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2

This reaction is very similar to Reimer-Tiemann reaction which also consists of the reagent $CHCl_{3}$ + $NaOH$. The mechanism of that reaction is believed to have dichlorocarbene intermediate too. A good point to remember is that the dichlorocarbene intermediate is often used to form cyclopropane or carbonyl groups. This is the mechanism for the reimer ...


0

The entry in Wikipedia misses to define the entries in the formula. But note equations 1 and 2 in a paper by Griffin et al. (doi 10.1029/2006JD007604, open access) in the Journal of Geopphysical Research, Atmospheres. To establish context of the paper by Griffin et al., the authors introduce the reader to the topic citing earlier work. «In the troposphere, ...


4

The Hofmann-Loeffler-Freytag reaction as suggested by @user55119 in the comments above is the way to go. First you need to reduce your nitro group. The reduction of alkyl nitro compounds is less simple than aromatic nitro groups and lower yielding in general. I would suggest the use of Al/Hg amalgam. Acetylate the resulting amine. N-chlorinate the amide - ...


0

The formation of a distinct carbocation followed by migration of a neighboring group could follow your scenario. Thinking about it tho the nearest Lewis base to the incipient C+ ion is the adjacent group and it seems likely a concerted shift ionization would be a lower energy transition state and your scenario is best described as a $\pu{S_N}2$ reaction and ...


2

What you have shown in red is the second propagation step in the benzylic free radical bromination of ethylbenzene. The bond dissociation energy (BDE) of bromine is +46 kcal/mol while the overall heat of reaction of the step is -12 kcal/mol. Thus, the formation of the C-Br bond must be -58 kcal/mol. The BDE for the C-Br bond in (1-bromoethyl)benzene is +58 ...


1

No. Iodine is used to help magnesium react with the bromoderivate. If pure magnesium is added to a solution containing a bromoderivate, it should react quickly. But sometimes it does not react at all, because magnesium is covered by a thin and protective layer of magnesium oxide. Added iodine will etch this layer and the underlying metal. This reaction ...


8

You deprotonate the alcohol, and then flip bonds to create the enolate. There are two enolates possible, so swapping bonds gives you the terminal one, which can attack the aldehyde to form the 5-ring. Elimination of water gives you the product.


1

The reaction Hydroboration-Oxidation follows anti-Markovnikov rule because of 2 factors: 1)Electronic consideration: When the borane ($\ce{BH_3}$) approaches the $\pi$ bond of the alkene, the attack of the $\pi$ bond to the empty p orbital of the boron triggers a hyride shift (the mechanism of this is similar to that of pericyclic reactions). There is a ...


1

Under different conditions, either enol C=C or aldehyde C=O can attack the protonated C+. In the book's case it's the latter. An example can be like this:


-5

While not likely easily created, other products with air, $\ce{CO2}$ and water, in the presence of an electrical source, are conceivable in my opinion. For example, there is some discussion around NAIs per this government source to quote: One of the examples is the negative ion generator using an ultraviolet source to irradiate electrically conductive ...


5

Unfortunately this is not feasible Current catalytic converters are designed to remove noxious pollutants from exhausts. Things like carbon monoxide (poisonous) and nitrogen oxides (noxious and irritating). The trouble with doing this for carbon dioxide is fundamental. Carbon dioxide and water are the ultimate products of combustion of hydrocarbons because ...


2

Sodium will not take one electron, as you propose. No, it is a redox reaction : the sodium atom will donate one electron to the Oxygen atom of the $\ce{ROH}$ alcohol, so as to repel one $\ce{H}$ atom and make an alkoxide ion. At the end, a $\ce{Na^+}$ cation and a $\ce{RO^-}$ alkoxide anion are produced in the solution. Of course the $\ce{H}$ atom will join ...


0

Us humans are still at best mediocre at predicting the outcome of chemical reactions. Even computers are at best a little bit better. If there is no literature on this compound (and Orthocresol commented that he found none), no experiment has likely been performed and we cannot be certain. You could find a computational chemist of your choice with free time ...


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