to the hypochlorite in excess. The acid is used to adjust the pH in the ...


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I have plotted your data as time(t) vs temperature(T) in kelvin and then fitted the plot with this equation: $$ t = \frac{C}{e^{-F/T}}$$ where C and F are just parameters used for the fitting. The Arrhenius equation gives the reaction rate relationship with temperature: $$ k = \frac{d|P|}{dt} = Ae^{-Ea/(Kb*T)} $$ If you then integrate you can find the ...


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Addition of boron hydrides to alkenes or alkyne is a valuable reaction in organic chemistry. The reaction is called hydroboration that gives organoboron compounds, which are a valuable group of intermediates for other organic synthesis (Chem.libretexts.org). The simplest borane, $\ce{BH3}$, exists as the dimer, $\ce{B2H6}$, or in complexed form with certain ...


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The important thing ab out HCl gas in these reactions is that it is dry, there is no water present ruling out any hydrolytic pathways. This means that the first step to consider is a protonation by HCl as HCl can ionise in alcoholic solvent, followed by nucleophilic attack by the alcohol solvent. In the example shown the oxygen of the carbonyl is protonated ...


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Best way is sending a sample for Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS). You can get the concentration for $\ce{Mn, Pb, Fe, Cr, Ni}$, and other water goodies. Contact a local university or lab and get a price quote for a test. Or get a flame spectroscope and DIY https://web.pdx.edu/~atkinsdb/teach/427/Expt-AtomicSpec.pdf


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